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parties adopt for the estimation of the rent. Thus a hiring at a monthly rate of rent is presumed to be for one month. In the absence of any agreement respecting the length of time or the rent, the hiring is presumed to be monthly.

1945. If a lessee of real property remains in possession thereof after the expiration of the hiring, and the lessor accepts rent from him, the parties are presumed to have renewed the hiring on the same terms and for the same time, not exceding one month when the rent is payable monthly, nor in any case one year.

1946. A hiring of real property, for a term not specified by the parties, is deemed to be renewed as stated in the last section, at the end of the term implied by law, unless one the parties gives notice to the other of his intention to terminate the same, at least as long before the expiration thereof as the term of the hiring itself, not exceeding one month.

1947. When there is no usage or contract to the contrary, rents are payable at the termination of the holding, when it does not exceed one year. If the holdings is by the day, week, month, quarter, or year, rent is payable at the termination of the respective periods, as it successively becomes due.

1948. The attornment of a tenant to a stranger is void, unless it is made with the consent of the landlord, or in consequence of a judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction.

1949. Every tenant who receives notice of any proceeding to recover the real property occupied by him, or the possession thereof, must immediately inform his landlord of the same, and also deliver to the landlord the notice, if in writing, and is responsible to the landlord for all damages which he may sustain by reason of any omission to inform him of the notice, or to deliver it to him [if] in writing. 1873–246.

1950. One who hires part of a room for a dwelling is entitled to the room, notwithstanding any agreement to the contrary; and if a landlord lets a room as a dwelling for more than one family, the person to whom he first lets any part of it is entitled to the possession of the whole room for the term agreed upon, and every tenant in the building, under the same landlord, is relieved from all obligation to pay rent to him while such double letting of any room continues.

CHAPTER III.

Hiring of Personal Property. Section

Section : 1955. Obligations of letter of 1957. Extraordinary expenses. personal property.

1958. Return thing hired. 1956. Expenses.

1959. Charter party, what.

1955. One who lets personal property must deliver it to the hirer, secure his quiet enjoyment thereof against all lawful claimants, put it into a condition fit for the purpose for which he lets it, and repair all deteriorations thereof not occasioned by the fault of the hirer and not the natural result of its use.

1956. A hirer of personal property must bear all such expenses concerning it as might naturally be foreseen to attend it during its use by him. All other expenses must be borne by the letter.

1957. If a letter failed to fulfill his obligations, as prescribed by section nineteen hundred and fifty-five, the hirer, after giving him notice to do so, if such notice can conveniently be given, may expend any reasonable amount necessary to make good the letter's default, and may recover such amount from him.

1958. At the expiration of the term for which personal property is hired, the hirer must return it to the letter at the place contemplated by the parties at the time of hiring; or, if no particular place was so contemplated by them, at the place at which it was at that time.

1959. The contract by which a ship is let is termed a charter-party. By it the owner may either let the capacity or burden of the ship, continuing the employment of the owner's master, crew, and equipments, or may surrender the entire ship to the charterer, who then provides them himself. The master or a part-owner may be a charterer.

TITLE VI.

Service.
Chapter I. Service With Employment.

II. Particular Employments.
III. Service Without Employment.

CHAPTER I.

Service With Employment.
Article I. Definition of Employment.

II. Obligations of the Employer.
III. Obligations of the Employee.
IV. Termination of Employment.

• ARTICLE I.

Definition of Employment. Section

1965. Employment, what.

1965. The contract of employment is a contract by which one, who is called the employer, engages another, who is called the employee, to do something for the benefit of the employer, or of a third person.

ARTICLE II.
Obligations of the Employer.

Section

Section 1969. Employer, indemnification 1971. Employer liable own negliemployee..

gence. 1970. When not.

1969. An employer must indemnify his employee, except as prescribed in the next section, for all that he necessarily expends or loses in direct consequence of the discharge of his duties as such, or of his obedience to the directions of the employer, even though unlawful, unless the employee, at the time of obeying such directions, believed them to be unlawful.

1970. An employer is not bound to indemnify his employee for losses suffered by the latter in consequence of the ordinary risks of the business in which he is employed, nor in consequence of the negligence of another person employed by the same employer in the same general business, unless the negligence causing the injury was committed in the performance of a duty the employer owes by law to the employee, or unless the employer has neglected to use ordinary care in the selection of the culpable employee; provided, nevertheless, that the employer shall be liable for such injury when the same results from the wrongful act, neglect or default of any agent or officer of such employer, superior to the employee injured, or of a person employed by such employer having the right to control or direct the services of such employee injured, and also when such injury results from the wrongful act, neglect or default of a coemployee engaged in another department of labor from that of the employee injured, or employed upon a machine, railroad train, switchsignal point, locomotive-engine, or other appliance than that upon which the employee is injured is employed, or who is charged with dispatching trains, or transmitting telegraphic or telephonic orders upon any railroad, or in the operation of any mine, factory, machineshop, or other industrial establishment.

Knowledge by an employee injured of the defective or unsafe character or condition of any machinery, ways, appliances or structures of such employer shall not be a bar to recovery for any injury or death caused thereby, unless it shall also appear that such employee fully understood, comprehended and appreciated the dangers incident to the use of such defective machinery, ways, appliances or structures, and thereafter consented to use the same, or continued in the use thereof.

When death, whether instantaneous or otherwise, results from an injury to an employee received as aforesaid, the personal representative of such employee shall have a right of action therefor against such employer, and may recover damages in respect thereof, for and on behalf, and for the benefit of the widow, children, dependent parents, and dependent brothers and sisters, in order of precedence as herein stated, but no more than one action shall be brought for such recovery.

Any contract or agreement, express or implied, made by any such employee to waive the benefits of this section, or any part thereof, shall be null and void, and this section shall not be construed to deprive any such employee or his personal representative, of any right or remedy to which he is now entitled under the laws of this state.

The rules and principles of law as to contributory negligence which apply to other cases shall apply to cases arising under this section, except in so far as the same are herein modified or changed. 1907– 119.

1971. An employer must in all cases indemnify his employee for losses caused by the former's want of ordinary care.

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ARTICLE III.

Obligations of the Employee. Section

Section 1975. Duties gratuitous employee. 1985. Property belonging to em1976. Same.

ployer. 1977. Same.

1986. Duty to account. 1978. Employee for reward. 1987. No delivery without de1979. Same, own benefit.

mand. 1980. Service, contracts limited 1988. Preference given employtwo years.

ers. 1981. Employee must obey em 1989. Substitute, who liable. ployer.

1990. Negligence. 1982. To conform to usage. 1991. Surviving employee. 1983. Degree of skill required. 1992. Confidential employment. 1984. Must use all his skill.

1975. One who, without consideration, undertakes to do a service for another, is not bound to perform the same, but if he actually enters upon its performance, he must use at least slight care and diligence therein.

1976. One who, by his own special request, induces another to intrust him with the performance of a service, must perform the same fully. In other cases, one who undertakes a gratuitous service may relinquish it at any time.

1977. A gratuitions employee, who accepts a written power of attorney, must act under it so long as it remains in force, or until he gives notice to his employer that he will not do so.

1978. One who, for a good consideration, agrees to serve another, must perform the service, and must use ordinary care and diligence therein, so long as he is thus employed.

1979. One who is employed at his own request to do that which is more for his own advantage than for that of his employer, must use great care and diligence therein to protect the interest of the latter.

1980. A contract to render personal service, other than a contract of apprenticeship, as provided in the chapter on master and servant, can not be enforced against the employee beyond the term of five years from the commencement of service under it; but if the employee voluntarily continues his service under it beyond that time, the contract may be referred to as affording a presumptive measure of the compensation. 1919–1074.

1981. An employee must substantially comply with all the directions of his employer concerning the service on which he is engaged, except where such obedience is impossible or unlawful, or would impose new and unreasonable burdens upon the employee. 1873–246.

1982. An employee must perform his service in conformity to the usage of the place of performance, unless otherwise directed by his employer, or, unless it is impracticable, or manifestly injurious to his employer to do so.

1983. An employee is bound to exercise a reasonable degree of skill, unless his employer has notice, before employing him, of his want of skill.

1984. An employee is always bound to use such skill as he posesses, so far as the same is required, for the service specified. 1873247.

1985. Everything which an employee acquires by virtue of his employment, except the compensation, if any, which is due to him from his employer, belongs to the latter, whether acquired lawfully or unlawfully, or during or after the expiration of the term of his employment.

1986. An employee must, on demand, render to his employer just accounts of all his transactions in the course of his service, as often as may be reasonable, and must, without demand, give prompt notice to his employer of everything which he receives for his account.

1987. An employee who receives anything on account of his emplover. in any capacity other than that of a

a mere servant not bound to deliver it to him until demanded, and is not at liberty to send it to him from a distance, without demand, in any mode involving greater risk than its retention by the employee himself.

1988. An employee who has any business to transact on his own account. similar to that intrusted to him by his emplover. must al

intrusted to him by his employer, must always give the latter the preference. 1873–247.

1989. An employee who is expressly authorized to employ a substitute is liable to his principal only for want of ordinary care in his selection. The substitute is directly responsible to the principal.

1990. An employee who is guilty of a culpable degree of negligence is liable to his employer for the damage thereby caused to the latter; and the employer is liable to him, if the service is not gratuitous, for the value of such services only as are properly rendered.

1991. Where service is to be rendered by two or more persons jointly, and one of them dies the survivor must act alone, if the service to be rendered is such as he can rightly perform without the aid of the deceased person, but not otherwise.

1992. The obligations peculiar to confidential employments are defined in the title on trusts.

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