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symptoms of the angina pectoris.” After consulting many eminent physicians, and trying a variety of medicines, with partial and transient relief, for two years, he was agreeably surprised by a spontaneous and gradual decline of the symptoms, and was at length totally free from them. Notwithstanding the check to his exertions which he received from this complaint, his professional emoluments and reputation continued to increase ; and in 1796 he was appointed, without solicitation, and even without his knowledge, physician to the lunatic asylum, near York, called the “ Retreat," established by the society of quakers, for the relief of the insane members of their community. He was a member of the medical societies of Edinburgh, of the medical society of London, and of the Bristol medical society. Dr. Fowler continued his useful career, active in every duty that benevolence could dictate, or friendship demand, and, in the exercise of his profession, an example of generosity, unwearied diligence and humanity, until 1801, when he died, on July 22d, while upon a visit to some friends in London.

In the course of his studies and practice, he exemplified the method recommended by lord Bacon for the improvement of medicine, perhaps more than any of his predecessors or contemporaries; and some idea of bis indefatigable labours may be conceived, when we mention that he left in manuscript the history of more than six thousand cases, which fell under his own inspection and treatment.

From this store of experimental knowledge he published several works. The first of these was entitled “ Medical Reports on the effects of Tobacco," which was published in 1785; and in the year following his second treatise appeared, under the title of “ Medical Reports on the Effects of Arsenic.” Both works tended in a considerable degree to instruct the profession in the means of rendering these medieines safe and manageable, and accordingly they are now, especially the latter, in daily and familiar use, and rank among the valuable articles of the materia medica. In 1795 he dedicated to the medical professors of Edinburgh a volume of “ Medical Reports on the acute and chronic Rheumatism," and was the author of several papers printed in different volumes of the Medical Commentaries, and Annals of Medicine, edited by Drs. Duncan of Edinburgh. :

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* Rees's Cyclopædia.

FOX (EDWARD), an eminent statesman, almoner to Henry VIII, and bishop of Hereford, was born at Dursley, in Gloucestershire ; but it is not mentioned in what year. After passing through Eton school he was admitted of King's college in Cambridge, 1512, where he was elected provost in 1528, and continued in that office till his death. Being recommended to cardinal Wolsey as a man of an acute spirit and political turn, he was taken into his service; and, according to Lloyd, was the person who encouraged the cardinal to aspire to the papacy. In 1528 he was sent ambassador to Rome, jointly with Stephen Gardiner, afterwards bishop of Winchester, in order to obtain bulls from Clement VII. for Henry's divorce from Catherine of Arragon. He was then almoner to the king; and reputed, as Burnet says, one of the best divines in England. He was afterwards en ployed in embassies both in France and Germany ; during which, as he was one day discoursiog upon terms of peace, he said, “honourable ones last long, but the dishonourable, no longer than till kings have power to break them: the surest way, therefore, to peace, is a constant preparedness for war.”—Two things, he would say, must support a government, “gold and iron: gold, to reward its friends; and iron, to keep under its enemies." It was to him that Cranmer owed his first introduction to court, with all its important results.

Jn 1530 be was employed with Stephen Gardiner at Cambridge, to obtain the university's determination in the matter of Henry VIII.'s divorce. In 1531 he was promoted to the archdeaconry of Leicester, and in 1533 to that of Dorset. It was be that apprized the clergy of their having fallen into a præmunire, and advised them to make their submission to the king, by acknowledging him supreme bead of the church, and making him a present of 100,000l. In 1535 he was promoted to the bishopric of Hereford. He was the principal pillar of the reformation, as to the politic and prudential part of it; being of more activity, and no less ability, than Cranmer himself : but he acted more secretly than Cranmer, and therefore did not bring himself into danger of suffering on that account. A few inonths after his conseeration he was sent ambassador to the protestant princes in Germany, then assembled at Smalcald; whom he exhorted to unite, in point of doctrine, with the church of England. He spent the winter at Wirtemberg, and held several conferences with some of

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the German divines, endeavouring to conclude a treaty with them upon many articles of religion : but nothing was effected. Burnet has given a particular account of this negociation in his “ History of the Reformation." He returned to England in 1536, and died at London, May 8, 1538. He was a very learned man, as we are assured by Godwin, who calls him “ vir egregiè doctus.” Wood also styles him an eminent scholar of his time; and Lloyd represents him as a fine preacher, but adds, that “his inclination to politics brake through all the ignoble restraints of pedantique studies, to an eminency, more by observation and travel, than by reading and study, that made him the wonder of the university, and the darling of the court. “When he was called,” says he,“ to the pulpit or chair, be came off not ill, so prudential were his parts in divinity; when advanced 10 any office of trust in the university, he came off very well, so incomparable were his parts for government.

Active as was his life, he found some time to write. He published a book, “De vera differentia Regiæ Potestatis et Ecclesiasticæ, et quæ sit ipsa veritas et virtus utriusque," 1534, and 1538. It was translated into English by Henry lord Stafford. He also wrote annotations upon Mantuan, the poet. There is likewise an oration of his extant, in the story of Thomas lord Cromwell, in the second volume of Fox's “ History of the Acts and Monuments of the Church ;” and a letter from himn and Gardiner about their proceedings at Cambridge, when they were sent in 1530 to obtain that university's determination concerning the king's marriage and divorce, in the collection of records at the end of Burnet's first volume of the “ History of the Reformation." }

FOX (FRANCIS), an English clergyman, of whose early history we have no account, was educated at Edmund Hall, Oxford, where he took his master's degree, July 5, 1704. He afterwards became vicar of Pottern, in Wiltshire, prebendary of that prebend in the church of Salisbury, and chaplain to lord Cadogan. In 1722 he published The New Testament explained," 2 vols. 8vo. This work has the several references placed under the text in words at length so that the parallel passages may be seen at one view; to

! Biog. Brit.-Lloyd's State Worthies. ---Strype's Cranmer, p, 4, 5, 37, 31, 53, 70,- Dodd's Church Hist, vol. I.

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which are added, the chronology, the marginal readings, and notes on difficult or mistaken texts, with many more references than in any other edition then published, of the English New Testament. He likewise wrote “ The duty of Public Worship proved, to which are added directions for a devout behaviour therein, drawn chiefly from the holy scriptures and the liturgy of the church of England; and an account of the method of the Common Prayer, by way of question and answer.” The fourth edition of this was printed in 1727, and it is now in the list of books distributed by the society for promoting Christian knowledge. In 1726 he was presented to the vicarage of St. Mary's, Reading. Having preached a sermon on moral obligations, from Matt. xxiji. 23, at the Reading lecture, be afterwards preached it as an assize sermon, at Abingdon, July 18, 1727. It was then printed, and dedicated to the chancellor. Some expressions in the discourse being liable to an unfavourable interpretation, it gave offence to several members of the lecture, and produced a controversy between the author and Mr. Joseph Slade, who had been curate of St. Mary's, was then lecturer of St. Lawrence's, and afterwards vicar of South Molton. Mr. Slade published the letters which had passed between himself and the author; and preached a lecture sermon on Tuesday, Oct. 31, 1727, containing several severe strictures on Mr. Fox's sermon, and some personal reflections, which he published. To this a reply was made by Lancelot Carleton, rector of Padworth, in “ A Letter to the rev. Joseph Slade, &c.” printed at Reading. Mr. Fox published also a few other occasional sermons. He died at Reading in 1738, and was buried in St. Mary's church.'

FOX (GEORGE), founder of the society of quakers, was born at Drayton, in Leicestershire, in 1624. His father was a weaver, who seems to have taken great pains in educating his son in the principles of piety and virtue. He was, at a proper age, apprenticed to a dealer in wool, and grazier, and being also employed in keeping sheep, he bad many opportunities for contemplation and reflection. When he was about nineteen years of age be experienced much trouble and anxiety on observing the intemperance of some persons, professing to be religious, with whom he had gone to an inn for refresbment; and on

1 Coates's Hist. of Reading.

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the following night he was persuaded that a divine com-
munication was made to him, urging him to forsake all, and
devote his life to the duties of religion. He now quitted
his relations, dressed himself in a leathern doublet, and
wandered about from place to place. Being discovered in
the metropolis, his friends persuaded him to return, and
settle in some regular employment. But he did not re-
main with them many months; determining to embrace an
itinerant mode of life. He fasted much and often, walked
abroad in retired places, with no other companion but the
bible, and sometimes sat in the hollow of a tree for a day
together, and walked in the fields by night, as if in a state
of deep melancholy. He occasionally attended upon pub-
lic teachers, but did not derive that benefit from them that
he looked for: and hearing, as he supposed, a voice ex-
claiming, “There is one, even Christ Jesus, that can
speak to thy condition," he forsook the usual outward
means of religion; contending, that as God did not dwell
in temples made with hands, so the people should receive
the inward divine teaching of the Lord, and take that for
their rule of life. About 1648 he felt himself called upon
to propagate the opinions which he bad embraced, and
commenced public teacher in Manchester, and some of
the neighbouring towns and villages, insisting on the cer-
tainty and efficacy of experiencing the coming of Christ in
the heart, as a light to discover error, and the knowledge
of one's duty. He now made more extensive journeys, and
travelled through the counties of Derby, Leicester, and
Northampton, addressing the people in the market-places,
and inveighing strongly against injustice, drunkenness, and
the other prevalent vices of the age. About this time he
apprehended that the Lord had forbidden him to take off
his hat to any one; and required him to speak to the
people in the language of thou and thee; that he must
not bend his knee to earthly authorities; and that he must
on no account take an oath. His peculiarities exposed
bim to much unjustifiable treatment, although it must be
allowed that he sometimes provoked harsh usage by his
intemperate zeal. At Derby the followers of Fox were
first denominated “ quakers," as a term of reproach, either
on account of the trembling accent used in the delivery of
their speeches, or, because, when brought before the
higher powers, they exhorted the magistrates and other
persons present “ to tremble at the name of the Lord.”

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