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ing the Jansenists, and of asserting that no one could sign the formulary without distinguishing the fact from the right. This induced him to quit his office of regent in 1654, and accept of the conventual priory of Benay, in the diocese of Angers. Here, however, he did not constantly reside, but preached frequently in some cathedrals, and performed the duties of his office as chancellor of the university, until 1661, when happening to be at Benay, he received an order from the court to remain there until farther orders. This was occasioned by the approbation be had given to a French translation of the Missal of M. Voisin, which at first he did not choose to revoke. It does not appear, however, that while he ventured to express liberal notions, he had the courage to maintain them against the authority of his superiors, for be soon conceded every point, and offered to sign the formulary abovementioned, which he had hitherto refused, and accordingly was permitted to return to Paris in 1662, where the archbishop of Sens bestowed on him the office of prior, curé of St. Mary Magdalen of Montargis ; but this he enjoyed but a very few days, being seized with a disorder which carried him off, April 17, 1662, when only fortyeight years of age. He was a man of extensive reading in ecclesiastical and profane history; and as a preacher was lively and eloquent. He obtained much reputation for his discourses when bestowing the degree of master of arts, which was hís province for fifteen years. He was an able linguist, not only in the modern, but ancient, and parti. cularly the Eastern languages. Dupin, who gives bim in other respects a very high character, observes, that he never attached himself so closely to any subject as to handle it thoroughly, but was always making discoveries, starting conjectures, and forming new ideas, and giving bis subject a turn altogether uncommon.
His works were, 1..." Summa totius pbilosophiæ è D. Thomæ Aquinatis doctrina," Paris, 1640, fol. 2. “ Tho. mas à Kempis vindicatus per unum è Canonicis regularibus congregationis Gallicanæ,” Paris, 1641, 8vo. The purpose of this is to prove that Thomas à Kempis, and not Gerson, was the author of the celebrated “Imitation," &c. and it produced a controversy, of which some notice will be taken in our article on that writer. 3. “ Ivonis Carnotensis Episcopi opera,” Paris, 1647, fol. This edition of the works of Iyes de Chartres gave some offence to Souchet,
whose notes he had adopted; and he was obliged to defend bimself in a letter addressed to the bishop of Puy. 4. “ Dissertatio philologica de virginitate honorata, eradita, adornata, fæcunda," ibid. 1651. 5. "Antitheses Augustipi et Calvini,” ibid. 1651, 16mo. In this he gives the parallel passages of St. Augustin and Calvin on the subject of grace. The general of the congregation, thinking it might make some noise in the world, suppressed all the copies except one, from which a friend of Fronteau had a new edition printed. 6. “Kalendarium Romanum," taken from an ancient MS. and illustrated by a preface and two dissertations, on festival days, and saints' days, ibid. 1652, 8vo. 7. “ Oratio in obitum Matthæi Molé,” ibid. 1656, 4to. Molé was keeper of the seals. He published also various epistles and tracts on subjects of ecclesiastical history. His own life was published in 1663, 4to, under the title “Joan. Frontonis Memoria disertis per amicos virosque clarissimos encomiis celebrata." ]
FRONTINUS (Sextus JULIUS), a Roman writer, who flourished in the first century, and was in high repute under Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Nerva, and Trajan, was a man of consular dignity, a great officer who commanded the Roman armies in England, and elsewhere, with success; and he is mentioned in high terms of panegyric by all the writers of his time. He was city-prætor when Vespasian and Titus were consuls. Nerva made him curator of the aquæducts, which occasioned him to write his treatise, “ De Aquæductibus Urbis Romæ.” He wrote also “ Tres libros Stratagematuin," or, concerning the stratagems used in war by the most eminent Greek and Roman commanders; and afterwards added a fourth, containing examples of those arts and maxims, discoursed of in the former. These two works are still extant, together with a piece “ De Re Agraria ;" and another, “ De Limitibus." They have been often printed separately, but were all published together in a neat edition at Amsterdamn in 1661, with notes by Robertus Keuchenius, who has placed at the end the fragments of several works cf Frontinus that are lost. This eminent man died in the year 106, under Trajan, and was succeeded as augur by the younger Pliny, who mentions him with honour. He forbade any monument to be erected to him after his death,
' Dipin.-Niceron, rol. XXI.--Moreri.
declaring, that every man was sure to be remembered without any such testimonial, if he had lived so as to deserve it. His words, as Pliny has preserved them, were these: “Impensa monumenti supervacua est; memoria nostri durabit, si vita meruimus.''
FRONTON (Du Duc, or Le Duc), known by the name of FRONTO DUCæus, a learned Jesuit, was the son of a counsellor of Bourdeaux, where he was born in 1558, and made a Jesuit in 1577. He studied with unwearied application the Greek tongue, and became one of the ablest translators and editors of Greek works in his time. He published notes and corrections, both on the text and on the translations of many of the works of the Greek and Latin fathers, particularly St. Clemens Alexandrinus, St. Basil, St. Gregory de Nazianzen, and St. Gregory of Nyssa, Zonaras, Balsamon, &c. But his principal work is his edition of the works of St. Chrysostom, 6 vols, fol. Paris, 1609—1624, and reprinted there in 1636, and at Francfort in 1698. He was also engaged in controversy, and wrote against Philip du Plessis Mornay. He died at Paris, Dec. 12, 1624. Dupin informs us that he was as much esteenied for his prudence and modesty as for his learning and judgment, that his merit was equally acknowledged by catholics and protestants, and that there was scarcely a learned man in either communion with whom he did not correspond.
FROWDE (PHILIP), an English poet, was the son of a gentleman, who had been post-master in the reign of queen Anne, and the grandson of sir Philip Frowde, a loyal officer in king Charles I.'s army. He was sent to the university of Oxford, where he had the honour of being distinguished by Addison, who took him under bis protection. While he remained there he became the author of several pieces of poetry, some of which, in Latin, were pure and elegant enough to entitle them to a place in the “ Musæ Anglicanæ.” He wrote likewise two tragedies: “ The Fall of Saguntum,” dedicated to sir Robert Walpole; and “ Philotas," addressed to the earl of Chesterfield. Neither of these were very successful on the stage, to which they were thought less adapted than to the closet. He died at his lodgings in Cecil-street in the Strand, Dec. 19, 1738 ; and
• Taciti Agicola. - Vossius de Scient. Math. - Fabric. Bibl. Lat.-A list of the editions of his works is given in Dr. Clarke's Bibliographical Dictionary.- Saxji Onomast.
? Moreri ip Duc-Niceron, vol. XXXVIII.
in the London Daily-Post had the following character given Kim: “ Though the elegance of Mr. Frowde’s writings has recommended him to the general public esteem, the politeness of his genius is the least amiable part of his character; for he esteemed the talents of wit and learning, only as they were conducive to the excitement and practice of honour and humanity. Therefore, with a soul chearful, benevolent, and virtuous, he was in conversation genteelly delightful, in friendship punctually sincere, in death Christianly resigned. No man could live more beloved; no private man could die more lamented." I
FRUGONI (CHARLES INNOCENT), an Italian poet, was born November 21, 1692, at Genoa, of a noble family, which ended in him. He was persuaded by his tutors to enter the order of regular clerks of Somasquo; but that confined life was so contrary to his gay temper, and fondness for pleasure, that he obtained leave from the pope to quit the order, and remain a secular priest. Frugoni then settled at Parma, where the different sovereigns procured him all the conveniences of life; but the infant don Philip showed yet greater attention to him than the rest. He gave him the titles of court poet, inspector of the theatres, and secretary of the fine arts. He died at Parma, December 20, 1768. His poems are much esteemed by the Italians, and his songs, in particular, were the delight of his contemporaries. An edition of this author's works was published at Parma in 1779, in 10 vols. 8vo. They consist of every species of minor poems.
FRUMENTIUS (ST.), a Romish saint, is usually called the Apostle of Ethiopia, on account of his having first propagated Christianity in that country, in the fourth century. He was the nephew of one Meropius, a philosopher of Tyre, who being induced to travel to Ethiopia, carried with him his two nephews, Frumentius and Edesius, with whose education he had been entrusted. In the course of their voyage homewards, the vessel touched at a certain port to take in provisions and fresh water, and the whole of the passengers were murdered by the barbarians of the country, except the two children, whom they presented to the king, who resided at Axuma, formerly one of the greatest cities of the East. The king, being charmed with the wic and sprightliness of the two boys, had them carefully edu
! Biog. Dram.mCibber's Lives,
9 Dict. Hist.
cated, and when grown up, made Edesius bis cup-bearer, and Frumentius, who was the elder, his treasurer and seçretary of state, entrusting him with all the public writings and accounts. Nor were they less bigbly honoured after the king's death by the queen, who was regent during her son's minority. Frumentius had the principal management of affairs, and soon turned his attention to higher objects than the politics of the country. He met with some Roman merchants who traded there, and having by their means discovered some Christians who were in the kingdom, he encouraged them to associate for the purposes of religious worship, and at length erected a church for their use; and certain natives, instructed in the gospel, were converted. On the young king's accession to the government, Frumentius, though with much reluctance on the part of the king and his mother, obtained leave to return to bis own country. Edesius accordingly returned to Tyre ; but Frumentius, on his arrival at Alexandria, communicated his adventures to Athanasius the bishop, and informed him of the probability of converting the country to Christianity, if missionaries were sent thither. On mature consideration, Athanasius told him, that none was so fit for the office as himself. He consecrated him therefore first bishop of the Indians, and Frumentius returning to a people who had been acquainted with his integrity and capacity, preached the gospel with much success, and erected many churches, although the emperor Constantius endeavoured to introduce Arianism, and actually ordered that Frumentius should be deposed, and an Arian bishop appointed; but the country was happily out of his reach. Frumentius is supposed to have died about the year 360. The Abyssinians honour bim as the apostle of the country of the Axumites, which is the most considerable part of their empire.'
FRYE (THOMAS), an ingenious artist, was a native of Ireland, where he was born in 1710. He came very early to London, when he practised portrait-painting in oil, crayons, and in miniature. In 1734 he had the honour of painting his royal highness, Frederick prince of Wales, a full length, now in Sadler's-hall, Cheapside. But his genius was not confined to this art, and it is said that he was the inventor and first manufacturer of porcelain in