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commissioner, be valued as follows: If purchased at par at the par value; if purchased above or below par, on the basis of the purchase price adjusted so as to bring the value to par at maturity and so as to yield the effective rate of interest at which the purchase was made; provided, that the purchase price shall in no case be taken at a higher figure than the actual market value at the time of purchase; and provided, further, that the insurance commissioner shall have full discretion in determining the method of calculating values according to the foregoing rule, and the values found by him in accordance with such method shall be final and binding; provided, also, that any such corporation may return such bonds or other evidence of debt at their market value or their book value, but in no event at an aggregate value exceeding the aggregate of the values calculated according to the foregoing rule. 1913—464.

CHAPTER II.

Fire and Marine Insurance Corporations. Section

Section
424. Payment of subscriptions, 426. Insurable property.

capital all to be paid in 428. Risk limitation.
twelve months.

429. Dividend limitations. 425. Paid up capital, generally 430. Reserves, small companies.

424. The entire capital stock of every fire or marine insurance corporation must be paid up in cash within twelve months from the filing of the articles of incorporation, and no policy of insurance must be issued or risk taken until twenty-five per cent of the whole capital stock is paid up.

425. The president and a majority of the directors must, within thirty days after the payment of the twenty-five per cent of the capital stock, and also within thirty days after the payment of the last installment or assessment of the capital stock limited and fixed, prepare, subscribe, and swear to a certificate setting forth the amount of the fixed capital and the amount thereof paid up at the times respectively in this section named. and file the same in the office of the county clerk of the county where the principal place of business of the corporation is located, and a duplicate thereof, similarly executed, with the insurance commissioner.

426. Every corporation formed for fire or marine insurance, or both, may make insurance on all insurable interests within the scope of its articles of incorporation, and may cause itself to be reinsured.

428. Fire and marine insurance corporations must never take on any one risk, whether it is a marine insurance or an insurance against fire, a sum exceeding one tenth part of their capital actually paid in, and intact at the time of taking such risk, without at once reinsuring the excess above one tenth. 1905—570.

429. Corporations formed under the laws of this state, having a capital stock and transacting fire, marine or inland navigation insurance business, may make dividends from funds remaining on hand after retaining unimpaired:

1. The entire subscribed capital stock.

2. All the premiums received and receivable upon all unexpired marine and inland navigation risks, except time risks.

3. A fund equal to one-half of the amount of all premiums received and receivable upon all unexpired fire risks running one year or less from the date of the policy and upon all marine time risks.

4. A pro rata amount of all premiums received and receivable upon all unexpired fire risks running more than one year from the date of the policy.

5. A sum sufficient to pay all losses reported' or in course of settlement and all liabilities for expenses and taxes. 1923.

430. No fire or marine insurance corporation, with a subscribed capital of less than two hundred thousand dollars, must declare any dividends, except from profits remaining on hand after reserving:

1. A sum necessary to form, with the subscribed capital stock, the aggregate sum of two hundred thousand dollars;

2. All the premiums received or receivable on outstanding marine or inland risks, except marine time risks;

3. A fund equal to one half the amount of all premiums on fire risks and marine time risks not terminated at the time of making such dividend;

4. A sum sufficient to pay all losses reported or in course of settlement, and all liabilities for expenses and taxes.

CHAPTER III.

Mutual Life, Health and Accident Insurance Corporations Section

Section 437. Capital stock, guarantee 442. Voters. fund.

443. Altering number directors. 438. Guarantee fund, of what 445. Stock limitations. consists.

446. Premiums, how paid. 439. Capital deficiency.

450. Life insurance policy provi440. Fixed capital to be filed.

sions. 441. Guarantee notes generally. 452. Dividends generally.

437. Every corporation formed for the purpose of mutual insurance on the lives or health of persons, or against accidents to persons for life or any fixed period of time, or to purchase and sell annuities, must have a capital stock of not less than two hundred thousand dollars. It must not make any insurance upon any risk or transact any other business as a corporation until its capital stock is fully paid up in cash, nor until it has also obtained a fund, to be known as a "guarantee fund,” of not less than two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, as is hereinafter provided. If more than the requisite amount is subscribed, the stock must be distributed pro rata among the subscribers. Any subscription may be rejected by the board of directors or the committee thereof, either as to the whole or any part thereof, and must be, so far as rejected, without effect, nothing in this section shall be deemed to contravene any of the provisions of section four hundred and fifty-one. 1905–183.

438. The guarantee fund mentioned in the preceding section must consist of the promissory notes of solvent parties, approved by the board of directors and by each other, payable to the corporation or its order, and at such times, in such modes, and in such sums, with or without interest, and conformable in all other respects to such requirements as the board of directors prescribe; but the amount of the notes given by any one person must not exceed in the whole the sum of five thousand dollars, exclusive of interest. Such notes must be payable absolutely and at the option of the corporation; they must

be negotiable, and may be indorsed and transferred, or converted into cash, or otherwise dealt with by the corporation, at its discretion, without reference to any contingency of losses or expenses. Such notes, or the proceeds thereof, must remain with the corporation as a fund for the better security of persons dealing with it, and constitute the assets of the corporation, liable for all its debts, obligations, and indebtedness next after its assets from premiums and other sources, exclusive of capital stock, until the net earnings, over and above its expenses, losses, and liabilities, shall have accumulated in cash, or securities in which the net earnings have been invested, to a sum which, with the capital stock, is equal to the aggregate of the original amounts of the guarantee fund and of the capital stock.

439. The sum accumulated as provided in the preceding section. together with the capital stock, shall become and remain the fixed capital of the corporation, not subject to division among the stockholders or parties dealing with it, or to be expended in any manner otherwise than may be required in payment of the corporation's, debts and actual expenses, until the business of the corporation is closed, its debts paid, and its outstanding policies and obligations of every kind canceled or provided for: and if from any cause a deficiency at any time occurs in such fixed capital, no further division of profits must take place until such deficiency has been made up.

440. Whenever the fixed capital of the corporation is obtained as hereinbefore provided, the president of the corporation and its actuary, or its secretary, if there is no actuary, must make a declaration in writing, sworn to before some notary public, of the amount of such fixed capital, and of the particular kinds of property composing the same, with the nature and amount of each kind, which must be filed with the original articles of incorporation, and a copy, certified by the county clerk, must be published for at least four successive weeks, in a newspaper published in the county where the principal business of the corporation is situated. Upon the filing of such declaration the guarantee fund is discharged of its obligations, and all notes of the fund remaining in the control of the corporation, and not affected by any lien thereon, or claim of that nature, must be surrendered by it to the makers thereof, respectively, or other parties entitled to receive the same.

441. Until the guarantee fund is discharged from its obligations, as provided in the preceding section, no note must be withdrawn from the fund, unless another note of equal solvency is substituted therefor, with the approval of the board of directors. The corporation

st allow a commission, not exceeding five per cent per annum, on all such guarantee notes while outstanding, and also interest on all moneys paid on such notes by the parties liable thereon, at the rate of twelve per cent per annum, payable half-yearly until repaid by the corporation, unless the current rate of interest is different from this amount, in which case the rate payable may, from time to time, at intervals of not less than one year, be increased or reduced by the board of directors, so as to conform to the current rate. 1873–210.

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442. After the filing of the declaration of the fixed capital, as in this article provided, the holders of policies of life insurance for the term of life, on which the premiums are not in default, may yote at the election of directors, and have one vote for each one thousand dollars insured by their policies, respectively.

443. The number of directors specified in the articles of incorporation may be altered from time to time during the existence of the corporation by resolution, at the annual meeting of a majority of those entitled to vote at the election of directors, but the number must never be reduced below five.

445. The corporation may, by its by-laws, limit the number of shares which may be held by any one person, and make such other provisions for the protection of the stockholders and the better security of those dealing with it as to a majority of the stockholders may seem proper, not inconsistent with the provisions of this title or part.

446. All premiums must be payable wholly in cash, or one half or a greater proportion in cash, and the remainder in promissory notes bearing interest, as may be provided for by the by-laws. Agreements and policies of insurance made by the corporation may be upon the basis of full or partial participation in the profits, or without any participation therein, as may be provided by the by-laws and agreed between the parties.

450. Every contract or policy of life insurance hereinafter made by any person or corporation, with and upon the life of a resident of this state, and delivered within this state, shall provide, in event of default of any premium payment after three full annual premiums shall have been paid on such policy, that without any action on the part of the insured, the net value of such policy based upon the reserve basis used in computing the premiums and values thereunder (the policy to specify the mortality table and rate of interest so adopted) which net value shall be at least equal to its entire net reserve at the date of default, including that of dividend additions, if any, based upon a standard not lower than the American experience tables of mortality with interest at three and one half per cent yearly, less a surrender charge of not more than two and one half per cent of the face amount of the policy and of any existing dividend additions thereto and less any indebtedness to the company on or secured by the policy, shall be applied as a single premium to the purchase of one of the following stipulated forms of insurance:

First-Paid-up non-participating term insurance in the amount of the face of the policy, plus dividend additions, if any, for such a period as the net value outlined above will purchase at the net single premium, at the attained age of the insured at the time of the lapse, based upon the reserve basis described in the policy; provided, however, that under endowment contracts the term shall not extend beyond the endowment period named in the original contract, and the excess value, if any, shall be applied as a net single premium to purchase in the same manner paid-up pure endowment insurance, payable at the end of the endowment period named in the contract if the insured be then living, or,

Second-Paid-up non-participating term insurance in the amount of the face of the policy, plus dividend additions, if any, and less any outstanding indebtedness, for such a period as the net value outlined above will purchase at the net single premium, at the attained age of the insured, based upon the reserve basis described in the policy, provided, however, that under endowment contracts the term shall not extend beyond the endowment period named in the original contract, and the excess value, if any, shall be applied as a net single premium to purchase in the same manner paid-up pure endowment insurance, payable at the end of the endowment period named in the contract if the insured be then living, or, .

Third-Paid-up non-participating insurance payable at the time and on the conditions named in the policy for such an amount as the net value outlined above will purchase at the net single premium, at the

attained age of the insured, based upon the reserve basis described in the policy.

Provided, however, that the policy may be surrendered to the companv at its home office, upon due application by the legal owner thereof, within one month after date of premium default, for a specified cash value which shall be at least equal to the sum which would be otherwise available for the purchase of the automatic form of insurance provided therein; and provided, further, that the company may defer payment of such cash value for not more than six months after application therefor is made.

No agreement between the company and the policy-holder or applicant for insurance contrary to the foregoing shall be held to waive any of the provisions provided above.

Any life insurance policy issued upon the life of a resident of this state, and delivered within this state, which does not contain an automatic nonforfeiture value in conformity with the foregoing shall be construed as granting non-participating term insurance, as provided in paragraph first of this section, and such a benefit shall be read into the contract.

The provisions of this section shall not apply to annuities, industrial policies or to term contracts issued for periods of twenty years or less. 1911—1272.

452. No corporation formed under the laws of this state, and transacting life insurance business, must make any dividends, except from profits remaining on hand after retaining unimpaired:

1. The entire capital stock;

2. A sum sufficient to pay all losses reported or in course of settlement, and all liabilities for expenses and taxes;

3. A sum sufficient to re-insure all outstanding policies, as ascertained and determined upon the basis of the American experience table of mortality, and interest at the rate of four and one half per cent per annum. 1905-571.

CHAPTER IV.

Mutual Benefit and Life Association. Section

Section 452a. Formation of the associa- 453. Levy of Assessments. tion. .

laws.

By

452a. Associations of any number of persons may be formed for the purpose of paying the nominee of any member a sum, upon the death of the member, not exceeding three dollars for each member of the association, but not exceeding, in any case, the sum of three thousand dollars. Such association may be formed by filing articles of incorporation in the office of the clerk of the county in which the principal place of business is situated and a certified copy of such articles of incorporation, duly certified by the county clerk, in the office of the secretary of state. Such articles must state the name of the corporation, its general purposes, its principal place of business, its term of existence, not exceeding fifty years and the names and residences of the directors selected or appointed to serve for the first year. The articles of incorporation must be signed by not less than twenty-five members of such association and must be acknowledged by them as required by section two hundred and ninety-two. 1913–12.

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