Economic Impact of Petroleum Shortages: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on International Economics of ..., 931, December 11, 12, and 13, 1973

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144 페이지 - No State may use or encourage the use of economic, political or any other type of measures to coerce another State in order to obtain from it the subordination of the exercise of its sovereign rights and to secure from it advantages of any kind.
146 페이지 - Agreement shall be construed to prevent the adoption or enforcement by any contracting party of measures: [....] (b) necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health; [....] (g) relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources if such measures are made effective in conjunction with restrictions on domestic production or consumption.
146 페이지 - Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed to prevent any Party from taking any action or not disclosing any information which it considers necessary for the protection of its essential security interests...
146 페이지 - Subject to the requirement that such measures are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where the same conditions prevail, or a disguised restriction on international trade...
146 페이지 - Agreement relating to non-discrimination; (j) essential to the acquisition or distribution of products in general or local short supply; Provided that any such measures shall be consistent with the principle that all contracting parties are entitled to an equitable share of the international supply of such products...
143 페이지 - ... that the United States itself has been one of the worst offenders in using trade controls in ways which have adversely affected other countries. As a result of congressional pressures, the President was given the authority to cut off aid to countries trading with Cuba or North Vietnam. Last summer we unilaterally cut off exports of soybeans and other agricultural products to our trading partners in Europe at the very time we were pressing them to modify policies of agricultural self-sufficiency...
144 페이지 - OECD or some other multilateral forum. In extreme situations, multilateral sanctions may even have to be applied to countries that are not GATT members, on the theory that their violation of broadly agreed community standards are gravely threatening community interests. If we can propose cutting off air service to countries that give refuge to hijackers, if we can contemplate denying port facilities to nations that pollute the oceans with their tankers, we should certainly explore the possibility...
146 페이지 - Since the UN Charter, countries are no longer permitted to use force to back up their economic claims. Quite apart from legal prohibition, such actions now entail costs and risks that make them politically undesirable. But if the Atlantic Charter concept of equal access to raw materials cannot be guaranteed by the use of force, we need to consider guaranteeing it in some other way.
148 페이지 - The first is that in most cases a threat of reprisals against raw material cut-offs will have little practical significance unless we have our OECD partners with us. The second is that unilateral US action will look to others as a destructive act of nationalism unless it is related to multilateral rules and multilateral procedures. The third is that such an effort of "collective economic security...
26 페이지 - Such advice may seem costly in the short run, but in the long run it may not only save you money but also give you peace of mind.

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