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gicarum.” 2. “ Historia animalium,” Francfort, 1671, 12mo; but the first edition was published at Wittemberg, 1616, 8vo, under the title “ Historia animalium sacra.” It was afterwards reprinted often with improvements, the Jast of which editions appeared at Francfort, 1712, 4 vols. 4to. There is also an English translation of the original work, Lond. 1674, 8vo. 3. “ Schola sacrificiorum patriarehalium sacra, hoc est, assertio satisfactionis a Domino nostro J. C. pro peccatis totius mundi præstitæ, in sacrificiorum veterum typis fundatæ, et recentibus Arianis et Photivianis oppositæ,” Wittemberg, 1654, 4to. This has been sometimes sold in two parts; the one entitled "4 Schola sacrificiorum,” and the other “ Assertio satisfactionis, but it is the same work. 4.:“ Tractatus theologicus de interpretatione scripturarum maxime legitima, duabus constans regulis, a Luthero ad papatus Romani destructionem in versione Bibliorum Germanica usitatis, et 152 exemplis elucidatus,” Wittemberg, 1634, 4to. Of this there have been several editions. Frantzius is also the author of various dissertations and disputations on subjects of theological controversy.'

FRASSEN (CLAUDIUS), a learned Franciscan, was born at Peronne in 1620, and admitted doctor of the Sorbonne in 1662. He afterwards taught theology in his convent, was elected definitor-general of the whole Franciscan order in 1682, and acquired great reputation by his writings, and the various commissions he was entrusted with. He died February 26, 1711, at Paris. His most esteemed works are, “ A System of Divinity,” Paris, 1672, 4 vols. fol.; Dissertations on the Bible, entitled “ Disquisitiones Biblicæ," 2 vols. Ató.; the best edition of the first volume is that of Paris, 1711, but the work has been much enlarged, and reprinted at Lucca, 1764, 2 vols. folio. He also published a “System of Philosophy," which has gone through several editions. ?

FRAUNCE (ABRAHAM), an English versifier in queen Elizabeth's time, whose works are still an object of some curiosity, was educated at the expence of sir Philip Sydney at St. John's college, Cambridge, where he took his master's degree, and afterwards went to Gray's-Inn, where he remated till he was called to the bar of the court of the Marches in Wales. :: In August 1590, he was recommended by Henry earl of Pembroke, to lord treasurer Burleigh,

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as a man in every respect qualified for the place of her majesty's solicitor in that court, but his history cannot be traced any farther. He wrote, 1. “The Lamentations of Amintas for the death of Phillis, in English hexameters," London, 1587, 4to. 2. “ The countess of Pembroke's Ivy-church and Emanuel,” in English bexame: ters, London, 1591. In this is included a translation of Tasso's Aminta. At the end of the Ivy-church is also a translation of Virgil's Alexis into English bexameters, verse for verse, which he calls “ The Lamentations of Corydon," &c. Fraunce also translated the beginning of “ Heliodorus's Ethiopics," Lond. 1591, 8vo. and wrote a book with the title of “ The Lawier's Logike, exemplifying the precepts of Logike by the practice of the Common Lawe." of this last, as well as of his “ Sheapheardes Logike," a MS., an account is givenin the “ Bibliographer," and a. few particulars of the author's other writings may be found in our authorities.'

FREART (ROLAND), sieur de CHAMBRAI, under which name he is classed in some biographical works, was a learned architect of the seventeenth century, and a native of Chambrai. He was connected by relationship, as well as love of the art, with Sublet des Noyers, secretary of state and superintendant of the buildings under Louis XIII. About 1640, Freart was sent, with one of his brothers, to Italy, on an important mission to the pope, and he was also ordered to collect antiquities, &c. and engage the ablest artists to reside in France. Among the latter he brought Poussin to Paris. Freart died in 1676.

He pub. lished a French translation of Da Vinci on painting, Paris, 1651, fol. and another of Palladio's Architecture, Paris, 1650. Of this a fine edition was printed by Nicolas du Bois at the Hague in 1726, with engravings by Picart, but he has strangely divided the translator into two persons, asserting that Freart published one edition of Palladia, and the sieur de Chambrai another. But the work by which Freart is best known is his “ Parallele de l'architecture antique avec la moderne,” Paris, 1650, fol. reprinted by Erard in 1702. · Our celebrated countryman Evelyn transa lated this work, as already noticed in his article (vol. XIII. p. 435). It was much admired in France, and is still in esteen with artists.'

'Philips's Theatrum, edit. 1900.- Bibliographer, vol. II.-Tanner.-War. ton's Hist. of Poetry.--Todd's Life of Spenser, p. xv.

2 Moreri, appendix, vol. X. ---Biog. Universelle in art. Chambrai.

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FREDEGARIUS, called the scholastic, the earliest French historian except Gregory of Tours, fourished in the seventh century, and was living in 658. By order of Childebrand, brother of Charles Martel, he wrote a chronicle, which extends as far as the year 641. His style is barbaroas, his arrangement defective, and his whole narrative too concise and rapid, but he is the only original historian of a part of that period. His chronicle is to be found in the collection of French bistorians, published by Duchesne and Bouquet.

FREDERIC II. surnamed the Great, the third king of Prussia, son of Frederic William I. was born Jan. 24, 1712, and educated in some measure in adversity; for when he began to grow up, and discovered talents for poetry, music, and the fine arts in general, his father, fearing lest this taste should seduce him from studies more necessary to him as a king, opposed his inclinations, and treated him with considerable harshness. In 1730, when the prince was cighteen, this disagreement broke out; he endeavoured to escape, was discovered, and thrown into prison, and Kat, a young officer who was to have attended his flight, was executed before his eyes. His marriage in 1733, with the princess of Brunswick Wolfenbuttel, restored at least apparent harmony in the family. But in his forced retirement, young Frederic bad eagerly cultivated his favourite sciences, which continued to.divert bis cares in the most stormy and anxious periods of his life. He ascended the throne in May 1740, and almost immediately displayed his ambitious and military dispositions, by demanding Silesia from Maria Theresa, heiress of the emperor Charles VI. in his Austrian and Hungarian dominions, and pursuing his claim by force of arms. The emperor died October 20, 1740, and Lower Silesia had submitted to Frederic in November 1741. France stepped forward to support his pretensions; but in June 1742, he had signed a treaty at Breslaw, with the queen of Hungary, which left him in possession of Silesia and the county of Glatz. In the spring of 1744, either suspecting that the treaty of Breslaw would be broken, or moved again by ambition, he took arms under pretence of supporting the election of the emperor Charles VII. and declared war against Maria Theresa, who refused to acknowledge that

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prince. The war was continued with various success, but on the whole very gloriously for Frederic, till the latter end of 1745. It was concluded by a treaty signed at Dresden on Christmas day, by which the court of Vienna. left him in possession of Upper and Lower Silesia (excepting some districts, and the whole county of Glatz) on con-. . dition that he should acknowledge Francis I. of Lorraine as emperor.

Io 1755, the contest between England and France, concerning their American possessions, led those powers to seek allies. England made alliance with Prussia, and France with Austria. The boldness and decision of Frederick's character were now remarkably displayed. Suspecting a design against him among the continental pow. ers, and having even gained intelligence of a secret treaty in which the king of Poland, elector of Saxony, was concerned, he published a strong manifesto, and marched at once with a powerful army into Saxony. But the states of the empire, not satisfied with the reasons he alleged, declared war against him, as a disturber of the public peace. In 1757, he found himself obliged to contend at once with Russia, the German empire, the house of Austria, Saxony, Sweden, and France. The numerous armies of his enemies overran his whole dominions; yet his activity and courage were ready in every quarter to give them battle. He was defeated by the Russians, had gained a battle against the Austrians, and had lost another in Bohemia, by the 18th of June, 1757. But on the 5th of November the same year, he met the Austrians and the French at Rosbach, on the frontiers of Saxony, and repaired his former losses by a signal victory. His genius had invented a new species of military exercise, and bis enemies probably owed their defeat to their imperfect attempts to initate what his soldiers had completely learned. Within a month he bad gained another victory over the. Austrians near Breslaw, in consequence of which he took that city, with 15,000 prisoners, and recovered all Silesia. Throughout the war, with an ability almost incredible, he gained so many advantages, and recovered with such promptitude the losses he sustained, that the prodigious force combined against him was rendered ineffectual. Peace was at length concluded, Feb. 15, 1763, when the possession of Silesia was confirmed to him, and he, on his part, promised bis suffrage to the election of Joseph, son

of the emperor, as king of the Romans, This was the most splendid military period of his life.

The year 1772 was remarkable for giving a proof of the insecurity of a small country situated between powerful neighbours, in the seizure of considerable territories belonging to Poland, of which the king of Prussia had his share with Austria and Russia. The remainder of his reign, with very little exception, was devoted to the arts of peace ;

and his attention was diligently employed to give bis subjects every advantage, consistent with a despotic government, of just laws, improving commerce, and the cultivation of the arts. Whatever were his errors in opinion or practice, which were both of the worst kind, or his offences against other powers, he sought and obtained the attachment of his subjects, by exemplary beneficence, and many truly royal virtues, mixed, however, with acts of extraordinary caprice and cruelty. He died August 17, 1786, in the seventy-fifth year of his age.

Frederic, like Cæsar, united the talents of a writer with those of a warrior. He wrote in French, and was a toJerable poet; but his abilities are more displayed in history. His poem on the art of war is, however, valuable, both from his deep knowledge of the subject, and the traits of genius it displays. His works compose altogether nineteen volumes, 8vo. His poetical compositions, which, excepting his poem on the Art of War, consist chiefly of odes and epistles, passed through many editions under the title of “Oeuvres meleés du Philosophe de Sans Souci." But all the works published in his life, both in prose and verse, were collected in four vols. 8vo, in 1790, under the title of “ Oeuvres primitives de Frederic II. Roi de Prusse, ou collection des ouvrages qu'il publia pendant son regne.” Of this publication, the first volume contains his “ AntiMachiavel; military instructions for the general of his army; and his correspondence with M. de la Motte Fouquer.” The second, his “ Memoirs of the House of Brandenburgh.” In the third volume are his poems; and in the fourth, a variety of pieces in prose, philosophical, moral, historical, critical, and literary; particularly “Reflections on the military talents and character of Charles XII. king of Sweden; a discourse on war ; letters on edu. çation, and on the love of our country; and a discourse on German literature.” His posthumous works had been published still earlier. They appeared at Berlin in 1788, in

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