« 이전계속 »
in private and in public to serve the king. To this end, on the anniversary of his inauguration, March 27, 1642, he preached at Westminster-abbey, on this text, 2 Sam. xix. 30 : “ Yea, let him take all, so that my lord the king return in peace;" which being printed, gave great offence to those who were engaged in the opposition, and brought the preacher into no small danger. He soon found that he must expect to be silenced and ejected, as others had been; yet desisted not, till he either was, or thought himself unsettled. This appears from what he says in the preface to his “ Holy State,” which was printed in folio that same year at Cambridge. This is a collection of characters, moral essays and lives, ancient, foreign, and domestic. The second edition of 1648, contains “ Andronicus, or the unfortunate politician,” originally printed by itself in 1646, 12mo.
In 1643, refusing to take an oath to the parliament, unless with such reserves as they would not admit, he was obliged in April of that year to convey himself to the king at Oxford, who received him gladly. As his majesty bad heard of bis extraordinary abilities in the pulpit, he was now desirous of knowing them personally; and accordingly Fulier preached before him at St. Mary's church. His fortune upon this occasion was very singular. He had before preached and published a sermon in London, upon “ the new-moulding church-reformation,” which caused him to be censured as too hot a royalist ; and now, from his sermon at Oxford, he was thought to be too lukewarm ; which can only be ascribed to his moderation, which he would sincerely have inculcated in each party, as the only means of reconciling both. During his stay here, he resided in Lincoln college, but was not long after sequestered, and lost all his books and manuscripts. This loss, the heaviest he could sustain, was made up to him partly by Henry lord Beauchamp, and partly by Lionel Cranfield, earl of Middlesex, who gave him the remains of his father's library. That, however, he might not lie under the suspicion of want of zeal or courage in the royal cause, he determined to join the army; and therefore, being well recommended to sir Ralph Hopton, in 1643, he was admitted by him in quality of chaplain. For this employ, ment he was quite at liberty, being deprived of all other preferment. And now, attending the army from place to place, he constantly exercised his duty as chaplain ; yet
found proper intervals for his beloved studies, which he employed chiefly in making historical collections, and especially in gathering materials for his “Worthies of England,” which he did, not only by an extensive correspondence, but by personal inquiries in every place which the army had occasion to pass through.
After the battle at Cheriton-Down, March 29, 1644, lord Hopton drew on his army to Basing-house, and Fuller, being left there by him, animated the garrison to so vigorous a defence of that place, that sir William Waller was obliged to raise the siege with considerable loss. But the war hastening to an end, and part of the king's army being driven into Cornwall, under lord Hopton, Fuller, with the leave of that nobleman, took refuge at Exeter, where he resumed his studies, and preached constantly to the citizens. During his residence here he was appointed chaplain to the infant princess Henrietta Maria, who was born at Exeter in June 1643 ; and the king soon after gave him a patent for his presentation to the living of Dorchester in Dorsetshire. He continued his attendance on the princess till the surrender of Exeter to the parliament, in April 1646 ; but did not accept the living, because he determined to remove to London at the expiration of the
He relates, in his “ Worthies," an extraordinary circumstance which happened during the siege of Exeter : “ When the city of Exeter, he says, was besieged by the parliament forces, so that only the south side thereof towards the sea was open to it, incredible numbers of larks were found in that open quarter, for multitude like quails in the wilderness; though, blessed be God, unlike them in the cause and effect; as not desired with man's destruction, nor sent with God's anger, as appeared by their safe digestion into wholesome nourishment. Hereof I was an eye and mouth-witness. I will save my credit in not conjecturing any number; knowing that herein, though I should stoop beneath the truth, I should mount above belief. They were as fat as plentiful; so that being sold for two-pence a dozen and under, the poor who could have no cheaper, and the rich no better meat, used to make pottage of them, boiling them down therein. Several causes were assigned hereof, &c. but the cause of causes was the Divine Providence; thereby providing a feast for many poor people, who otherwise had been pinched for provision.” While here, as every where else, he was much
courted on account of his instructive and pleasant conversation, by persons of high rank, some of whom made him very liberal offers ; but whether from a love of study, or a spirit of independence, he was always reluctant in accepting any offers that might seem to confine him to any one. family, or patron. It was at Exeter, where he is said to bave written his “Good Thoughts in Bad Times," and where the book was published in 1645, as what he calls “ the first fruits of Exeter press.” At length the garrison being forced to surrender, he came to London, and met but a cold reception among his former parishioners, and found his lecturer's place filled by another. However, it was not long before he was chosen lecturer at St. Clement's, near Lombard-street; and shortly after removed to St. Bride's, in Fleet-street. In 1647 he published, in 4to, “ A Sermon of Assurance, fourteen years agoe preached at Cambridge, since in other places ; now, by the importunity of his friends, exposed to public view." He dedicated it to sir John Danvers, who had been a royalist, was then an Oliverian, and next year one of the king's judges; and in the dedication he says, that " it had been the pleasure of the present authority to make him mute; forbidding bim till further order the exercise of bis public preaching." Notwithstanding his being thus silenced, he was, about 1648, presented to the rectory of Waltbam, in Essex, by the earl of Carlisle, whose chaplain he was just before made. He spent that and the following year betwixt London and Waltham, employing some engravers to adorn his copious prospect or view of the Holy Land, as from mount Pisgah; therefore called his “Pisgal-sight of Palestine and the confines thereof, with tbe history of the Old and New Testament acted thereon," which he published in 1650. It is an bandsome folio, embellished with a frontispiece and many other copper-plates, and divided into five books. As for his “ Worthies of England," on which he had been labouring so long, the death of the king for a time disheartened him from the continuance of that work : “ For what shall I write," says he, “ of the Worthies of England, when this horrid act will bring such an infamy upon the whole nation as will ever cloud and darken all its former, and suppress its future rising glories?" He was, therefore, busy till the year last mentioned, in preparing that book and others; and the next year he rather employed himself in publishing some par
ticular lives of religious reformers, martyrs, confessors, bishops, doctors, and other learned divines, foreign and domestic, than in augmenting his said book of “ Engliska Worthies” in general. To this collection, which was executed by several hands, as he tells us in the preface, he gave the title of "Abel Redivivus," and published it in 4to, 1651. lu the two or three following years he printed several sermons and tracts upon religious subjects. About 1654 he married a sister of the viscount Baltinglasse ; and the next year she brought him a son, who, as well as the other before-mentioned, survived his father. In 1655, notwithstanding Cromwell's prohibition of all persons from preaching, or teaching school, who had been adherents to the late king, he continued preaching, and exerting his charitable disposition towards those ministers who were ejected by the usurping powers, and not only relieved such from what he could spare out of bis own slender estate, but procured many contributions for them from his auditories. Nor was his charity confined to the clergy, and among the laity whom he befriended, there is an instance upon record of a captain of the army who was quite destitute, and whom he entirely maintained until he died. In 1656 he published in folio, “ The Church History of Britain, from the birth of Jesus Christ to the year 1648;" to which are subjoined, “ The History of the University of Cambridge since the conquest,” and “ The History of Waltham Abbey in Essex, founded by king Harold.” His Church History was animadverted upon by Dr. Heylin in his “ Examen Historicum ;” and this drew from our author a reply : after which they had no further controversy, but were very well reconciled *. About this time he was invited, according to his biographer, to another living in Essex, in which he continued his ministerial labours until his settlement at London. George, lord Berkeley, one of his noble patrons, having in 1658 made him his chaplain, be took leave of Essex, and was presented by his lordship to the rectory of Cran. ford in Middlesex. It is said also that lord Berkeley took
* In this history and appendix, by-inscriptions, which are addressed to which make but one volume, it is ob- his particular friends and benefactore." servable ibat he has, with admirable This swells the bulk of it to at least contrivance, introduced twelve title. the amount of forty sheets. Heylin, pages besides the general one, and who takes notice of these matters, cen. " as many particular dedications, and S:tres him for walking in this untrodDo less than fifty-eight or sixty of those den path,
him over to the Hague, and introduced him to Charles 11. It is certain, however, that a short time before the restoration, Fuller was re-admitted to his lecture in the Savoy, and on that event restored to his prebend of Salisbury. He was chosen chaplain extraordinary to the king; created doctor of divinity at Cambridge by a mandamus, dated August 2, 1660; and, had he lived a twelvemonth longer, would probably have been raised to a bishopric. But upon his return from Salisbury in August 1661 he was attacked by a fever, of which he died the 15th of that month. His funeral was attended by at least two hundred of his brethren; and a sermon was preached by Dr. Hardy, dean of Rochester, in which a great and noble character was given of him. He was buried in his church at Cranford, on the north wall of the chancel of which is his monument, with the following inscription :
“ Hic jacet Thomas Fuller, è collegio Sydneiano in academia Cantabrigiense, SS. T. D. hujus ecclesiæ rector ; ingenii acumine, memoriæ felicitate, morum probitate, omnigenâ doctrina (historia præsertim) uti varia ejus summâ æquanimitate composita testantur, celeberrimus. Qui dum viros Angliæ illustres opere posthumo immortaliti consecrare meditatus est, ipse immortalitem est consecutus, Aug. 15, 1661."
In 1662 was published in folio, with an engraving of him prefixed, his “ History of the Worthies of England.” This work, part of which was printed before the author died, seems not so finished as it would probably have been if he had lived to see it completely published : yet it certainly did not deserve the heavy censures of Nicolson. Whatever errors may be found in it, as errors undoubtedly may be found in all works of that nature, the characters or memorials there assembled of so many great men, will always make it a book necessary to be consulted.
Besides the works already mentioned in the course of this memoir, Fuller was the author of several others of a smaller nature; as, 1.“ Good Thoughts in bad times.” 2. “Good Thoughts in worse times.” These two pieces printed separately, the former in 1645, the latter in 1647, were published together in 1652, and have very recently been reprinted by the rev. Mr. Hinton, of Oxford. He afterwards published, in 1660, 3. “ Mixt Contemplations in better times." 4. “ The Triple Reconciler; stating tlıree controversies, viz. whether ministers have an exclu. sive power of barring communicants from the sacrament;