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garet's, Lothbury, but his name does not occur in the
registers until 1652. In 1641 he became vicar of St.
Mary's, Reading, and an assistant to the commissioners
of Berkshire, for the ejection of such as were then styled
scandalous, ignorant, and insufficient ministers and
schoolmasters.” He was at length, a fellow of Eton col-
lege, though he had refused the engagement, as it was
called. After the restoration, he lost his fellowship of
Eton, and, being deprived of the vicarage of St. Mary's
for non-conformity, be retired to London, and afterwards
to Kennington, in Surrey, where he continued to preach,
although privately. For some time before his death, he
was much disordered in his understanding, and died in
Southwark, Jan. 15, 1676, and was buried within the pre-
cincts of St. John Baptist's church, near Dowgate. He is
said by Wood to have used odd gestures and antie be-,
haviour in the pulpit, unbecoming the serious gravity of
the place, but which made him popular in those times.
His character by Mr. Cooper, who preached his funeral
sermon, is more favourable, being celebrated “ as an able,
holy, faithful, indefatigable servant of Christ. He was
quick in apprehension, solid in his notions, clear in his
conceptions, sound in the faith, strong and demonstrative
iu arguing, mighty in convincing, and zealous for the
truth against all errors." We are told, likewise, that “ he
had a singular gift in chronology, not for curious specula-.
tion or ostentation, but as a key and measure to know the
signs of the times, &c.

His works are, 1.“ Dæmonium meridianum, or Satan atnoon; being a sincere and impartial relation of the proceedings of the commissioners of the county of Berks, authorized by the ordinance for ejection, against John Pordage, late minister of Bradfield, in the same county,' Lond. 1655, 4to. This Pordage appeared to these commissioners to be unsound in the doctrine of the Trinity, 2. “ Dæmonium meridianum, the second part, discovering the slanders and calumnies cast upon some corporations, with forged and false articles upon the author, in a pamphlet entitled • The case of Reading rightly stated,' by the adherents and abettors of the said J. Pordage," Lond. 1656, 4to. To this is subjoined “ A Word to Infant Baptism,” &c. Fowler likewise published a few occasional Sermons; and “ A sober answer to an angry epistle directed to all public teachers in this nation," pre

fixed to a book called “ Christ's innocency pleaded against the cry of the Chief Priests,” by Thomas Speed, quaker, &c. Lond. 1656. In this he was assisted by Simon Ford, vicar of St. Laurence, Reading, and it was animadverted on by George Fox, in one of his publications.

FOWLER (EDWARD), a learned English prelate, was born in 1632, at Westerleigh, in Gloucestershire ; of which place his father was minister, but ejected for nonconformity after the restoration. He was sent to the College-school in Gloucester, where he was educated under William Russel, who had married his sister. In the beginning of 1650 he became clerk of Corpus Christi college, Oxford, and being looked upon, says Wood, “ as a young man well endowed with the spirit, and gifted with extemporary prayer, he was admitted one of the chaplains thereof in 1653, and the same year took a bachelor of arts degree.” Afterwards removing to Cambridge, he took his master's degree as a member of Trinity college, and returning to Oxford, was incorporated in the same degree July 5, 1656. About the same time he became chaplain to Arabella, countess dowager of Kent, who presented him to the rectory of Northill, in Bedfordshire. Having been educated a presbyterian, he scrupled about conformity at the restoration, but conformed afterwards, and became a great ornament to the church. His excellent moral writings rendered him so considerable, that archbishop Sheldon, in order to introduce him into the metropolis, collated him in August 1673,' to the rectory of All-hallows, Breadstreet. In February 1675-6, he was made prebendary of Gloucester; and in March 1681, vicar of St. Giles's, Cripplegate, on which he resigned the living of Allhallows. The same year, he accumulated the degrees of bachelor and doctor of divinity. During the struggle between protestantism and popery in this kingdom, he appeared to great advantage in defence of the former ; but this rendered him obnoxious to the court, and in all probability was the secret cause of a prosecution against him, in 1685, by some of his parishioners, who alledged that he was guilty of Whiggism, that he admitted to the communion excommunicated persons before they were absolved, &c. We are told this matter was carried so far, that, after a trial at Doctors’-commons, he was suspended, under the

1 Ath. Ox. vol. II. - Calamy. ---Coates's Hist. of Reading,

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prétence of having acted in several respects contrary to the canons of the church. This affront, however, did not intimidate him from doing what he thought his duty; for he was the second, who in 1688, signed the resolution of the London clergy, not to read king James's new declaration for liberty of conscience. He was rewarded for this and other services at the revolution ; for in 1691, he was preferred to the see of Gloucester, and continued there till his death, which happened at Chelsea, Aug. 26, 1714, in his eighty-second year. His widow survived him some years, dying April 2, 1732. She was his second wife, the widow of the rev. Dr. Ezekiel Burton, and daughter of Ralph Trevor, of London, merchant. His first wife, by wbom he had a large family, was daughter of Arthur Barnardiston, one of the masters in chancery. She died Dec. 19, 1696, and was buried, as well as the bishop, in Hendon church-yard, Middlesex, in the chancel of which church is a monument to his memory.

He was the author of many excellent works, as, 1. “ The Principles and Practices of certain moderate divines of the Church of England, abusively called Latitudinarians, greatly misunderstood, truly represented and defended," 1670, 8vo. This is written in the way of dialogue. 2. “ The Design of Christianity; or, a plain demonstration and improvement of this proposition, viz. that the enduing men with inward real righteousness and true holiness, was the ultimate end of our Saviour's coming into the world, and is the great intendment of his blessed Gospel," 1671, 8vo. John Bunyan, the author of the Pilgrim's Progress, having attacked this book, the author vindicated it in a pamphlet with a very coarse title ; 3. “ Dirt wiped out; or, a manifest discovery of the gross ignorance, erroneousness, and most unchristian and wicked spirit of one John Bunyan, Lay-preacher in Bedford, &c.” 1672, 4to. 4. “ Libertas Evangelica; or, a Discourse of Christian Liberty. Being a further pursuance of The Design of Christianity,” 1680, 8vo. 5. Some pieces against popery; as, " The Resolution of this case of conscience, whether the Church of England's symbolizing, so far as it doth with the Church of Rome, makes it lawful to hold communion with the Church of Rome?" 1683, 4to. “A Defence of the Re. solution, &c." 1684, 4to. " Examination of Cardinal Bellarmine's fourth note of the Church, viz. Amplitude, or Multitude and Variety of Believers."

The texts VOL. XY.


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which Papists cite out of the Bible, for the proof of their doctrine concerning the obscurity of the Holy Scriptures, examined,” 1.687, 4to. The two last are printed in “ The Preservative against Popery,” folio. He published, also, 6. Two pieces on the doctrine of the Trinity, “ Certain Propositions, by which the doctrine of the Holy Trinity is so explained, according to the ancient fathers, as to speak it not contradictory to natural reason. Together with a defence of them, &c.” 1694, 4to.

A Second Defence of the Propositions, &c.” 1695, 4to. 7. Eighteen Occasional Sermons; one of which was on “ The great wickedness and mischievous effects of Slandering, preached in the parish church of St. Giles's, Nov. 15, 1685, on Psalm ci. 5, with a large preface of the author, and conclusion in his own vindication," 1685, 4to. 8. " An Answer to the Paper delivered by Mr. Ashton at his execution,” 1690, 4to. 9. “ A Discourse on the great disingenuity and unreasonableness of repining at afflicting Providences, and of the influence which they ought to have upon us, published upon occasion of the death of queen Mary; with a preface containing some observations touching her excellent endowments and exemplary life," 1695, 8vo.

In the registers of St. Giles's, Cripplegate, which Mr. Malcolm appears to have examined with care, we find no mention made of any litigious proceedings of the parishioners against Dr. Fowler; but on the contrary, there are the following entries, which show how much he was respected by them after the revolution : “ Feb. 7, 1700. Ordered, that in consideration the bishop of Gloucester has a long time, at his own charge, provided a lecturer in this parish, and been otherwise kind and bountiful to the same, that the chancel of this parish church be forth with put in good repair at the charge of the parish.” In 1708 he represented to the vestry that he was grown so extremely infirm and old, he could no longer preach in a morning; and having a large family, with but small profits from the vicarage, together with having provided a lecturer for twenty-five years past at his own charge, he now entreated them to elect one themselves, which they did, with many acknowledgments for his lordship’s fatherly conduct towards them.'

i Biog. Brit.--Malcolm's Londinium Redivivum, vol. III.—Burnet's Own Times. -Birch's Life of Tillotson.—Ath. Ox. vol. II. —Gent. Mag. vol. II. 2002, for a curious anecdote of our bishop, who was a believer ia ghosts,


FOWLER (John), a celebrated English printer, was born at Bristol, educated at Winchester school, and admitted fellow of New college, in Oxford, in 1555, after two years of probation, where also he took his master's degree. But refusing to comply with the terms of protestant conformity in queen Elizabeth's reign, he resigned his fellowship, after holding it about four years, and, leaving England, took upon him the trade of printing, which he exercised partly at Antwerp, and partly at Louvain ; and thus did signal service to the papists, in printing their books against the protestant writers. Wood says that he was well skilled in Greek and Latin, a tolerable poet and orator, a theologist not to be contemned ; and so versed also in criticism and other polite literature, that he might have passed for another Robert or Henry Stephens. He reduced into a compendium the “ Summa Theologiæ * of Thomas Aquinas, under the title of “ Loca Communia Theologica," and wrote “ Additiones in Chronica Genebrandi;" a " Psalter for Catholics," which was answered by Sampson Dean, of Christ-church, Oxford, 1578; also epigrams, and other verses. He also translated from Latin into English, “ The Epistle of Osorius,” and “ The Oration of Pet. Frarin, of Antwerp, against the unlawful insurrection of the protestants, under pretence to reform religion," Antwerp, 1566. This was answered by William Falke, divinity-professor in Cambridge. Fowler died at Newmark, in Germany, Feb. 13, 1579.

FOWLER (Thomas), an English physician, was born at York, Jan. 22, 1736, and, after having gone through a course of classical 'and medical education, set up as an apothecary in his native city, in 1760. In 1774, however, he relinquished this branch of practice, in order to apply bimself more closely to the study of medical science; and for this purpose he went to Edinburgh, where he graduated in 1778. He then settled at Stafford, and was soon after elected physician to the infirmary at that place, where he practised with considerable reputation and success until 1791, when he returned to York. Here he met with the most flattering encouragement; but his ardent attention to his professional duties and studies was considerably interrupted in July 1793, by an attack of a painful anomalous disease of the chest, which he described as " fits of spasmodic asthma, attended with most of the painful 1 Alb. Ox. vol. 1.–Fuller's Worthies.--Dodd's Church Hist, vol. I.

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