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tion of these poems was published in the same year in which he died, at the Louvre, at the expence of the king of France.

FURSTENAU (JOHN-HERMAN), an eminent physician, was born at Herfordeo, in Westphalia, in the month of May, 1688. He began the study of medicine at the age of eighteen, and attended with diligence the schools of Wittenberg, Jena, and Halle, and became a licentiate in medicine in the last-mentioned university. About 1709 he returned to Herforden, and immediately obtained a considerable share of practice; but having conceived the design of visiting the Low Countries, he commenced his journey in 1711, in order to hear those great masters of his art, who at that time fourished so numerously in the cities of Amsterdam, Leyden, Utrecht, the Hague, Delft, and Dort. Having proñted much by their instructions, whether in the chair, in hospitals, or in private communication, he returned to his native place at the end of a year, and recommenced the practice of his profession with the same ardour as when he quitted Halle, but with more knowledge and greater resources. Nevertheless he again interrupted his practice by another journey in 1716. He married in 1717, with the intention of settling at Herforden; but became a professor in 1720, at Rintlen, where he died April 7, 1756. He left several works : the first of these was frequently re-printed, and bears the title of “ Desiderata Medica.” It includes also “Desiderata Anatomico-Physiologica; Desiderata circa morbos et eorum signa; Quæ desiderantur in Praxi Medica; Desiderata Chirurgica." . 2. “ De Fatis Medicorum, Oratio Inauguralis," 1720. 3. “De morbis Jurisconsultorum Epistola," 1721. 4. “ De Dysenteria alba in puerpera Dissertatio," 1723. 5. “ Programmata nonnulla, tempore Magistratus Academici impressa,” 1724 and 1725.'

FUSSLI. See FUESSLI.

FUST, or FAUST (John), a goldsmith of Mentz, was one of the three artists considered as the inventors of printing, the two others being Guttemberg and Schæffer. It is not, however, certain, that he did more than supply money to Guttemberg, who had made attempts with moveable metal types at Strasburg, before he removed to Mentz, in 1444. But it has been strongly argued, that Laurence 1 Moreri. -Dict, Hist.

? Dict, Hist.-Rees's Cyclopædia,

Koster, at Harlaem, had first conceived the art of cutting wooden blocks for this purpose in 1430, which he immediately improved, by substituting separate wooden types. Schæffer undoubtedly invented the method of casting the metal types, in 1452. The first printed book with a date, is said to have been a Psalter, published at Mentz in 1457; the next, perhaps, is “ Durandi Rationale divinorum Officiorum," by Fust and Schæffer in 1459. The “ Catholicon” followed in 1460. There are, however, some books without dates, which are supposed to be still older. Fust was at Paris in 1466, and it is imagined that he died there of the plague, which then raged in that capital.'

FUZELIER (Lewis), a native of Paris, where he was born in 1672, devoted himself early to poetry, and wrote for the French and Italian theatres, the royal musical academy, and the comic opera. He obtained the privilege of conducting the “Mercury,” jointly with M. de Bruere, in 1744, and died at Paris, September 19, 1752, leaving a considerable number of theatrical pieces, which have not been collected. His comedy of one act, entitled “Momus Fabuliste,” and his operas of “ Les Ages,” “ Les Amours des Dieux," “ Les Indes Galantes,” and “Le Carnaval du Parnasse,” are particularly admired. He wrote much for the Italian theatre and comic opera; but La Harpe, who has lately dictated in French criticism, speaks with great contempt of his talents.”

1 Dict. Hist. -See Art. PAINTING in Cyclopædia.

Dict, Hist.

G.

GABBIANI (ANTONY DOMENICK), an Italian artist, born at Florence in 1652, was successively the pupil of Subtermans and Vincenzo Dandini, and studied under Ciro Ferri at Rome, and after the best colourists at Venice.

He was a ready and correct designer. His colour, though sometimes languid, is generally true, juicy, and well united in the flesh-tints. The greatest flaw of his style lies in the choice, the hues, and the execution of his draperies. He excels in “pretty” subjects; his Gambols of Genii and Children in the palace Pitti, and elsewhere, are little inferior to those of Baciccio. His greatest and most famed work in fresco, is the vast cupola of Cestello, which was not wholly terminated. His altar-pieces are unequal: the best is that of S. Filippo in the church of the fathers Dell' Oratorio. In easel-pictures he holds his place even in princely galleries. He died in 1726, in consequence of a fall from the scaffold on which he was painting the cupola of Cestello.'

GABIA (JOHN BAPTIST), one of those scholars who promoted the revival of literature, was a native of Verona, and a professor of Greek at Rome in the sixteenth century, but we have no dated particulars of his life. It is said he was eminent for his knowledge of the learned languages, and of philosophy and mathematics, and had even studied theology. He translated froin Greek into Latin, the Commentaries of Theodoret bishop of Cyarus, on Daniel and Ezekiel, which translation was printed at Rome, 1563, fol. and was afterwards adopted by father Sirmond in his edia tion of Theodoret. He translated also the history of Scylitzes Curopalates, printed in 1570, along with the original, which is thought to be more complete than the Paris edition of 1648. About 1543 he published the first Latin translation of Sophocles, with scholia. Maffei says

'Pilkington, by Fuseli.

that he also translated Zozimus, and the Hebrew Psalms, and translated into Greek the Gregorian Kalendar, with Santi's tables, and an introductory epistle in Greek by. bimself. This was published at Rome in 1583.'

GABRIEL (JAMES), an eminent royal architect of France, built the palace at: Choisy, and undertook the royal bridge at Paris, but died in 1686, before he had completed this work, which was finished by his son James and Frere Romain. James was born at Paris 1667, became a pupil of the celebrated Mansart, and acquired so great a reputation as to be appointed overseer-general of buildings, gardens, arts and manufactures ; first architect and engineer of bridges and banks through the kingdom, and knight of St. Michael. He planned the common sewer, and many public buildings, among which are the hotel de Ville, and the presidial court of Paris, &c. He died in that city 1742, leaving a son, first architect to the king, who long supported the reputation of his ancestors, and died in 1782. ?

GABRIEL SIONITA, a learned Maronite, who died in 1648, was professor of oriental languages at Rome, from whence he was invited to Paris, to assist in M. le Jay's Polyglott, and carried with him some Syriac and Arabic bibles, wbich he bad transcribed with his own hand from MS copies at Rome; these bibles were first printed in Jay's Polyglott, with vowel points, and a Latin version ; and afterwards in the English Polyglott. Gabriel Sionita trauslated also the Arabian Geography, entitled “ Geographia Nubiensis," 1619, 4to, and some other works. He had some disagreement with M. le Jay, who sent to Rome for Abraham Ecchellensis to supply his place.'

GABRINI (Nich.) See RIENZI.

GABRINI (THOMAS MARIA), of the order of the clerks minor, was born at Rome in 1726, and boasted of being the descendant of Nicolas Gabrini, better known by the name RIENZI. Having been appointed Greek professor at Pesaro, be acquired great reputation for his critical knowledge of that language. He afterwards was invited to be philosophy professor at Rome, and had a cure of souls which he held for twenty-seven years, with the character of an excellent pastor. After other preferments in the ecclesiastical order to which he belonged, he was at last

· Moreri..Maffei Verona Illustrata : Dict. Hist,

3 Moreri.-Dict, Hist.

made general, and while in this station was frequently consulted by congregations, bishops, and popes, who had a very high esteem for his judgment. He died very advanced, on Nov. 16, 1807. Besides some tracts published in defence of his ancestor RIENZI, he published “ A Dissertation on the 20th proposition of the first book of Euclid," Pesaro, 1752, 8vo, which went through several editions, and many dissertations, memoirs, and letters in the literary journals, on the origin of mountaivs, petrifactions, and other objects of natural history ; medals, obelisks, inscriptions, and classical and ecclesiastical antiquities. He left also some valuable manuscripts on similar subjects.'

GACON (FRANCIS), a French poet, well known by his satirical pieces against Bossuet, Rousseau, La Motte, and others, was the son of a merchant, and born at Lyons in 1667. He became a father of the Oratory; obtained the poetical prize at the French academy in 1717; and died: in his priory of Baillon Nov. 15, 1725. Among his works are, “Le Poete sans fard,” a satirical piece, which cost him some months of imprisonment; a French translation of “ Anacreon," with notes, which was the best of his works; “L'Anti-Rousseau,” an attack against J. Baptiste Rousseau, the poet; “L'Homere vengé,” against La Motte. Gacon also attacked La Motte, and turned him into ridicule, in a small piece entitled “ Les Fables de M. de la Motte, traduites en vers Francois, par P. S. F. au Caffé du Mont Parnasse, &c.” This poet's natural propensity to satire and criticism, led him to attack all sorts of writers, and involved him in all the literary quarrels of his times. The French academy acted with great impartiality, when they adjudged him the prize ; for he had written in some shape or other against almost all the members of that illustrious body; and on this account it was, that he was not suffered to inake his speech of thanks, as is usual on such occasions, the prize having been remitted to him by the hands of the abbé de Choisy. “Gacon,” says Voltaire, “ is placed by father Niceron in the catalogue of illustrious men, though he has been famous only for bad satires.-Such authors cannot be cited but as examples to be detested.” In fact, though he wrote with care, his style was heavy and diffuse in prose, and low in verse. ?

1 Dict. Hist.
2 Moreri.-Dict. Hist.-Niceron, vol. XXXVIII. Saxii Onom.

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