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worthy at the commencement of every voyage she may undertake during that time; and,

Two. When the insurance is upon the cargo, which, by the terms of the policy, or the description of the voyage, or the established custom of the trade, is to be trans-shipped at an intermediate port, the implied warranty is not complied with, unless each vessel upon which the cargo is shipped, or trans-shipped, be seaworthy at the commencement of its particular voyage. 1873—257.

2684. A warranty of seaworthiness extends not only to the condition of the structure of the ship itself, but requires that it be properly laden, and provided with a competent master, a sufficient number of competent officers and seamen, and the requisite appurtenances and equipments, such as ballast, cables, and anchors, cordage and sails, food, water, fuel, and lights, and other necessary or proper stores and implements for the voyage.

2685. Where different portions of the voyage contemplated by a policv differ in respect to the things requisite to make the ship seaworthy therefor, a warranty of seaworthiness is complied with if, at the commencement of each portion, the ship is seaworthy with reference to that portion.

2686. When a ship becomes unseaworthy during the voyage to which an insurance relates, an unreasonable delay in repairing the defect exonerates the insurer from liability from any loss arising therefrom.

2687. A ship which is seaworthy for the purpose of an insurance upon the ship may, nevertheless, by reason of being unfitted to receive the cargo, be unseaworthy for the purpose of insurance upon the cargo.

2688. Where the nationality or neutrality of a ship or cargo is expressly warranted, it is implied that the ship will carry the requisite documents to show such nationality or neutrality, and that it will not carry any documents which cast reasonable suspicion thereon.

ARTICLE VI.

· The Voyage and Deviation. Section

Section 2692. Voyage insurance.

2696. When improper. 2693. Course of sailing.

2697. Deviation exonerates 2694. Deviation, what.

surer. 2695. When proper.

in

2692. When the voyage contemplated by a policy is described by the places of beginning and ending, the voyage insured is one which conforms to the course of sailing fixed by mercantile usage between those places.

2693. If the course of sailing is not fixed by mercantile usage, the voyage insured by a policy is the way between the places specified which, to a master of ordinary skill and discretion, would seem the most natural, direct, and advantageous.

2694. Deviation is a departure from the course of the voyage insured, mentioned in the last two sections, or an unreasonable delay in pursuing the voyage, or the commencement of an entirely different voyage.

2695. A deviation is proper:

1. When caused by circumstances over which neither the master nor the owner of the ship has any control;

2. When necessary to comply with a warranty, or to avoid a peril, whether insured against or not;

3. When made in good faith, and upon reasonable grounds of belief in its necessity to avoid a peril; or,

4. When made in good faith, for the purpose of saving human life, or relieving another vessel in distress.

2696. Every deviation not specified in the last section is improper.

2697. An insurer is not liable for any loss happening to a thing insured subsequently to an improper deviation,

ARTICLE VII.

Loss.

Section

2701. Total and partial.
2702. Partial.
2703. Actual and constructive

total loss.
2704. Actual total loss.
2705. Constructive total loss.
2706. Presumed actual loss.

Section
2707. Cargo insurance, voyage

broken up.
2708. Reshipment cost.
2709. Payment of insured, when.
2711. Average loss.
2712. Insurance against total loss.

2701. A loss may be either total or partial.
2702. Every loss which is not total is partial.
2703. A total loss may be either actual or constructive.
2704. An actual total loss is caused by:
1. A total destruction of the thing insured;
2. The loss of the thing by sinking, or by being broken up;

3. Any damage to the thing which renders it valueless to the owner for the purposes for which he held it; or,

4. Any other event which entirely deprives the owner of the possession, at the port of destination, of the thing insured.

2705. A constructive total loss is one which gives to a person insured a right to abandon, under section two thousand seven hundred and seventeen.

2706. 'An actual loss may be presumed from the continued absence of a ship without being heard of; and the length of time which is sufficient to raise this presumption depends on the corcumstances of the case.

2707. When a ship is prevented, at an intermediate port, from completing the voyage, by the perils insured against, the master must make every exertion to procure, in the same or a contiguous port, another ship, for the purpose of conveying the cargo to its destination; and the liability of a marine insurer thereon continues after they are thus reshipped. 1873—258.

2708. In addition to the liability mentioned in the last section, a marine insurer is bound for damages, expenses of discharging, storage, reshipment, extra freightage, and all other expenses incurred in saving cargo reshipped pursuant to the last section, up to the amount insured.

2709. Upon an actual total loss, a person insured is entitled to payment without notice of abandonment.

2711. Where it has been agreed that an insurance upon a particular thing, or class of things, shall be free from particular average, a marine insurer is not liable for any particular average loss not depriving the insured of the possession. at the port of destination. of the whole of such thing, or class of things, even though it become entirely worthless; but he is liable for his proportion of all general average loss assessed upon the thing insured. *1873—258.

2712. An insurance confined in terms to an actual total loss, does not cover a constructive total loss, but covers any loss which necessarily results in depriving the insured of the possession, at the port of destination, of the entire thing insured. 1873—259.

ARTICLE VIII.

Abandonment. Section

Section 2716. Abandonment.

2725. Formal abandonment waived 2717. Insured may abandon, when 2726. Insured's agents generally. 2718. Must be unqualified.

2727. Acceptance not necessary. 2719. When may be made.

2728. Acceptance conclusive. 2720. Abandonment defeated. 2729. Accepted abandonment ir2721. How made.

revocable. 2722. Requisites of notice.

2730. Freightage of abandoned 2723. No other cause can be re ship. lied on.

2731. Refusal to accept. 2724. Effect.

2732. Omission to abandon.

2716. Abandonment is the act by which, after a constructive total loss, a person insured by contract of marine insurance declares to the insurer that he relinquishes to him his interest in the thing insured.

2717. A person insured by a contract of marine insurance may abandon the thing insured, or any particular portion thereof separately valued by the policy, or otherwise separately insured, and recover for a total loss thereof, when the cause of the loss is a peril insured against:

1. If more than half thereof in value is actually lost, or would have to be expended to recover it from the peril;

2. If it is injured to such an extent as to reduce its value more than one half;

3. If the thing insured, being a ship, the contemplated voyage

cannot be lawfully performed without incurring an expense to the insured of more than half the value of the thing abandoned, or without incurring a risk which a prudent man would not take under the circumstances; or,

4. If the thing insured, being cargo or freightage, the voyage cannot be performed nor another ship procured by the master, within a reasonable time and with reasonable diligence, to forward the cargo, without incurring the like expense or risk. But freightage cannot in any case be abandoned, unless the ship is also abandoned.

2718. An abandonment must be neither partial nor conditional.

2719. An abandonment must be made within a reasonable time after the information of the loss, and after the commencement of the voyage, and before the party abandoning has information of its completion.

2720. Where the information upon which an abandonment has been made proves incorrect. or the thing insured was so far restored when the abandonment was made that there was then in fact no total loss, the abandonment becomes ineffectual.

2721. Abandonment is made by giving notice thereof to the insurer, which may be done orally, or in writing.

2722. A notice of abandonment must be explicit, and must specify the particular cause of the abandonment, but need state only enough to show that there is probable cause therefor, and need not be accompanied with proof of interest or of loss.

2723. An abandonment can be sustained only upon the cause specified in the notice thereof.

2724. An abandonment is equivalent to a transfer, by the insured, of his interest, to the insurer, with all the chances of recovery and indemnity.

2725. If a marine insurer pays for a loss as if it were an actual total loss, he is entitled to whatever may remain of the thing insured, or its proceeds or salvage, as if there had been a formal abandonment.

2726. Upon an abandonment, acts done in good faith by those who were agents of the insured in respect to the thing insured, subsequent to the loss, are at the risk of the insurer, and for his benefit.

2727. An acceptance of an abandonment is not necessary to the rights of the insured, and is not to be presumed from the mere silence of the insurer, upon his receiving notice of abandonment.

2728. The acceptance of an abandonment, whether express or implied, is conclusive upon the parties, and admits the loss and the sufficiency of the abandonment. .

2729. An abandonment once made and accepted is irrevocable, unless the ground upon which it was made proves to be unfounded.

2730. On an accepted abandonment of a ship, freightage earned previous to the loss belongs to the insurer thereof; but freightage subsequently earned belongs to the insurer of the ship.

2731. If an insurer refuses to accept a valid abandonment, he is liable as upon an actual total loss, deducting from the amount any proceeds of the thing insured which may have come to the hands of the insured.

2732. If a person insured omits to abandon, he may nevertheless recover his actual loss.

ARTICLE IX.
Measure of Indemnity.

Section

2736. Valuation, conclusive.
2737. Partial loss.
2738. Profits.
2739. Valuation apportioned.
2740. Applied to profits.
2741. Loss under open policy.

Section

2742. Arrival thing damaged.
2743. Labor and expenses.
2744. General average.
2745. Contribution.
2746. One-third new for old.

2736. A valuation in a policy of marine insurance is conclusive between the parties thereto in the adjustment of either a partial or total loss, if the insured has some interest at risk, and there is no fraud on his part; except that when a thing has been hypothecated by bottomry or respondentia, before its insurance, and without the knowledge of the person actually procuring the insurance, he may show the real value. But a valuation fraudulent in fact entitles the insurer to rescind the contract.

2737. A marine insurer is liable upon a partial loss, only for such proportion of the amount insured by him as the loss bears to the value of the whole interest of the insured in the property insured.

2738. Where profits are separately insured in a contract of marine insurance, the insured is entitled to recover, in case of loss, a proportion of such profits equivalent to the proportion which the value of the property lost bears to the value of the whole.

2739. In case of a valued policy of marine insurance on freightage or cargo, if a part only of the subject is exposed to risk, the valuation applies only in proportion to such part.

2740. When profits are valued and insured by a contract of marine insurance, a loss of them is conclusively presumed from a loss of the property out of which they were expected to arise, and the valuation fixes their amount.

2741. In estimating a loss under an open policy of marine insurance, the following rules are to be observed :

1. The value of a ship is its value at the beginning of the risk, including all articles or charges which add to its permanent value, or which are necessary to prepare it for the voyage insured;

2. The value of cargo is its actual cost to the insured, when laden on board, or where that cost cannot be ascertained, its market value at the time and place of lading, adding the charges incurred in purchasing and placing it on board, but without reference to any losses incurred in raising money for its purchase, or to any drawback on its exportation, or to the fluctuations of the market at the po

cket at the port of destination, or to expenses incurred on the way or on arrival;

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