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father and mother of such spouse, in equal shares, or to the survivor of them if either be dead, or if both be dead, then in equal shares to the brothers and sisters of such spouse and to the descendants of any deceased brother or sister by right of representation.

9. If the decedent leaves no hisband, wife, or kindred, and there are no heirs to take his estate or any portion thereof, under subdivision eight of this section, the same escheats to the state for the support of the common schools. 1907—567.

1387. Every illegitmate child is an heir of the person who, in writing, signed in the presence of a competent witness, acknowledges himself to be the father of such child; and in all cases is an heir of his mother; and inherits his or her estate, in whole or in part, as the case may be, in the same manner as if he had been born in lawful wedlock; but he does not represent his father or mother by inheriting any part of the estate of his or her kindred, either lineal or collateral, unless, before his death, his parents shall have intermarried, and his father, after such marriage, acknowleges him as his child, or adopts him into his family; in which case such child and all the legitimate children are considered brothers and sisters, and on the death of either of them, intestate, and without issue, the others inherit his estate, and are heirs, as hereinbefore provided, in like manner as if all the children had been legitimate; saving to the father and mother, respectively, their rights in the estates of all the children in like manner as if all had been legitimate. The issue of all marriages null in law, or dissolved by divorce, are legitimate.

1388. The estate of an illegitimate child, who, having title to any estate not otherwise limited by marriage contract, dies without disposing thereof by will. is succeeded to as if he had been born in lawful wedlock if he has been legitimated by a subsequent marriage of his parents, or adopted by his father as provided by section two hundred thirty; otherwise, it is succeeded to as if he had been born in lawful wedlock and had survived his father and all persons related to him only through his father.1921–194.

1389. The degree of kindred is established by the number of generations, and each generation is called a degree.

1390. · The series of degrees forms the line; the series of degrees between persons who descend from one another is called direct or lineal consanguinity; and the series of degrees between persons who do not descend from one another, but spring from a common ancestor, is called the collateral line or collateral consanguinity.

1391. The direct line is divided into a direct line descending and a direct line ascending. The first is that which connects the ancestors with those who descend from him. The second is that which connects a person with those from whom he descends.

1392. In the direct line there are as many degrees as there are generations. Thus, the son is, with regard to the father, in the first degree; the grandson in the second; and vice versa with regard to the father and grandfather toward the sons and grandsons.

1393. In the collateral line the degrees are counted by generations, from one of the relations up to the common ancestor, and from the common ancestor to the other relations. In such computation the decedent is excluded, the relative included, and the ancestor counted but once. Thus, brothers are related in the sec

ond degree; uncle and nephew in the third degrée; 'cousins german in the fourth, and so on.

1394. Kindred of the half blood inherit equally with those of the whole blood in the same degree, unless the inheritance come to the intestate by descent, devise, or gift of some one of his ancestors, in which case all those who are not of the blood of such ancestors must be excluded from such inheritance.

1395. Any estate, real or personal, given by the decedent in his lifetime as an advancement to any child, or other heir, is a part of the estate of the decedent for the purposes of division and distribution thereof among his heirs, and must be taken by such child, or other heir, toward his share of the estate of the decedent. 1905—609.

1396. If the amount of such advancement exceeds the share of the heir receiving the same, he must be excluded from any further portion of the division and distribution of the estate, but he must not be required to refund any part of such advancement; and if the amount so received is less than his share, he is entitled to so much more as will give him his full share of the estate of the decedent.

1397. All gifts and grants are made as advancements, if expressed in the gift or grant to be so made, or if charged in writing by the decedent as an advancement, or acknowledged in writing as such, by the child or other successor or heir.

1398. If the value of the estate so advanced is expressed in the conveyance, or in the charge thereof made by the decedent, or in the acknowledgment of the party receiving it, it must be held as of that value in the division and distribution of the estate; otherwise, it must be estimated according to its value when given, as nearly as the same can be ascertained.

1399. If any child, or other 'heir receiving advancement, dies before the decedent, leaving heirs, the advancement must be taken into consideration in the division and distribution of the estate, and the amount thereof must be allowed accordingly by the representatives of the heirs receiving the advancement, in like manner as if the advancement had been made directly to them. 1905-609.

1400. The provisions of the preceding sections of this title, as to the inheritance of the husband and wife from each other, apply only to the separate property of the decedents.

1401. Upon the death of either husband or wife, one-half of the community property belongs to the surviving spouse;; the other half is subject to the testamentary disposition of the decedent, and in the absence thereof goes to the surviving spouse, subject to the provisions of section one thousand four hundred two of this Code. 1923.

1402. Community property passing from the control of the husband, either by reason of his death or by virtue of testamentary disposition by the wife, is subject to administration, his debts, family allowance and the charges and expenses of administration; but in the event of such testamentary disposition by the wife, the husband, pending administration, shall retain the same power to sell, manage and deal with the community personal property as he had in her lifetime; and his possession and control of the community property shall not be transferred to the personal representative of the wife except to the extent neecssary to carry her will into effect. After forty days from the death of the wife, the surviving husband shall have full power to sell, lease, mortgage or otherwise deal with and dispose of the community real property, unless a notice is recorded in the county in which the property is situated to the effect that an interest in the property, specifying it, is claimed by another under the wife's will. 1923.

1403. Inheritance or succession “by right of representation” takes place when the descendants of any deceased heir take the same share or right in the estate of another person that their parents would have taken if living. Posthumous children are considered as living at the death of their parents.

1404. Resident aliens may take in all cases by succession as citizens; and no person capable of succeeding under the provisions of this title is precluded from such succession by reason of the alienage of any relative; but no non-resident foreigner can take by succession unless he appears and claims such succession within five years after the death of the decedent to whom he claims succession.

1405. Whenever any person dies leaving any property in this state not disposed of by will, and there are no persons entitled to succeed thereto under the laws of this state, the same shall escheat to the state as of the date of the death of the decedent. The property or proceeds of any estate deposited in the state treasury after final decree of distribution or judgment of the superior court by reason of the failure of heirs to make claim thereto may be recovered upon judgment of the superior court or order of the state board of control as provided in the Code of Civil Procedure. 1917—

255.

1406. When such judgment or order is obtained, a certified copy thereof must be filed with the state treasurer as his voucher. Thereupon the property must be delivered, or the proceeds paid, to the claimant, on filing his receipt therefor. If no one succeeds to the estate or the proceeds, as herein provided, the property of the decedent devolves and escheats to the people of the state, and must be placed by the state treasurer to the credit of the school fund. 1905–610.

1407. Real property passing to the state under the last section, whether held by the state or its officers, is subject to the same charges and trusts to which it would have been subject if it had passed by succession, and is also subject to all the provisions of title eight, part three, of the Code of Civil Procedure.

1408. Those who succeed to the property of a decedent are liable for his obligations in the cases and to the extent prescribed by the Code of Civil Procedure.

1409. No person who has been convicted of the murder of the decedent shall be entitled to succeed to any portion of his estate; but the portion thereof to which he would otherwise be entitled to succeed descends to the other persons entitled thereto under the provisions of this title. 1905—610.

TITLE VIII.

Water Rights.

Section

Section 1410. Water rights, how acquired. 1415. Notice of appropriation. 1410a. Use of waters flowing out 1416. Appropriation, work to be of state.

done. 1410b. Flow in stream, canals, 1417. Completion defined. generally.

1418. Doctrine applied. 1411. Appropriation for useful 1419. Forfeiture. purpose.

1420. Present claimant's rights. 1412. Point diversion may be 1421. Recorder to keep book, recchanged.

ord notices. 1413. Water may be turned into 1422. Time within which to comnatural channels.

mence excavation on public 1414. First in time first right.

reservation. 1410. All water or the use of water within the state of California is the property of the people of the state of California, but the right to the use of running water flowing in a river or stream or down a canyon or ravine may be acquired by appropriation in the manner provided by law; provided, that no water for the generation of electricity or electrical or other power may be appropriated for a longer period than twenty-five years, except by a municipal corporation, other than an irrigation district or a lighting district, or by an irrigation district when such electricity, electrical or other power is for use and distribution only within its own limits, and as subsidiary to and mainly for the purpose of serving and carrying out irrigation, or by a lighting district when such electricity, electrical or other power, is for use and distribution only within its own limits. 1911—821.

1410a. The entire flow of water in any natural stream which carries water from the state of California into any other state is subject to use in the state of California, under the laws of the state of California, and the right may be, so far as not already acquired by use in the state of California, acquired and held under the laws of the state of California. The rights to the use of such water held under the laws of the state of California, shall be prior and superior to any rights to the waters of such streams held under the laws of any other state. 1913—93.

1410b. The flow of water in any natural stream to the intake of any canal diverting water therefrom for sale, rental or distribution to the public or for any public use, or the use of any farming neighborhood may be maintained by the person in charge of such use by restoring or repairing any break in the bank of the stream, and by maintaining the banks of the stream, and by preventing by physical structure and other appropriate means any increased flow of water through any natural by-ways of water which carry or threaten to carry such increase of water of the stream away from such in provided, however, that no act herein authorized, when performed, shall prevent, retard or obstruct the building thereafter of any reclamation, protection or flood control levee and the maintenance thereof; nor shall any act herein authorized prevent the use of any natural channel nor the enlargement thereof, for municipal purposes or for use in connection with any artificial system of drainage, irri

gation or flood control not causing the flow of water in the channel at the intake of such canal to be less than the qua

the quantity of water the owners and appropriators may have the right to divert into said intake; nor shall any act herein authorized prevent the use of any natural channel or the enlargement thereof to convey water appropriated under the laws of the state of California, where such natural channel shall be designated as the means, or part of the means of conveying the water so appropriated, nor shall the acts herein authorized limit the powers or authority of the water commission of the state of California to accomplish in its own way the purposes of this section, nor interefere with the construction of any flood control works in accordance with any plan of flood control adopted by the reclamation board. 1915—1376.

1411. The appropriation must be for some useful or beneficial purpose, and when the appropriator or his successor in interest ceases to use it for such a purpose, the right ceases.

1412. The person entitled to the use may change the place of diversion, if others are not injured by such change, and may extend the ditch, flume, pipe, or aqueduct by which the diversion is made to places beyond that where the first use was made.

1413. The water appropriated may be turned into the channel of another stream and mingled with its water, and then reclaimed; but in reclaiming it the water already appropriated by another must not be diminished.

1414. As between appropriators, the one first in time is the first in right.

1415. A person desiring to appropriate water must post a notice, in writing, in a conspicuous place at the point of intended diversion, stating therein:

1. That he claims the water there flowing to the extent of (giving the number) inches, measured under a four-inch pressure;

2. The purposes for which he claims it, and the place of intended use;

3. The means by which he intends to divert it, and the size of the flume, ditch, pipe, or aqueduct in which he intends to divert it. A copy of the notice must, within ten days after it is posted, be

led in the office of the recorder of the county in which it is posted. After filing such copy for record, the place of intended diversion or the place of intended use or the means by which it is intended to divert the water, may be changed by the person posting said notice or his assigns, if others are not injured by such change. This provision applies to notices already filed as well as to notices hereafter filed. 1903–361.

recorde

1416. Within sixty days after the notice is posted, the claimant must commence the excavation or construction of the works in which he intends to divert the water, or the survey, road or trail building, necessarily incident thereto, and must prosecute the work diligently and uninterruptedly to completion, unless temporarily interrupted by snows or rain; provided, that if the erection of a dam has been recommended by the California debris commission at or near the place where it is intended to divert the water, the claimant shall have sixty days after the completion of such dam in which to commence the excavation or construction of the works in which he intends to divert the water; provided, that whenever any city and

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