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2172. A common carrier must start at such time and place as he announces to the public, unless detained by accident or the elements, or in order to connect with carriers on other lines of travel. 1873— 249.
2173. A common carrier is entitled to a reasonable compensation and no more, which he may require to be paid in advance. If payment thereof is refused, he may refuse to carry.
2174. The obligations of a common carrier cannot be limited by general notice on his part, but may be limited by special contract. 1873–249.
2175. A common carrier cannot be exonerated, by any agreement made in anticipation thereof, from liability for the gross negligence, fraud, or willful wrong of himself or his servants.
2176. A passenger, consignor, or consignee, by accepting a ticket, bill of lading, or written contract for carriage, with a knowledge of its terms, assents to the rate of hire, the time, place, and manner of delivery therein stated; and also to the limitation stated therein upon the amount of the carrier's liability in case property carried in packages, trunks, or boxes, is lost or injured, when the value of such property is not named; and also to the limitation stated therein to the carrier's liability for loss or injury to live animals carried. But his assent to any other modification of the carrier's obligations contained in such instrument can be manifested only by his signature to the same. 1873–249.
2177. A common carrier is not responsible for loss or miscarriage of a letter, or package having the form of a letter, containing money or notes, bills of exchange, or other papers of value, unless he be informed at the time of its receipt of the value of its contents. 1873– 250.
Common Carriers of Persons.
Section 2180. Obligations, carriers of lug- 2186. Regulation of business gengage.
erally. 2181. Same, baggage.
2187. Fare, when payable. 2182. Liability, luggage.
2188. Ejection of passengers. 2183. Luggage how carried and 2189. Passenger refusing to pay delivered.
fare. 2184. To provide vehicles.
2190. Not payable after ejection. 2185. Seats for passengers.
2191. Carrier's lien.
2180. A common carrier of persons, unless his vehicle is fitted for the reception of persons exclusively, must receive and carry a reasonable amount of baggage for each passenger without charge, except for an excess of weight over one hundred pounds to a passenger; if such carrier is a proprietor of a stage line, he need not receive and carry for each passenger by such stage line, without charge, more than sixty pounds of baggage. 1905—615.
2181. Luggage may consist of whatever the passenger takes with him for his personal use and convenience, according to the habits or wants of the particular class to which he belongs, either with refer
ence to the important necessities or to the ultimate purposes of his journey. Luggage within the meaning of this section shall include the samples, case, wares, appliances and catalogues of commercial travelers or their employers, used by them for the purpose of transacting their business and carried with them solely for that purpose, when securely packed and locked in substantial trunks or sample cases of convenient shape and weight for handling. No crate, cover, or other protection shall be required for any bicycle carried as luggage, but no passenger shall be entitled to carry as luggage more than one bicycle. 1911—638.
2182. The liability of a carrier for luggage received by him with a passenger is the same as that of a common carrier of property.
2183. A common carrier must deliver every passenger's luggage, whether within the prescribed weight or not, immediately upon the arrival of the passenger at his destination; and, unless the vehicle would be overcrowded or overloaded thereby, must carry it on the same vehicle by which he carries the passenger to whom it belonged, except that where luggage is transported by rail, it must be checked and carried in a regular baggage-car; and whenever passengers neglect or refuse to have their luggage so checked and transported, it is carried at their risk. 1873—250.
2184. A common carrier of persons must provide a sufficient number of vehicles to accommodate all the passengers who can be reasonably expected to require carriage at any one time.
2185. A common carrier of persons must provide every passenger with a seat. He must not overload his vehicle by receiving and carrying more passengers than its rated capacity allows.
2186. A common carrier of persons may make rules for the conduct of his business, and may require passengers to conform to them, if they are lawful, public, uniform in their application, and reasonable.
2187. A common carrier may demand the fare of passengers, either at starting or at any subsequent time.
2188. A passenger who refuses to pay his fare or to conform to any lawful regulation of the carrier, may be ejected from the vehicle by the carrier. But this must be done with as little violence as possible, and at any usual stopping-place or near some dwellinghouse.
2189. A passenger upon a railroad train who has not paid his fare before entering the train, if he has been afforded an opportunity to do so, must, upon demand, pay ten per cent in addition to the regular rate.
2190. After having ejected a passenger, a carrier has no right to require the payment of any part of his fare.
2191. A common carrier has a lien upon the luggage of a passenger for the payment of such fare as he is entitled to from him. This lien is regulated by the title on liens.
Common Carriers of Property.
Section 2194. Liability inland carriers. 2201. Delivery beyond destina2195. When exemptions excepted.
tion. 2196. Liability for delay.
2202. Proof of loss. 2197. Liability, marine carriers. 2203.· Carrier's exceptional ser2198. Same.
vices. 2199. Perils of sea.
2204. Sale perishable property 2200. Consignor, declare valua
for freight. bles.
2194. Unless the consignor accompanies the freight and retains exclusive control thereof, an inland common carrier of property is liable, from the time that he accepts until he relieves himself from liability pursuant to sections two thousand one hundred and eighteen to two thousand one hundred and twenty-two, for the loss or injury thereof from any cause whatever, except:
1. An inherent defect, vice, or weakness, or a spontaneous action, of the property itself;
2. The act of a public enemy of the United States, or of this state; 3. The act of the law; or, 4. Any irresistible superhuman cause.
2195. A common carrier is liable, even in the cases excepted by the last section, if his want of ordinary care exposes the property to the cause of the loss. 1905-615.
2196. A common carrier is liable for delay only when it is caused by his want of ordinary care and diligence. 1873-251.
2197. A marine carrier is liable in like manner as an inland carrier, except for loss or injury caused by the perils of the sea or fire.
2198. The liability of a common carrier by sea is further regulated by acts of Congress.
2199. Perils of the sea are from:
2200. A common carrier of gold, silver, platina, or precious stones, or of imitations thereof, in a manufactured or unmanufactured state; of timepieces of any description; of negotiable paper of other valuable writings; of pictures, glass, or chinaware; of statuary, silk, or laces; or of plated ware of any kind, is not liable for more than fifty dollars upon the loss or injury of any one package of such articles, unless he has notice, upon his receipt thereof, by mark upon the package or otherwise, of the nature of the freight; nor is such
carrier liable upon any package carried for more than the value of the articles named in the receipt or the bill of lading. 1873—251.
2201. If a common carrier accepts freight for a place beyond his usual route, he must, unless he stipulates otherwise, deliver it at the end of his route in that direction to some other competent carrier carrying to the place of address, or connected with those who thus carry, and his liability ceases upon making such delivery.
2202. If freight addressed to a place beyond the usual route of the common carrier who first received it is lost or injured, he must, within a reasonable time after demand, give satisfactory proof to the consignor that the loss or injury did not occur while it was in his charge, or he will be himself liable therefor.
2203. In respect to any service rendered by a common carrier about freight, other than its carriage and delivery, his rights and obligations are defined by the titles on deposit and service.
2204. If, from any cause other than want of ordinary care and diligence on his part, a common carrier is unable to deliver perishable property transported by him, and collect his charges thereon, he may cause the property to be sold in open market to satisfy his lien for freightage. 1973—251.
2207. A carrier of messages by telegraph must, if it is practicable, transmit every such message immediately upon its receipt. But if this is not practicable, and several messages accumulate upon his hands, he must transmit them in the following order:
1. Messages from public agents of the United States or of this state, on public business;
2. Messages intended in good faith for immediate publication in newspapers, and not for any secret use;
3. Messages giving information relating to the sickness or death of any person;
4. Other messages in the order in which they were received.
2208. A common carrier of messages, otherwise than by telegraph, must transmit messages in the order in which he receives them, except messages from agents of the United States or of this state, on public business, to which he must always give priority. But he may fix upon certain times for the simultaneous transmission of messages previously received.
2209. Every person whose message is refused or postponed, contrary to the provisions of this chapter, is entitled to recover from the carrier his actual damages, and fifty dollars in addition thereto.
Trusts. Chapter I. Trusts in General.
II. Trusts for the Benefit of Third Persons.
Trusts in General.
II. Obligations of Trustees.
Nature and Creation of a Trust. Section
Section 2215. Trusts classified.
2221. Voluntary trust, how creat2216. Voluntary trust.
ed as to trustor. 2217. Involuntary trust.
2222. How created as to trustee. 2218. Parties to contract.
2223. Involuntary trustee. 2219. Trustee defined.
2224. Involuntary trust from 2220. What purposes created.
fraud, mistake, etc.
2215. A trust is either:
2216. A voluntary trust is an obligation arising out of a personal confidence reposed in, and voluntarily accepted by, one for the benefit of another.
2217. An involuntary trust is one which is created by operation of law.
2218. The person whose confidence creates a trust is called the trustor; the person in whom the confidence is reposed is called the trustee; and the person for whose benefit the trust is created is called the beneficiary.
2219. Everyone who voluntarily assumes a relation of personal confidence with another is deemed a trustee, within the meaning of this chapter, not only as to the person who reposes such confidence, but also as to all persons of whose affairs he thus acquires information which was given to such person in the like confidence, or over whose affairs he, by such confidence, obtains any control.
2220. A trust may be created for any purpose for which a contract may lawfully be made, except as otherwise prescribed by the titles on uses and trusts and on transfers.
2221. Subject to the provisions of section eight hundred and fiftytwo, a voluntary trust is created, as to the trustor and beneficiary, by any words or acts of the trustor, indicating with reasonable certainty:
1. An intention on the part of the trustor to create a trust; and, 2. The subject, purpose, and beneficiary of the trust.