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Such were the fruits of our author's studies; for the sake of prosecuting which, with the privacy requisite, he chose Newington for his retreat; where he instructed a few young persons under his own roof. But he was frequently visited by persons of distinction, and some of a different opinion from him in religious matters, out of a desire to testify their esteem for unaffected piety and extensive learning. In 1678 he published proposals for printing by subscription, “ Lexicon Græci Testamenti Ety. mologicon, Synonymum, sive Glossarium Homonymum." This, as the title imports, was intended by him for a lexicon and concordance together: he finished it as far as the letter lota, and the most considerable words were also placed under other letters. But he was prevented from carrying it further by his death ; which happened in March that year, when he was not quite fifty. As to his charac. ter, besides what has been already mentioned, he was a most zealous non-conformist, stedfast in those opinions, and warm in the defence of them. His zeal this way extended itself beyond the grave; he wished, he resolved, to perpetuate them as far as he was able. In that spirit he bequeathed all his estate to young students of his own principles, and appointed trustees to manage it for their support. He bequeathed also his well-chosen library toward promoting useful learning in New England, where those principles universally prevailed. But, notwithstanding this warm concern for supporting and propagating his own communion, he was not without charity for those who differed from him, whom he would labour to convince, but not to compel; being as much an enemy to sedition as he was to persecution. Hence we find even Wood giving him all his just commendations without those abatements and restrictions which are usual in his characters. It was allowed also, that, in bis “ Court of the Gentiles," and other works, he shewed extensive {earning, and consi, derable abilities.

In this work, partly, as we have already noticed, but chiefly in his “ Philosophia generalis," he was induced, says Brucker, to become a zealous advocate for Platonism through a violent antipathy to the Cartesian system, which he thought unfriendly to morals, and contradictory to the doctrine of revelation. He undertook to trace back phis ļosophy to its origin, and maintained, that there was a wonderful agreement between the ancient barbaric philo

sophy, and the Jewish and Christian theology. He brought every philosophical tenet to the test of the scriptures, and thought that it would not be a difficult undertaking, to separate from the pagan philosophy those doctrines which originated in divine revelation, and had been transmitted by tradition from the Hebrews to the gentiles. Having persuaded himself that these doctrines had passed in a direct line, and without material corruption, from the He. brew fountain to Plato, he recommended bis philosophical writings as, next to the scriptures, the most valuable ree mains of ancient wisdom. The chief point which he labours to maintain in his “ Philosopbia generalis” is, that Plato received his knowledge of theology from the Hebrews, and that the doctrine on this subject taught by him and his followers, for the most part, agrees with that of the holy scriptures. This opinion he implicitly adopts from the ancient fathers, whose authority, with respect to this' matter, Brucker thinks there is reason to call in question. His account of other philosophers is given, without much appearance of accurate discrimination, chiefly from Laertius. He divides the Aristotelian philosophy into pure and impure, and supposes, gratuitously enough, that the former passed from Moses to the Stagyrite through the channel of Plato's instruction.'

GALE (THOMAS), celebrated for his knowledge of the Greek language and antiquities, and descended from a family considerable in the North and East Riding of Yorkshire *, was born in 1636, at Scruton in Yorkshire. He was sent to Westminster-school, and, being admitted king's-scholar there, was elected to Trinity college, Cambridge, and became fellow of that society He took his degree of B. A. in 1656; of M. A. in 1662. secution of bis studies, he applied himself to classical and polite literature, and his extraordinary proficiency procured him early a seat in the temple of fame. His knowledge of the Greek tongue recommended hiin, in 1666, to the office of regius professor of that language in :he university, which he resigned in 1672; and his majesty's choice was approved by the accurate edition which he

In the pro

* James Gale, with whom the pedi. North Riding, 1.523; his eldest great-, gree in the " Reliquiæ Galeana' be grandson Robert, or Francis, at Ake. gins, was seated at Thirntoft near Scru. ham Grange, in the hundred of Ansty ton, in the huodred of East Gilling and in the East Riding, 1590.

1 Atb. Ox. vol. II.-Calamy. --Biog. Brit. --Brucker's Hist. of Philosophy".

gave of the ancient mythologic writers, as well physical as moral, in Greek and Latin, published at Cambridge in 1671, 8vo. This brought his merit into public view; and the following year he was appointed head master of St. Paul's school in London; soon after which, by his majesty's direction, he drew up those inscriptions which are to be seen upon the Monument, in memory of the dreadful conflagration in 1666, and was honoured with a present of plate made to him by the city. His excellent conduct and commendable industry in the school abundantly appear, from the great number of persons, eminently learned, who were educated by him: and, notwithstanding the fatigue of that laborious office, he found time to publish new and accurate editions of several ancient Greek authors.

He accumulated the degrees of B. and D. D. in 1675; and June 7, 1676, was collated to the prebend Consumpt. per mare in the cathedral of St. Paul. He was also elected in 1677 into the royal society, of which he became a very constant and useful member, was frequently of the council, and presented them with many curiosities, particularly a Roman urn with the ashes, found near Peckhan in Surrey (part of these burnt bones he gave to Mr. Thoresby); and in 1685, the society having resolved to have honorary secretaries, who would act without any view of reward, Dr. Gale was chosen with sir John Hoskyns into that office, when they appointed the celebrated Halley for their clerkassistant, or under-secretary, who had been a distinguished scholar of our author's at St. Paul's school. Dr. Gale coutinued at the head of this school with the greatest reputation for 25 years, till 1697, when he was promoted to the deanry of York; and being admitted into that dignity Sept. 16, that year, he removed thither. This preferment was no more than a just reward of his merit, but he : did not live to enjoy it many years. On his admission, finding the dean's right to be a canon-residentiary called in question, he was at the expence of procuring letters patent in 1699, to annex it to the deanry, which put the matter out of all dispute. On his removal from London, he presented to the new library, then lately finished at his college in Cambridge, a curious collection of Arabic manuscripts. During the remainder of his life, which was spent at York, he preserved an hospitality suitable to his station; and his good government of that church is mentioned with honour. Nor has the care which he took, to

repair and adorn that stately edifice, passed without a just tribute of praise.

Having possessed this dignity little more than four years and a half, he died April 8, 1702, in his 67th year, in the deanery-house, and was interred with a suitable epitaph; in the middle of the choir of his cathedral. There is a fine portrait of him in the library of Trinity-college, Cambridge, the gift of his son; and there is another at Scruton,

From the list of his publications, it is evident, that dean Gale was a learned divine, and well versed in historical knowledge: This gained him the esteem of most of the learned men his contemporaries, both at home and abroad. With some of them he held a particular correspondence, as Mabillon, from whom he received the MS. of Alcuin de Pontificibus Eboracensibus, published in his “ Hist. Brit. Scriptores,” Baluze, Allix, Cappel, Rudolph, Wetstein of Amsterdam, Grævius, Huetius, &c. This last had a singu. lar respect for him, and declares it his opinion, tbat our author exceeded all men he ever knew, both for modesty and learning:

In Phil. Trans. No. 231, is a letter from Thoresby to Lister, 1697, concerning two Roman altars found at Collerton and Blenkinsop castle in the county of Northumberland, with notes by Dr. Gale. This was the Greek inscription to Hercules. See Horsley, p. 245.

Dr. Gale married Barbara daughter of Thomas Pepys, esq. of Impington, in the county of Cambridge, who died 1689, and by whom he had three sons and a daughter. To his eldest son he left bis noble library of choice and valuable books, besides a curious collection of many esteemed manuscripts, a catalogue of which is printed in the “ Catalogus MSStorum Angliæ & Hiberniæ,” III. p. 185.

The works of this laborious scholar, were, 1.“ Opuscula Mythologica Ethica et Physica, Gr. & Lat.” Cantab. 1671, 8vo, reprinted at Amsterdam, 1688, 8vo, with great improvements. This collection consists of Palæphatus, Heraclitus, & Anonymus de incredibilibus ; Phurnutus de natura deorum; Sallustius de diis ; Ocellus Lucanus; Tia mæus Locrus de anima mundi; Demophili, Democratis, & Secundi philosophorum sententiæ ; Joannis Pediasimi desiderium de muliere bona et mala; Sexti Pythagorei sententiæ; Theophrasti characteres ; Pythagoreorum fraymenta; & Heliodori Darissæi capita opticorum. 2. “ His

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torice Poeticæ Scriptores antiqui, Græcè & Latinė. Aca cessere breves notæ, & indices necessarii," Paris, 1675, 8vo. These are, Apollodorus Atheniensis, Conon Grammaticus, Ptolomæus Hephaestion, Parthenius Nicuensis, & Antoninus Liberalis. 3. “ Rhetores Selecti, Gr. & Lat. viz. Demetrius Phalereus de Elocutione; Tiberius Rhetor de schematibus Demosthenis ; Anonymus Sophista de Rhetorica ; Severi Alexandrini Ethopæiæ. Demetrium emendavit, reliquos è MSS. edidit & Latinè vertit, omnes notis illustravit Tho. Gale," Oxon. 1676, 8vo. 4. “ Jamblichus Chalcidensis de Mysteriis. Epistola Porphyrii de eodem argumento, Gr. & Lat. ex versione T. G.” Oxon. 1678, 8vo. 5. “Psalterium juxta exemplar Alexandrinum," Oxon. 1678, 8vo. 6. “Herodoti Halicarnassensis Historiarum libri X. ejusdem narratio de vita Homeri ; excerpta è Ctesia, & H. Stephani Apologia pro Herodoto : accedunt chronologia, tabula geographica, variantes lectiones, &c." Lond. 1679, fol. a most excellent edition. 7. An edition of “ Cicero's Works" was revised by him, Lond. 163.1, 1684, 2 vols. fol. 8. “ Historiæ Anglicanæ Scriptores quinque, &c.” Oxon. 1687, fol. This volume contains Annales de Margan, from 1066 to 1232. Chronicon Thomä Wikes from 1066 to 1334. Annales Waverleienses from 1066 to 1291. G. Vinisauf Itinerarium regis Ricardi in terram Hierosolymitanam. Chronica Walteri de Hemingford, from 1066 to 1273. He reserved the remainder of this last Chronicle for another volume, which he intended to publish, but did not live to execute. Concerning this, see Hearne's Preface to his edition of Hemingford, p. xxiii. 9. “ A Discourse concerning the Original of Human Literature with Philology and Philosophy,” Phil. Trans. vol. VI. p. 2231. 10.“ Historiæ Britannicæ, Saxonicæ, AngloDanicæ, Scriptores quindecim, &c.Oxon. 1691, folio. This volume contains “ Gildas de excidio Britanniæ, Eddii vita Wilfridi, Nennii historia, Asserii annales, Higdeni Po. lychronicon, G. Malmesburiensis de antiquitate Glastoniensis ecclesiæ, & libri V. de pontificibus Angliæ, Historia Ramesiensis, Historia Eliensis, Chronica Joh. Wallingford, Historia Rad. Diceto, Forduni Scotichronicon, Alcuinus de pontificibus Eboracensibus.” This is called by Gale the first volume; and that which contains the Quinque Scriptores (Ingulphus, Peter Blesensis, Chron. de Mailros, Annales Burtonenses, and the Historia Croylandensis) though published in 1684 (by Mr. William Fulman under

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