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unlawful business, or that it is not carrying out its terms of contract, or that it cannot, within three months from the date of notice of default, pay its obligations, he must cite the president, secretary, manager or general agent of the corporation, or all of them, to appear before him, stating the time and place, to show cause why the authority of the corporation to do business should not be revoked, and if cause is not shown, then he must report the facts to the attorney-general of the state, who must commence proceedings in the proper court to restrain the corporation from doing any further business. 1905—421.

453m. No policy or certificate issued by any corporation or association doing business under the provisions of this chapter, lapses for the non-payment of any assessments, dues, or premiums, unless the corporation or association has first mailed to the insured under such policy or certificate at his or her last given post office address, a not setting forth the amount to be paid, and the time the same is due and payable; and such notice must be mailed at least fifteen days before the assessment is due; provided that such corporations doing business under this chapter as collect specific amounts at specific dates, as contained in the contract, are not compelled to send such notices; and an affidavit made by the officer, book-keeper, or clerk of any such corporation having charge of the mailing of notices, setting forth the facts as they appear on the records in the office of the said corporation, showing that such notice was mailed and the date of mailing, is conclusive evidence of the mailing of such notice. 1905—421.

453n. The fees for filing statements, certificates, or other documents required by this chapter, or for any service or act of the insurance commissioner, and the penalties for any violation of this chapter, must, except as otherwise provided herein, be the same as provided in the laws of this state relating to life insurance companies, and must be disposed of as provided by such laws. 1905–422.

453o. For all lawful expenses under this chapter, or by reason of any of its provisions, in the prosecution of any suit or proceeding, or otherwise, for the enforcement of the provisions of this chapter, the insurance commissioner must present bills, duly certified by him, and accompanied with vouchers, to the state board of examiners, who may allow the same, and direct payment thereof to be made; and the state controller must draw warrants therefor on the state treasurer for the payment of the same to the insurance commissioner, out of the general fund, in addition to the ordinary contingent expense. 1905—422.

453p. The provisions of this chapter do not apply to secret or fraternal societies, lodges, or councils, which conduct their business and secure membership on the lodge system exclusively, having ritualistic work and ceremonies in their societies, lodges, or councils, nor to any mutual or benefit association organized or formed and composed of members of any such society, lodge, or council exclusively. 1905—422.

CHAPTER VII.

Title Insurance Corporations

Section

Section 453s. Public supervision.

453y. Must have commissioners' 453t. General investment assets.

certificate. 453u. Surplus fund.

453z. Loans forbidden officers, 453v. Title policy, generally.

employees. 453w. Extra powers. 453x. Combined title and trust

company.

453s. Every title insurance company shall be subject to and shall comply with all the requirements of the insurance laws and the rules and regulations of the insurance department of this state, and the insurance commissioner shall have the same power and authority regarding any such corporation that he may exercise in relation to other insurance corporations organized under the laws of this state, including the right to examine and inspect the financial condition and affairs of such company relating to the insurance business of such company, and to compel compliance with the provisions of law governing any such corporation. 1913—490.

453t. Every title insurance company, before issuing any guarantee or policy of insurance, shall deposit with the state treasurer as herein provided, as a "guarantee fund” for the security and protection of the holders of, or beneficiaries under, such guarantees or policies of insurance, one hundred thousand dollars. Any such deposit may be made either in lawful money of the United States or in any of the securities specified in subdivisions one, two, three, four and five of section four hundred twenty-one of this code. Said money or securities shall be first approved by the insurance commissioner, and upon his written order, deposited with the state treasurer for the purpose herein specified, and said treasurer shall give his receipt therefor, and thereafter, subject to the provisions of this chapter, shall hold such deposits of money or securities for the security and protection of the holders of, or beneficiaries under, any guarantee or policy of insurance issued by such company, and the state shall be responsible for the custody and safe return of any money or securities so deposited. Said securities or money so deposited may, with the approval of the insurance commissioner, be withdrawn or exchanged from time to time for other like securities, or lawful money, receivable as aforesaid. So long as the company so depositing said money or securities shall continue solvent, it shall have the right and shall be permitted by the state treasurer to receive the interest and dividends on any securities so deposited. Said securities and money shall be subject to sale and transfer, and to the disposal of the proceeds thereof by said state treasurer only on the order of a court of competent jurisdiction and for the security and protection of the holders of such guarantees and policies of insurance. When any part of the securities so deposited with the state treasurer consists of notes or bonds secured by mortgage or deed of trust, or in loans upon real property secured by mortgage or deed of trust, such mortgages or deeds of trust shall be accompanied by evidence of title issued by a person, company, or corporation designated or approved by the insurance commissioner and authorized by law or otherwise found by the insurance commissioner to be competent to issue such evidence of title. Such evidence of title shall consist either of a full abstract of title, a full certificate of title, or a guarantee or policy of title insurance, and such evidence of title shall be examined and approved by or under the direction of the insurance commissioner. The value of the property covered by each such mortgage or deed of trust shall be appraised by one or more appraisers selected or approved by the insurance commissioner. The appraisers shall be residents of the county in which the property or some part thereof is situated. The reasonable cost of examining such evidence of title and of making such appraisement, shall be paid by the title insurance company making such deposit, and shall not exceed twenty dollars for examining the title to the property covered by each mortgage or deed of trust, nor five dollars for each appraiser, not exceeding two, besides the necessary expenses of such appraisers; provided, that as to any part of the securities so deposited with the state treasurer which consists of notes or bonds secured by mortgage or deed of trust, payment of which is guaranteed by a policy of mortgage insurance, or of mortgage participation certificates, issued by a mortgage insurance company in accordance with the provisions of Chapter VIII, of title II of part IV of division first of the Civil Code, such evidence of title need not be required. Any such corporation organized under the laws of this state and having a capital stock paid in, in cash, of more than one hundred thousand dollars, after depositing said guarantee fund as above provided, may invest an amount not exceeding fifty percent of its subscribed capital stock in the preparation and purchase of materials or plant necessary to enable it to engage in such title insurance business; and such materials or plant shall be deemed an asset valued at the actual cost thereof, in all statements and proceedings required by law for the ascertainment and determination of the condition of such corporation, or at such lesser value as may be estimated by such corporation in any such statement or proceeding, or omitted entirely therefrom. 1915—1265.

453u. Every title insurance company shall annually set apart a sum equal to ten percent of its premiums collected during the year, which sums shall be allowed to accumulate until a fund shall have been created equal in amount to twenty-five percent of the subscribed capital stock of such corporation. Such fund shall be maintained as a further security to holders of the guaranties and policies of insurance issued by such corporation and shall be know

ation and shall be known as the “Title insurance surplus fund”; and if at any time such fund shall be impaired

n siped by reason of a loss, the amount by which it may be impaired shall be restored in the manner hereinabove provided for its accumulation. The reporting of a loss shall be deemed an impairment of such fund for the purposes of this section. Such corporation must not make any dividends except from profits remaining on hand after retaining unimpaired:

1. The entire subscribed capital stock.

2. The amount set apart as a surplus fund under the provisions of this section.

3. A sum sufficient to pay all liabilities for expenses and taxes, and all losses reported or in course of settlement, without impairment of the title insurance surplus fund required to be set apart as hereinabove provided. 1913—491.

453v. Any written contract or instrument purporting to show the title to real property, or furnish information relative thereto, which shall in express terms purport to insure or guarantee such title or the correctness of such information, shall be deemed a policy of title insurance. 1913—491.

453w. Every title insurance company organized under the laws of this state shall also have power to guarantee or insure the identity, due execution, and validity of any note or bond secured by mortga'

or trust deed, and the identity, due execution and validity and recording of any such mortgage or trust deed, and the identity, due execution and validity of bonds, notes or other evidence of indebtedness issued by this state, or by any county, city and county, city, school district, irrigation district, or other municipality or district therein, or by any private or p u blic corporation, and to act as registrar or transfer agent of this state, or of any county, city and county, city. school district, irrigation district, or other municipality or district therein, or of any private or public corporation, and to transfer or countersign any such bonds, notes, or other evidence of indebtedness and to transfer and countersign certificates of stock of any private or public corporation. 1913—491.

453x. Any title insurance corporation incorporated under the general incorporation laws of this state, authorized by its articles of incorporation to act as executor, administrator, guardian, assignee, receiver, depositary, agent or trustee, or to do a general trust business, and having a capital of not less than three hundred thousand dollars actually paid in. in cash. may also do business as a trust company. and maintain a trust department as well as a title insurance department, on compliance with the following conditions.

1. When such title insurance company desires to do such a departmental business, it shall first obtain the consent of both the superintendent of banks and of the insurance commissioner, and in its application for such consent, must file a statement making a segregation of its capital and surplus for each such department. At least two hundred thousand dollars of its capital must be apportioned by such statement to its trust department. The respective portions of such capital and surplus, when such apportionment has been approved by the superintendent of banks and by the insurance commissioner, shall be considered and treated as the separate capital and surplus of each such department respectively, as if each such department was a separate business.

2. Such company, as to its title insurance department, shall be subject to and shall comply with all the requirements of the insurance laws and the rules and regulations of the insurance department of this state, and may invest its capital apportioned to its title insurance department and the accumulations therefrom, in the securities in which the capital and accumulations of insurance companies are allowed by the laws of this state to be invested, including the materials and plant necessary to enable it to engage in the title insurance business, as provided in this chapter.

3. Such company, as to its trust department, shall be subject to and shall comply with all the requirements of the banking laws and rules and regulations of the state banking department of this state, and may invest its capital apportioned to its trust department, and the accumulations therefrom, and trust funds received by it, in accordance with the laws of this state relative to the investment of funds of trust companies. 1913-492.

453y. No corporation shall make any contract or issue any policy of guarantee or insurance affecting titles to real estate, or engage in the business of a title insurance company, until it has obtained from the insurance commissioner his certificate that such company has complied with the provisions of this chapter and is duly authorized to do business as such title insurance company. 1915—1266.

453z. No loan shall be made by any title insurance company, directly or indirectly, to any of its officers or directors or employees or to any member of the family of any officer or director. Any officer director, agent, or employee of any such company who knowingly

consents to any violation of the terms or provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. 1913—493.

CHAPTER VIII.

Mortgage Insurance Section

Section 453aa. Mortgage insurance com- 453dd. Securities that may be

panies subject to insurance guaranteed.

laws and commissioner. 453ee. Investments legal for trust 453bb. Mortgage insurance gener

funds. ally.

453ff. Certificate of insurance 453cc. Capital stock securities, commissioner required. generally.

453gg. Reports to commissioner. 453aa. Every mortgage insurance company shall be subject to and shall comply with all the requirements of the laws of this state made applicable to insurance companies generally and the rules and regulations of the insurance department of this state, excepting in so far as said laws, rules or regulations may be inconsistent with the other provisions in this chapter contained; and the insurance commissioner shall have the same power and authority over such company that he may exercise in relation to other insurance companies, including the right to examine and inspect the financial condition and affairs of such company relating to the business of such company, and to compel compliance with the provisions of law governing any such company. 1915—1539.

453bb. The term “mortgage insurance company” shall include every association, corporation, firm or person who shall engage as a business in making and issuing policies of mortgage insurance.

The term “security” whenever used in this chapter, without a different meaning being specified or made apparent, shall be construed to refer to and include within its meaning a note or notes, or bond or bonds, together with the mortgage or deed of trust securing the same, which evidence a debt secured by a first lien on a marketable title in fee to real estate, or to real estate with improvements thereon.

Any contract made and issued by a mortgage insurance company, which purports to guarantee or insure against loss on, or to guarantee the payment of, within a specified time, the whole, or any part, of the principal, interest or other sums agreed to be paid under the terms of any security, or other sums secured under the terms of any security, shall be deemed, and is hereby designated, a “policy of mortgage insurance.”

A policy of mortgage insurance which evidences the ownership by the insured of an undivided or other partial share or interest, or the right to participate to a specified extent in a security, or in a group consisting of several securities, and purports to guarantee the payment of such securities, or the payment of such undivided or other partial share or interest therein, or the amount of such participation, may be referred to as, and is hereby designated, a “mortgage participation certificate.”

A policy of mortgage insurance, other than a mortgage participation certificate, which covers and refers to the entire indebtedness evidenced by a security, may be referred to as, and is hereby designated an “entire mortgage guaranty.” 1915—1539.

453cc. No mortgage insurance company shall engage in business,

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