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1797. The employment by a seller of any person to bid at a sale by auction, without the knowledge of the buyer, without an intention on the part of such bidder to buy, and on the part of the seller to enforce his bid, is a fraud upon the buyer, which entitles him to rescind his purchase.
1798. When property is sold by auction, an entry made by the auctioneer, in his sale-brook, at the time of the sale, specifying the name of the person for whom he sells, the thing sold, the price, the terms of sale, and the name of the buyer, binds both the parties in the same manner as if made by themselves. 1873–244.
1804. Exchange, what. 1805. Form of contract.
1806. Buyer's and seller's rights. 1807. Warranty, money.
1804. Exchange is a contract by which the parties mutually give, or agree to give, one thing for another, neither thing, or both things, being money only.
1805. The provisions of section seventeen hundred and thirty-nine apply to all exchanges in which the value of the thing to be given by either party is two hundred dollars or more.
1806. The provisions of the title on sale apply to exchanges. Each party has the rights and obligations of a seller as to the thing which montre hoc therahteva h eline saleapply to exchanges. Cach he gives, and of a buyer as to that which he takes,
1807. On an exchange of money, each party thereby warrants the genuineness of the money given by him.
II. Deposit for Keeping.
Deposit in General. Article 1. Nature and Creation of Deposit.
II. Obligations of the Depositary.
Nature and Creation of Deposit. Section
Section 1813. Deposit, kinds of.
1816. Duty involuntary deposi1814. Voluntary deposit.
tary. 1815. Involuntary deposit, how. 1817. Deposit for keeping.
1818. Deposit for exchange.
1813. A deposit may be voluntary or involuntary; and for safekeep- . ing or for exchange.
1814. A voluntary deposit is made by one giving to another, with his consent, the possession of personal property to keep for the benefit of the former, or of a third party. The person giving is called the depositor, and the person receiving the depositary.
1815. An involuntary deposit is made:
1. By the accidental leaving or placing of personal property in the possession of any person, without negligence on the part of its owner; or,
2. In cases of fire, shipwreck, inundation, insurrection, riot, or like extraordinary emergencies, by the owner of personal property committing it, out of necessity, to the care of any person.
1816. The person with whom a thing is deposited in the manner described in the last section is bound to take charge of it, if able to do so.
1817. A deposit for keeping is one in which the depositary is bound to return the identical thing deposited.
1818. A deposit for exchange is one in which the depositary is only bound to return a thing corresponding in kind to that which is deposited.
Obligations of the Depositary. Section
Section 1822. Depositary, deliver on de- 1825. Notice, adverse claim. mand.
1826. Notice owner, wrongfully 1823. No obligation without de
1827. Delivery, jointly owned. 1824. Place of delivery.
1828. Joint deposits.
1822. A depositary must deliver the thing to the person for whose benefit it was deposited, on demand, whether the deposit was made for a specified time or not, unless he has a lien upon the thing deposited, or has been forbidden or prevented from doing so by the real owner thereof, or by the act of the law, and has given the notice required by section eighteen hundred and twenty-five.
1823. A depositary is not bound to deliver a thing deposited without demand, even where the deposit is made for a specified time.
1824. A depositary must deliver the thing deposited at his residence or place of business, as may be most convenient for him.
1825. A depositary must give prompt notice to the person for whose benefit the deposit was made, of any proceedings taken adversely to his interest in the thing deposited, which may tend to excuse the depositary from delivering the thing to him.
1826. A depositary, who believes that a thing deposited with him is wrongfully detained from its true owner, may give him notice of the deposit; and if within a reasonable time afterwards he does not claim it, and sufficiently establish his right thereto, and indemnify the depositary against the claim of the depositor, the depositary is exonerated from liability to the person to whom he gave the notice, upon returning the thing to the depositor, or assuming, in good faith, a new obligation changing his position in respect to the thing, to his prejudice.
1827. If a thing deposited is owned jointly or in common by persons who cannot agree upon the manner of its delivery, the depositary may deliver to each his proper share thereof, if it can be done without injury to the thing.
1828. When a deposit is made in the name of two or more persons, deliverable or payable to either or to their survivor or survivors, such deposit or any part thereof, or increase thereof, may be delivered or paid to either of said persons or to the survivor or survivors in due course of business. 1907--92.
Deposit for Keeping.
Article 1. General Provisions.
II. Gratuitous Deposit.
General Provisions. Section
Section 1833. Depositor, indemnifying de- 1837. Sale, danger of perishing. positary.
1838. Injury, loss thing depos1834. Obligation depositary, of i ted. animals.
1839. Services by depositary. 1835. Obligations regarding use. 1840. Liability, depositary. · 1836. Damages, wrongful use.
"- 1833. A depositor must indemnify the depositary: ': '1. For all damage caused to him by the defects or vices of the thing deposited; and,
2. For all expenses necessarily incurred by him about the thing, other than such as are involved in the nature of the undertaking.
1834. A depositary of living animals must provide them with suitable food and shelter, and treat them kindly.
1835. A depositary may not use the thing deposited, or permit it to be used, for any pulpose, without the consent of the depositor. He may not, if it is purposely fastened by the depositor, open it without the consent of the latter, except in case of necessity.
1836. A depositary is liable for any damage happening to the thing deposited, during his wrongful use thereof, unless such damage must inevitably have happened though the property had not been thus used.
1837. If a thing deposited is in actual danger of perishing before instructions can be obtained from the depositor the depositary may sell it for the best price obtainable, and retain the proceeds as a deposit, giving immediate notice of his proceedings to the depositor.
1838. If a thing is lost or injured during its deposit, and the depositary refuses to inform the depositor of the circumstances under which the loss or injury occurred, so far as he has information concerning them, or willfully misrepresents the circumstances to him, the depositary is presumed to have willfully, or by gross negligence, permitted the loss or injury to occur.
1839. So far as any service is rendered by a depositary, or required from him, his duties and liabilities are prescribed by the title on employment and service.
1840. The liability of a depositary for negligence cannot exceed the amount which he is informed by the depositor, or has reason to suppose, the thing deposited to be worth. 1873–244.
Gratuitous Deposit. Section
Section 1844. Gratuitous deposit.
1846. Care gratuitous depositary. 1845. Involuntary deposit.
1847. Duties cease, when.
1844. Gratuitous deposit is a deposit for which the depositary receives no consideration beyond the mere possession of the thing deposited.
1845. An involuntary deposit is gratuitous, the depositary being entitled to no reward.
1846. A gratuitous depositary must use, at least, slight care for the preseryation of the thing deposited.
1847. The duties of a gratuitous depositary cease:
2. Upon his giving reasonable notice to the owner to remove it, and the owner failing to do so within a reasonable time. But an involuntary depositary, under subdivision two of section eighteen hundred and fifteen, cannot give such notice until the emergency which gave rise to the deposit is past.
Section 1851. Deposit for hire.
1855. Same. 1852. Degree of care required. 1856. Lien, storage, etc., gener1853. Fractional week compensa
1857. Storage property sold. 1854. Termination of deposit.
1851. A deposit not gratuitous is called storage. The depositary in such case is called a depositary for hire.
1852. A depositary for hire must use at least ordinary care for the preservation of the thing deposited.
1853. In the .absence of a different agreement or usage, a depositary for hire is entitled to one week's hire for the sustenance and shelter of living animals during any fraction of a week, and to half a month's hire for the storage of any other property during any fraction of a half-month.
1854. In the absence of an agreement as to the length of time during which a deposit is to continue, it may be terminated by the depositor at any time, and by the depositary upon reasonable notice.
1855. Notwithstanding an agreement respecting the length of time during which a deposit is to continue, it may be terminated by the depositor on paying all that would become due to the depositary in case of the deposit so continuing.
1856. A depositary for hire has a lien for storage charges and for advances and insurance incurred at the request of the bailor, and for money necessarily expended in and about the care, preservation and keeping of the property stored, and he also has a lien for money advanced at the request of the bailor, to discharge a prior lien, and for the expenses of a sale where default has been made in satisfying a valid lien. The rights of the depositary for hire to such lien are regulated by the title on liens. 1909–1001.
1857. If from any cause other than want of ordinary care and diligence on his part, a depositary for hire is unable to deliver perishable property, baggage, or luggage received by him for storage, or to collect his charges for storage due thereon, he may cause such property to be sold, in open market, to satisfy his lien for storage; provided, that no property except perishable property shall be sold, under the provisions of this section, upon which storage charges shall not be due and unpaid for one year at the time of such sale. 1891-470.
Section 1858. Warehouse receipts.
1858d. Receipts, non-negotiable. 1858a. Removal written consent. 1858e. Fire loss, liability. 1858b. Classification receipts. 1858f. Penalties, etc.
1858. A warehouseman, wharfinger, or other person doing a