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logical tracts in Latin. But the most celebrated part of his works consists of several treatises which he published successively on the history of the Latin language, beginning with its original formation, and pursuing it through the severa} ages, from youth to extreme old age. His treatises “ De Origine Latinæ Linguæ,” and “ De Pueritia Latinæ Linguæ,” were published in 1720. He died in 1778.
FUNCH, FUNECCIUS, or FUNECIUS (John), a celebrated Lutheran divine, was born in 1518, at Werden, near Nuremberg. He adopted the doctrine of Osiander, whose daughter he married, and particularly became a strenuous advocate for Osiander's opinions on the subject of justification. He was a minister in Prussia, and wrote a Chronology,” from Adam to 1560, published at separate times, but completely at Wittemberg, 1570, fol. with various other tracts. At length being convicted of giving Albert, duke of Prussia, to whom he was chaplain, advice disadvantageous to Poland, he was condemned, with sume others, as a disturber of the public peace, and beheaded at Konigsberg, October 28, 1566. He is said to have composed the following distich a little before his esecution :
“ Disce meo exemplo, mandato munere fungi,
Et fuge, seu pestem, thy wounteay Moony. That is, “ Learn from my example, to mind nothing but the employment allotted you; and avoid, as you would the plague, all desire of meddling in too many things." He left a Commentary on “ Daniel's 70 Weeks,” in German, fol. and one on the “ Revelations," 4to.
FURETIERE (ANTONY), an ingenious and learned lawyer, was born at Paris in 1620; and, after a liberal education, became eminent in the civil and canon law. He was first an advocate in the parliament; and afterwards, taking orders, was presented to the abbey of Chalivoy, and the priory of Chuines. Many works of literature recommended him to the public; but he is chiefly known and valued for his “ Universal Dictionary of the French Tongue,” in which he explains the terms of art in all sciences. He died in 1688. He was of the French academy, but, though a very useful member, was excluded in 1685, on the accusation of having composed his dic
Preceding edit. of this Dictionary.
tionary, by taking advantage of that of the academy, which was then going on. He justified himself by statements, in which he was very severe against the academy; but wished, a little before his death, to be re-admitted ; and he offered to give any satisfaction, which could reasonably be expected from a man, who owned be had been carried too far by the heat of disputation. His dictionary was not printed till after his death, in 2 vols. fol. Basnage de Beauval published an edition at Amsterdam, 1725, 4 vols. fol. This dictionary was the foundation of that known by, the name of Trevoux, the last edition of which is, Paris, 1771, 8 vols. fol. His other works are : “ Facta,” and other pieces, against his brother academiciaus. « Relation des Troubles arrivés au Roiaume d'Eloquence;" a tolerably good critical allegory. “Le Roman Bourgeois,” 12mo or 8vo; a book esteemed in its time. Five “ Satires" in verse, 12mo, which are not valued. Paraboles Evangeliques,” in verse, 1672, 12mo. There is also a “Furetieriana,” in which there are some amusing anecdotes.'
FURIETTI (JOSEPH ALEXANDER), an Italian cardinal and antiquary, the descendant of a noble family of Bergamo, was born there in 1685. He studied at Milan and Pavia, and made considerable progress in the knowledge of the civil and canon law. He went afterwards to Roine, where he held several ecclesiastical preferments, and in each was admired as much for his integrity as knowledge. Benedict XIV. who well knew his merit, was yet averse to raising him to the purple, on account of some disputes between them which took place in 1750. Yet it is said that Furietti might have received this high honour at that time, if he would have parted with his two superb centaurs, of Egyptian marble, which he found in 1736 among the ruins of the ancient town of Adrian in Tivoli, and which the pope very much wanted to place in the museum Capitolinum. Furietti, bowever, did vot ehuse to give them up, and assigned as a reason: “I can, if I please, be honoured with the purple, but I know the court of Rome, and I do not wish to be called cardinal Centaur / In 1759, however, Clement XIII. a year after his acces.. sion to the papal dignity, sent the cardinal's hat to him, which he did not long enjoy, dying in 1764.
Furietti collected and published at Rome the works of the celebrated Gaspar Barziza of Bergamo, and of his son
1 Dict. Hist...Moreri,
Guiniforte, most of which were never before printed, in a handsome 4to vol. 1723, with a learned preface and life. He published, likewise, at Bergamo in 1752, a fine edition of the poems
of Fontana ; but what obtained him most reputation among scholars and antiquaries, was his treatise on the Mosaic art of painting, entitled “De Musivis, vel pictoriæ Mosaicæ artis origine, progressu, &c.” Rome, 1752, Ato. In this he describes a rare specimen of Mosaic which he discovered in 1737 in the ruins of Adrian, and which, according to him, is mentioned by Pliny, as being the work of the celebrated artist Sosius. This exquisite specimen, with the centaurs belovging to Furietti, was purchased after his death by pope Clement XIII. for 14,000 Roman crowns, and deposited in the museum.!
FURIUS, called BIBACULUS, perhaps from his excessive drinking, an ancient Latin poet, was born at Cremona about the year of Rome 650, or 100 before Christ. He wrote annals, of which Macrobius has preserved some fragments. They are inserted in Maittaire's “ Corpus Poeta
Quintilian says, that he wrote iambics also in a very satirical strain, and therefore is censured by Crematius Cordus, in Tacitus, as a slandering and abusive writer. Horace is thought to have ridiculed the false sublime of his taste; yet, according to Macrobius, Virgil is said to have imitated him in many places. But some are of opi-, nion that the “ Annals” may be attributed to Furius An. tias, or Anthius, a contemporary poet, whose fragments are likewise in Maittaire's collection. 2
FURIUS (FREDERICK), surnained CarIOLANUS, was native of Valentia in Spain, and flourished in the sixteenth century. He studied at Paris under Talæus, Turnebus, and Ramus, and afterwards came to Louvain, where he published a treatise “ On Rhetoric,” and another in which he asserted that the scriptures ought to be translated into the vulgar tongue. It was entitled “ Bononia,” sive de libris sacris in vernaculam linguam convertendis, &c." Basil, 1556, 8vo. It was written, however, upon too liberal principles for the council of Trent, and was accordingly inserted in their “ Index Expurgatorius.” It otherwise would have brought him into trouble if be had not found a protector in the emperor Charles V. who was informed of his learning, piety, and candour. This monarch sent hiin
1 Dict. Hist.
Vossius de l'oet. Lat. ---Saxii Onom.
into the Netherlands, and placed him with his son Philip, who made him his historian. Furius remained with this prince during his life, and having accompanied him to the states of Arragon, died at Valladolid in 1592. He appears to have employed his utmost endeavours in order to pacify the troubles in the Netherlands. He wrote another work“ Del Conseio y Conseiero,” which was much esteemed, and twice translated into Latin, 1618 and 1663, 8vo.
FURNEAUX (PuiLIP), a learned dissenting clergyman, was born at Totness in Devonshire in Dec. 1726, and was educated in the free-school of that town at the same time with Dr. Kennicott, who was a few years his senior, and between them a friendship commenced which continued through life. From Totness Dr. Furneaux came to London for academical studies among the dissenters, which he completed in 1749. He was soon after ordained, and chosen assistant to the rev. Henry Read, at the meeting. house in St. Thomas's, Southwark, and joint Sunday evening lecturer at Salters’-hall meeting. In 1753 he succeeded the rev. Moses Lowman, as pastor of the congregation at Clapham, which he raised to one of the most opulent and considerable among the protestant dissenters.
He remained their favourite preacher, and highly esteemed by all classes, for upwards of twenty-three years, but was deprived of his usefulness in 1777, by the loss of his mental powers, under which deplorable malady (which was hereditary) he continued to the day of his death, Nov. 23, 1783. His flock and friends raised a liberal subscription to support him during his illness, to which, from sentiments of personal respect, as well as from the principle of benevolence, the late lord Mansfield, chief justice of the king's bench, generously contributed. Dr. Furneaux (which title he had received from some northern university) united to strong judgment a very tenacious memory; of which he gave a remarkable proof, when the cause of the dissenters against the corporation of London, on the exemption they claimed from serving the office of sheriff, was heard in the house of lords. He was then present, and carried away, and committed to paper, by the strength of his memory, without notes, the very able speech of lord Mansfield, with so much accuracy, that his lordship, when the copy was
1 Gen. Dict.--Moreri.
submitted to his examination, could discover but two of three trivial errors in it. This circumstance introduced him to the acquaintance of that great man, who conceived a high regard for him. Dr. Furneaux published but little, except a few occasional sermons; the most considerable of his works was that entitled “ Letters to the hon. Mr. Jus. tice Blackstone, concerning his exposition of the act of toleration, and some positions relative to religious liberty, in his Commentaries on the Laws of England," 1770, 8vo. This is said to have induced the learned commentator to alter some positions in the subsequent edition of his valuable work. To the second edition of Dr. Furneaux's “ Letters" was added the before-mentioned speech of lord Mansfield. In 1773 he published also “ An Essay on Toleration,” with a view to an application made by dissenting ministers to parliament for relief in the matter of subscription, which, although unsuccessful then, was afterwards granted.'
FURSTEMBERG (FERDINAND DE), an eminent prelate, the descendant of a noble family in Westphalia, was born at Bilstein in 1626. He stu::ied at Cologne, where he contracted an intimnate friendship with Chigi, who was then nuncio, and afterwards pope. During the cardinalate of Chigi, he invited Furstemberg to reside with him, whom he raised to the bishopric of Paderborn in 1661, when he himself was seated in the papal chair, under the title of Alexander VII. The high reputation of the bishop attracted the notice of Van Galen, who appointed him bis coadjutor, and whom he succeeded in 1678, when he was declared by the pope apostolical vicar of all the north of Europe. He was a zealous catholic, and anxious for the conversion of those who were not already within the pale of the church; but at the same time he did not neglect the cultivation of the belles lettres, either by his own efforts or those of many learned men whom he patronized. He died in 1683. As an author he collected a number of MSS. and monuments of antiquity, and gave to the world a valuable work relative to those subjects, entitled “ Monumenta Paderbornensia.” He also printed at Rome a collection of Latin poems, entitled “ Septem Virorum illustrium Poemata.” In this work there were many poems of his own, written with much purity. A magnificent edi
? Prot. Dissenters Magazine, vol. V.---Gent. Mag. vols. LI. and LIII.