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3. The value of freightage is the gross freightage, exclusive of primage, without reference to the cost of earning it; and,

4. The cost of insurance is in each case to be added to the value thus estimated.

2742. If cargo insured against partial loss arrives at the port of destination in a damaged condition, the loss of the insured is deemed to be the same proportion of the value which the market price at that port, of the thing so damaged, bears to the market price it would have brought if sound.

2743. A marine insurer is liable for all the expense attendant upon a loss which forces the ship into port to be repaired; and where it is agreed that the insured may labor for the recovery of the property, the insurer is liable for the expense incurred thereby, such expense, in either case, being in addition to a total loss, if that afterwards occurs.

2744. A marine insurer is liable for a loss falling upon the insured, through a contribution in respect to the thing insured, required to be made by him towards a general average loss called for by a peril insured against.

2745. Where a person insured by a contract of marine insurance has a demand against others for contribution, he may claim the whole loss from the insurer, subrogating nim to I

nsurer. subrogating him to his own right to contribution. But no such claim can be made upon the insurer after the separation of the interests liable to contribution, nor when the insured, having the right and opportunity to enforce contribution from others, has neglected or waived the exercise of that right. 1873 -259.

2746. In the case of a partial loss of a ship or its equipments, the old materials are to be applied towards payment for the new, and whether the ship is new or old, a marine insurer is liable for only two thirds of the remaining cost of the repairs, except that he must pay for anchors and cannon in full, and for sheathing-metal at a depreciation of only two and one half per cent for each month that it has been fastened to the ship.

CHAPTER III.

Fire Insurance. Section

Section 2753. Alteration increasing risk. 2756. Measure of indemnity. 2754. Not increasing risk. 2757. Interest valuation generally. 2755. Acts of insured.

2753. An alteration in the use or condition of a thing insured from that to which it is limited by the policy, made without the consent of the insurer, by means within the control of the insured, and increasing the risk, entitles an insurer to rescind a contract of fire insurance.

2754. An alteration in the use or condition of a thing insured from that to which it is limited by the policy, which does not increase the risk, does not affect a contract of fire insurance.

2755. A contract of fire insurance is not affected by any act of the insured subsequent to the execution of the policy, which does not violate its provisions, even though it increases the risk and is the cause of a loss.

2756. If there is no valuation in the policy, the measure of indemnity in an insurance against fire is the expense it would be to the insured at the time of the commencement of the fire to replace the thing lost or injured in the condition in which it was at the time of the injury; but the effect of a valuation in a policy of fire insurance is the same as in a policy of marine insurance, 1909–914.

2757. Whenever the insured desires to have a valuation named in

ring any building or structure against fire, he may require such building or structure to be examined by the insurer and the value of the insured's interest therein shall be thereupon fixed by the parties. The cost of such examination shall be paid for by the insured. A clause shall be inserted in such policy stating substantially that the value of the insured's interest in such building or structure has been thus fixed. In the absence of anv change increasing the risk without the consent of the insurer, or of fraud on the part of the insured, then in case of a total loss under such policy, the whole amount so insured upon the insured's interest in such building or structure, as stated in the policy upon which the insurers have received a premium, shall be paid, and in case of a partial loss the full amount of the partial loss shall be so paid, and in case there are two or more policies covering the ins

r more policies covering the insured's interest therein, each policy shall contribute pro rata to the payment of such whole or partial loss. But in no case shall the insurer be required to pay more than the amount thus stated in such policy. This section shall not prevent the parties from stipulating in such policies concerning the repairing, rebuilding or replacing buildings or structures wholly or partially damaged or destroyed. 1901-572.

CHAPTER IV.

Life and Health Insurance. Section

Section 2762. Life insurance, when pay. 2765. Notice of transfer. able.

2766. Measure of indemnity. 2763. Insurable interest.

2767. Disposition by beneficiary 2764. Assignee need have no in

of interest in installment. terest.

2769. Payment of policy, to whom. 2762. An insurance upon life may be made payable on the death of the person, or on his surviving a specified period, or periodically so long as he shall live, or otherwise contingently on the continuance or determination of life.

2763. Every person has an insurable interest in the life and health: . 1. Of himself;

2. Of any person on whom he depends wholly or in part for education or support;

3. Of any person under a legal obligation to him for the payment of money, or respecting property or services, of which death or illness might delay or prevent the performance; and,

4. Of any person upon whose life any estate or interest vested in him depends.

2764. A policy of insurance upon life or health may pass by transfer, will, or succession to any person, whether he has an insurable interest or not, and such person may recover upon it whatever the insured might have recovered.

2765. Notice to an insurer of a transfer or bequest thereof is not necessary to preserve the validity of a policy of insurance upon life or health, unless thereby expressly required.

2766. Uunless the interest of a person insured is susceptible of exact pecuniary measurement, the measure of indemnity under a policy of insurance upon life or health is the sum fixed in the policy.

2767. The beneficiary under a policy of life insurance, providing for the payment of the proceeds thereof in periodical installments, may be restrained from disposing of or incumbering his interest in any such installment, prior to the date when it shall become due and payable by the insurer, by a condition or stipulation in the policy. 1917–1314.

2769. The proceeds of every policy of insurance due on the death of insured shall by the insurer be paid either to the beneficiary designated therein, or, if no beneficiary is designated therein, to the estate of insured; or, if the policy has been assigned, to the assignee thereof; and such payment shall satisfy all obligations of the insurer with respect to said policy. 1923.

TITLE XII.

Indemnity. Section

Section 2772. Indemnity, what.

2777. Persons indemnifying gen2773. Wrongful act void.

erally. 2774. Past act valid.

2778. General rules. 2775. Indemnity covers agent's 2779. When person indemnifying acts.

is a surety. 2776. Indemnity to several. 2780. Bail.

2781. How regulated.

2772. Indemnity is a contract by which one engages to save another from a legal consequence of the conduct of one of the parties, or of some other person.

2773. An agreement to indemnify a person against an act thereafter to be done, is void, if the act be known by such person at the time of doing it to be unlawful, 1873—259.

2774. An agreement to indemnify a person against an act already done, is valid, even though the act was known to be wrongful, unless it was a felony.

2775. An agreement to indemnify against the acts of a certain person, applies not only to his acts and their consequences, but also to those of his agents.

2776. An agreement to indemnify several persons applies to each, unless a contrary intention appears.

2777. One who indemnifies another against an act to be done by the latter, is liable jointly with the person indemnified, and separately, to every person injured by such act.

2778. In the interpretation of a contract of indemnity, the following rules are to be applied, unless a contrary intention appears:

1. Upon an indemnity against liability, expressly, or in other equivalent terms, the person indemnified is entitled to recover upon becoming liable;

2. Upon an indemnity against claims, or demands, or damages, or costs, expressly, or in other equivalent terms, the person indemnified is not entitled to recover without payment thereof;

3. An indemnity against claims, or demands, or liability, expressly, or in other equivalent terms, embraces the costs of defense against such claims, demands, or liability incurred in good faith, and in the exercise of a reasonable discretion;

4. The person indemnifying is bound, on request of the person indemnified, to defend actions or proceedings brought against the latter in respect to the matters embraced by the indemnity, but the person indemnified has the right to conduct such defenses, if he chooses to do so;

5. If, after request, the person indemnifying neglects to defend the person indemnified, a recovery against the latter suffered by him in good faith, is conclusive in his favor against the former;

6. If the person indemnifying, whether he is a principal or a surety in the agreement, has not reasonable notice of the action or proceeding against the person indemnified, or is not allowed to control its defense, judgment against the latter is only presumptive evidence against the former;

7. A stipulation that a judgment against the person indemnified shall be conclusive upon the person indemnifving, is inapplicable if he had a good defense upon the merits, which by want of ordinary care he failed to establish in the action.

2779. Where one, at the request of another, engages to answer in damages, whether liquidated or unliquidated, for any violation of duty on the part of the latter, he is entitled to be reimbursed in the same manner as a surety, for whatever he may pay.

2780. Upon those contracts of indemnity which are taken in legal proceedings as security for the performance of an obligation imposed or declared by the tribunals, and known as undertakings or recognizances the sureties are called bail.

2781. The obligations of bail are governed by the statutes specially applicable thereto.

TITLE XIII.

Guaranty. Chapter I. Guaranty in General.

II. Suretyship.

CHAPTER I.

Guaranty in General.

Article I. Definition of Guaranty.

II. Creation of Guaranty.
III. Interpretation of Guaranty.
IV. Liability of Guarantors.
V. Continuing Guaranty.
VI. Exoneration of Guarantors.

ARTICLE I.

Definition of Guaranty. Section

Section 2787. Guaranty, what.

2788. Knowledge of principal un

necessary.

2787. A guaranty is a promise to answer for the debt, default, or miscarriage of another person.

2788. A person may become guarantor even without the knowledge or consent of the principal.

ARTICLE II.

Creation of Guaranty. Section

Section 2792. Necessity of consideration. 2794. For the obligation of an2793. Guaranty in writing.

other, original. 2795. Acceptance of guaranty.

2792. Where a guaranty is entered into at the same time with the original obligation, or with the acceptance of the latter by the guarantee, and forms with that obligation a part of the consideration to him, no other consideration need exist. In all other cases there must be a consideration distinct from that of the original obligation.

2793. Except as prescribed by the next section, a guaranty must be in writing, and signed by the guarantor; but the writing need not express a consideration.

2794. A promise to answer for the obligation of another, in any of the following cases, is deemed an original obligation of the promisor, and need not be in writing:

1. Where the promise is made by one who has received property

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