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present lord Grenville, who has a house in that neighbourhood.

There is little occasion to quote authorities in praise of Dr. Freind, whose works are a lasting testimony of his uncommon abilities in his profession. He was not only venerated in this country, but on the continent, by Hoffman, Helvetius, Hecquet, and Boerhaave. His character is perhaps drawn with most fidelity and elegance by Dr. Edward Wilmot in the Harveian oration of 1735.'

FREIND (Robert), eldest brother of the preceding, was born in 1667, and admitted in 1680 at Westminster school, whence he was elected to Christ Church, Oxford, in 1686. While a student there he wrote some good verses on the inauguration of king William and queen Mary, which were printed in the Oxford collection. In the celebrated dispute between Bentley and Boyle, Mr. Freind was a warm partizan for the honour of his college, but was eventually more lucky with Bentley than his brother, Dr. John. A neice of our author's was married to a son of Dr. Bentley, who, after that event, conceived a better opinion of the Christ Church men, and declared that “ Freind had more good learning in him than ever he bad imagined.” Mr. Freind proceeded M. A. June 1, 1693, became second master of Westminster school in 1699, and accumulated the degrees of B. and D. D. July 7, 1709. In 1711 he published a sermon preached before the house of commons, Jan. 30, 1710-11, and in the same year he succeeded Duke, the poet, in the valuable living of Witney, in Oxfordshire; became head master of Westminster school, and is said either to have drawn up, or to have revised the preamble to the earl of Oxford's patent of peerage.

In March 1723, the day after his brother, Dr. John, was committed to the Tower, he caused much speculation in Westminster school and its vicinity, by giving for a theme, “ Frater, ne desere Fratrem.” In 1724 he published Cicero's “ Orator," and in 1728 Mr. Bowver, the celebrated printer, was indebted to him for the Westminster verses on the coronation of George II. In April 1729, Dr. Freind obtained a canonry of Windsor, which in 1731 he exchanged for a prebend of Westminster, and in 1733 he quitted Westminster school. In 1734 he was desirous of resigning Witgey to his son (afterwards dean of Canter. Bing. Brit.-Ward's Gresham Professors.-Nichols's Atterbury, and Bowyer,

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bury); but could not do it without the permission of bishop Hoadly, which he had little reason to expect. On application, however, to that prelate, through queen Caroline and lady Sundon, he received this laconic answer, “ If Dr. Freind can ask it, I can grant it.” Dr. Freind's letters to lady Sundon are still existing, and prove that he had as little scruple in asking, as bisbop Hoadly had in Aattering a lady, who, by her influence with queen Caroline, became for a considerable time the sole arbitress of churchpreferments. In 1744 Dr. Freiud resigned his stall at Westminster in favour of his son, and died August 9, 1751. By Jane his wife, one of the two daughters of Dr. Samuel Delangle, a prebendary of Westminster, he had two sons, Charles, who died in 1736, and William, his successor at Witney, and afterwards dean of Canterbury.

Dr. Freind wrote a good deal of poetry, Latin and English, the former thought preferable. His various pieces are inserted in Mr. Nichols's collection. He was a man of unquestionable learning, but held in less estimation than his brother the physician, on the score of personal character. His son, Dr. William Freind, dean of Canterbury, some particulars of whom may be found in our authority, died in 1766.

FREINSHEMIUS (John), a learned classical editor, was born in 1608, in the city of Ulm in Swabia, and after studying law in the universities of Marpurg and Giessen, came to Strasburgh, where some poetical attempts in the German language recommended him to Matthias Bernegger, who made him his librarian. With this advantage, he applied to those classical pursuits on wbich his fame rests. He came afterwards to France, where he was admitted among the king's interpreters, but did not remain here above three years, returning in 1637 to Strasburgh, where he married the daughter of his patron Bernegger. The university of Upsal making him very liberal ofers, he accepted the professorship of eloqueyce, and filled that office for five years. Queen Christina then invited him to her court, appointed him her librarian and historiographer, with 2000 crowns salary, and a table; but the air of the country not agreeing with him, he was obliged to quit this profitable situation in 1655, and return home. Freinshemius was a man of extensive learning; for, besides Latin,

Nichols's Bowyer.-Todd's Deans of Canterbury.-Nichols's Poems,

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Greek, and Hebrew, he was familiar with almost all the living languages of Europe, and his fame induced the elector Palatine, when he projected the restoration of the university of Heidelberg, to appoint him honorary professor, and electoral counsellor. He accordingly removed with bis family to Heidelberg in 1656, and died there in 1660.

Freinshemius rendered many services to the republic of letters, first by his edition of Florus, whom he corrected and explained very happily. His father-in-law, Bernegger, engaged him in this work; and was afterwards surprised at the great penetration and judgment which Freinshemius bad shewn in discovering what had escaped all the learned before him. This was first published when he was a very young man, in 1632, 8vo, and bis notes have been printed entire in the best editions of this author. So have his notes upon Tacitus; which, though short, are very judicious, relating to such particulars as Lipsius and the other critics either knew not or omitted. This was published in 1638 and 1664, with an admirable index.

But the works by which he has been most distinguished, are his famous supplements to Quintus Curtius and Livy. There was a supplement, indeed, to Quintus Curtius before ; but as that was nothing more than a miserable compilation from Justin and Arrian, without either judgment or order, Freinshemius thought it expedient to draw up a pew one. For this purpose be consulted every author, Greek and Latin, ancient and modern, which could be of the least use, and executed his task so much to the approbation and satisfaction of the public, that they almost ceased to deplore the loss of the two first books of this entertaining historian. His edition appeared at Strasburgh, 1640, 2 vols. Some, however, have still more admired his supplement to Livy, which is composed with equal judgment and learning, and must have been a Herculean labour. Le Clerc has printed this supplement with his inaccurate edition of Livy at Amsterdam, 1710. He de clares the whole to be very ingenious and learned, but thinks that there is most purity and elegance in the first ten books of it; some speeches in which are incomparable. The fact is, that these ten books were published in the author's life time; the others after his death. Besides what has been mentioned above, Freinshemius wrote notes

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upon Phædrus, inserted in Holstius's edit. Amst. 1664, and other philological performances.'

FREIRE DE ANDRADA (HYACINTHE), an elegant Portuguese writer in prose and verse, was born in 1597, at Beja in Portugal, and became abbé of St. Mary de Chans. He appeared at first with some distinction at the court of Spain, but bis attachment to the house of Braganza impeded his advancement. In 1640, when John IV. was proclaimed king of Portugal, he went to his court, and was well received. Yet it was found difficult to advance him, for he was of too light and careless a character to be employed in diplomatic business ; and though the king would have gone so far as to make him bishop of Visieu, this dignity he had the wisdom to refuse, well-knowing that the pope who did not acknowledge bis master as king, would never confirm his appointment as bishop. He did not choose, he said, merely to personate a bishop, like an actor on a stage. He died at Lisbon in 1657. Notwithstanding the levity of his character, he had a generous heart, and was a firm and active friend. He wrote with much success; his “ Life of Don Juan de Castro," is esteemed one of the best written books in the Portuguese language. It was published in folio, and was translated into Latin by Rotto, an Italian Jesuit. He wrote also a small number of poems in the same language, which bave considerable elegance, and are to be found in a collection published at Lisbon in 1718, under the title of “ Fenix Renacida."

FREITAG (John), a learned physician, was born at Nieder Wesel, in the duchy of Cleves, Oct. 30, 1581; but his relations being compelled, by the troubles of the times, to retire to Osnaburg, he began his classical studies there. He was afterwards sent to Cologne, Wesel, and Helmstadt; but his disposition being early turned to medicine, as a profession, he studied at Rostock, afterwards returned to Helmstadt to attend the lectures of Duncan Liddell and of Francis Parcovius; he likewise derived much advantage from the lectures of the celebrated Meibomius, in whose house he resided in the capacity of tutor to his son, and was soon thought fit to give private lectures to the younger students on the practice of physic. He afterwards lectured

'Moreri.-Baillet Jugemens des Savans.-Saxii Onomast.
* Moreri.-Dici. Hist. -See more of this family under Andrada, vol. II.

in public as professor extraordinary; and in 1604, at the age of twenty-three, he obtained the ordinary professorship in the university, which office he filled during four years. He then took his degree of doctor, and went to the court of Philip Sigismund, duke of Brunswick Lunenburg, and bishop of Osnaburg, who had appointed him his principal physician. About 1622, Ernest, duke of Holstein and earl of Schawenburg, offered him the same, office, with the addition of the chief medical professorship in the university which he had lately founded at Rinteln; but his patron would not permit him to accept it. This prince-bishop dying in 1623, his nephew, duke Frederic Ulric, gave Freitag the option of being his chief physician, or of resuming his professorship at Helmstadt He continued at Osnaburg, where the new bishop retained him as his physician, and also appointed him one of his chamberlains. He also served his successor in the same capacity, but was dismissed in 1631, on account of his refusal to become a catholic. He found protection and patronage, however, under Ernest Cassimir, count of Nassau, and the counts of Bertheim, who procured for him the vacant professorship in the university of Groningen. He fulfilled this new appointment with great reputation, and continued to distinguish himself by the success of his practice till the decline of his life, which was accelerated by a complication of maladies. Dropsy, gout, gravel, and fever, terminated his life Feb. 8, 1641.

Freitag was a follower of the chemical sect, and also a partisan of the philosophy of the ancients, to which in. deed he retained his attachment with so much bigotry, that no efforts of his friends could ever prevail upon him to change bis opivion. He published several works. 1.“Noctes Medicæ, sive de Abusu Medicinæ Tractatus," Francfort,

2. “ Aurora Medicorum Galeno-chemicoruin, seu de rectâ purgandi methodo è priscis sapientiæ decretis postliminio in lucem redacta,” ibid. 1630. 3. “Disputatio Medica de morbis substantiæ et cognatis quæstionibus, contra hujus temporis Novatores et Paradoxologos," Groningen, 1632. 4. “ Disputatio Medica calidi innati essentiam juxta veteris Medicinæ & Philosophiæ decreta explicans, opposita Neotericorum et Novatorum Paradoxis," ibid. 1632. 5. “ De Ossis natura et medicamentis opiatis Liber singularis, &c.” Groningen, 1632. 6. “ Disputatio Medico-philosophica de Formarum origine,” Groningen, 1663. 7. “Oratio panegyrica de persona et officio Phar .

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