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Galileo bad scholars too that were worthy of so great a master, by whom the gravitation of the atmosphere was fully established, and its varying pressure accurately and conveniently measured, by the column of quicksilver of equal weight sustained by it in the barometrical tube. The elasticity of the air, by which it perpetually endeavours to expand itself, and, while it admits of condensation, resists in proportion to its density, was a phenomenon of a new kind (the common fluids having no such property), and was of the utmost importance to philosophy. These principles opened a vast field of new and useful knowledge, and ex. plained a great variety of phænomena, which had been accounted for before that time in a very absurd manner. It seemed as if the air, the fluid in which men lived from the beginning, had been then but first discovered. Philosophers were every where busy inquiring into its various properties and their effects; and valuable discoveries rewarded their industry. Of the great number who distinguished themselves on this occasion, may be mentioned Torricelli and Viviani in Italy, Pascal in France, Oito Guerick in Germany, and Boyle in England.
Galileo wrote a number of treatises, many of which were published in his life-time. Most of them were also collected after his death, and published by Mendessi in 2 vols. 4to, under the title of “ L'Opere di Galileo Galilei Lynceo," in 1656. Some of these, with others of his pieces, were translated into English and published by Thomas Salisbury, in his Mathematical Collections, in 2 vols. folio. A volume also of his letters to several learned men, and solutions of several problems, were printed at Bologna in
His last disciple, Vincenzo Viviani, who proved a very eminent mathematician, methodized a piece of bis master's, and published it under this title, “ Quinto libro de gli Elementi d' Euclidi,” &c. at Florence in 1674, 4to. Viviani published some more of Galileo's things, being extracts from his letters to a learned Frenchman, where he gives an account of the works which he intended to have published, and a passage from a letter of Galileo dated at Arcetri, Oct. 30, 1635, to John Camillo, a thematician of Naples, concerning the angle of contact. Besides all these, he wrote many other pieces, which were unfortunately lost. Galileo bad two' daughters and a son by a Greek woman he lived with ; the daughters became nuns; one son continued the family, which, Frisi says, is
but lately extinct; one turned missionary, and was induced from religious scruples to burn many of his grandfather's works; and the third ran away.
GALLAND (ANTONY), a learned antiquary of France, member of the academy of inscriptions, and professor of Arabic in the royal college at Paris, was born of poor parents at Rollo, a little town of Picardy, in 1646. After having laid the foundation of learning at Noyon, he went to Paris, where he learned Hebrew and the Oriental languages; and afterwards made a long voyage into the East, and acquired an uncommon knowledge of the manners, and of the doctrines of the Mahometans. He returned to his own country, and was made Arabic professor in 1709; but did not live many years after, his death happening at Paris in 1715. He was the author of several works, the principal of which are, 1. “An account of the Death of sultan Osman, and of the Coronation of the sultan Mustapha." 2.“ A collection of Maxims and Bon Mots, drawn from the Oriental writers." 3. " A Treatise upon the origin of Coffee." 4. “ Arabian Tales." All these are in French. The last, usually called “ The Arabian Nights Entertain, ments," is a popular book all over Europe, and has been published in various editions in English for above a century, Galland was also the author of many curious dissertations upon some scarce medals, which have been bighly commended. He had likewise prepared a translation of the Alcoran, with notes; and a system of the Mahometan theology, more exact than any that has yet appeared; but he did not live long enough to publish them.
GALLAND (AUGUSTUS), was proctor-general of the domain of Navarre, counsellor of state, and deeply versed in the knowledge of the royal rights in France, and in the history of that country.
His works are replete with curious and profound erudition. They are, 1.“ Memoirs for the History of France and Navarre," folio. 2.“ Treatises on the Eosigns and Standards of France," &c. 3. “ Discourse addressed to the king on the origin and rise of the City of Rochelle," 8vo. 4.“ A Treatise against the Franc-alleu, a claim of exemption from Imposts and personal Services," in 4to.
He is supposed to bave died about 1644, but at what age is uncertain. ·
I Pabroni Vitæ Italorum, vol. 1.-Hutton's Dictionary.-Elogio di Galilei, by Frisi.—Brucker.--Saxii Onomast. * Moreri.-Niceron, vol. VI. and X.-Saxii Onomast. 3 Moreri.—Dict. Hist.
GALLE (SERVATIUS), or GALLÆUS, a Dutch writer, who was born at Rotterdam, according to the inscription on his portrait, or according to other authorities, at Zuriczee, in 1627, and died at Campen in 1709, was a clergyman and an able philologist. His principal work is his treatise on the “ Sybilline Oracles," 2 vols. 4to, the first of which, containing the Oracles, was published at Amsterdam in 1689, and the second, which consists of dissertations, appeared soon after. In this he has brought together every thing relating to these celebrated fictions, but neither with success, nor judgment, according to Fabricius and his biographer Reimar, who speak with harshness of his abilities, and give us an extraordinary instance of his ignorance in classing Agathias and Jamblicus among Latin writers. They also seem to intimate that he frequently borrows without acknowledgment. Galle was more successful in a very correct edition of “ Lactantius," published at Leyden in 1660. He had also begun an edition of “ Minutius Felix,” but did yot live to complete it.
GALLINI (Sir John), a native of Italy, a celebrated stage-dancer and dancing-master, some time pateytee of the opera-house, and always proprietor of the concert-rooms in Hanover-square, seems to merit some notice, although rather from the fashion, than the worth of bis character. He came into this country early in life, after having obtained considerable distinction as a dancer at Paris, and first appeared on our opera stage in 1759, where his style of dancing pleased very much, and performed in 1759 in the opera of “ Farnase,” composed by Perez, where he is styled “ Il Signor Giovanni Andrea Gallini, director of the balli, and principal dancer,” and occasionally appeared on the same stage until 1763, after which his name is no longer to be foun! in books of the Jyric theatre, either as ballet-master or principal dancer.
It was soon after his professional celebrity at the operahouse that he married lady Elizabeth Bertie, sister of the late earl of Abingdon. Admitted at first as a dancingmaster, by his vivacity, talents, knowledge of the Italian language, and manners, he so insinuated himself into the favour of this noble family, as to bring about this not very creditable alliance. Many ridiculous stories were in circu
Moreri, - Dict. Hist.Reimarus de Vita Fabricii.-Saxii Onomast.
lation at the time, of signor Gallini's expectations of the honours which would accrue to him by his marriage into a noble family ; which he imagined would confer on him the title of My lord. But be was soon convinced of his mistake, and content with an inferior title. When the marriage became a subject of conversation, Dr. Burney happened to hear in the gang-way of the opera pit the following conversation. One of two ladies going into the front boxes, says to the other, “ It is reported that one of the dancers is married to a lady of quality ;" when Gallini, who happened to be in the passage near the lady who spoke, says, "Lustrissima, son io.”—“And who are you?” demanded the lady.-—“ Eudenza, mi chiamo signor Gallini esquoire.” This match, as is usual with such disproportioned alliances, was not the source of permanent feJicity. They lived asunder many years. Lady Elizabeth died Aug. 17, 1804, aged 80.
By his great benefits at the theatre, and fashion as a dancing-master at the principal schools and houses of the nobility and gentry, he, with unwearied diligence and excessive parsimony, bad accumulated a fortune sufficient to purchase in 1786 the patent of the opera house, , when he became sole impresario of that theatre.
It was after this period, in going to Italy to engage performers, that he obtained his title at Rome of the pope, who made him “ Cavaliere del speron d'Oro,” knight of the golden spur, the only order wbich bis holiness has to bestow. But lord Kenyon, when his title was introduced in court on a trial, refused to acknowledge it, and treated the assumption with indignation and contempt. Sir John, however, continued to retain it, and was abetted by the public.
Although he was extremely worldly, dextrous at a bargain, and cautivus in his dealings with mankind, be became an unfortunate projector in his attempt at a rapid increase of his property. The rooms in Hanover-square, we believe, were very productive, as he let every floor and every room, not only to concerts, balls, and assemblies, but to exhibitions, lectures, and lodgers of all kinds, scarcely allowing himself a habitable apartment for his own residence. When the opera house was burned down in 1789, he advanced 30,0001. towards rebuilding it, and sent an architect to Italy to procure plans of all the great theatres of that country, out of which to choose the most
eligible for the new construction; but it has been generally believed, that by some jumble of clashing interests, or chicane of law, the management was taken out of his hands, and he not only lost his power but his money. While the great theatre in the Haymarket was rebuilding, sir John fitted up the opposite little theatre as a temporary opera house, but it was so small and inconvenient, that it could not contain an audience sufficient to cover his expences. The next year the Pantheon was transformed ivto an opera house before that in the Haymarket was finished; and the unfortunate knight of the golden spur, tired of the squabbles and accidents which happened previous to the opening of his new theatre, sold his patent, and afterwards wholly confined himself to the produce of his Hanoversquare rooms, and the exercise of his profession as a dancing-master, to the end of his life.
Indeed, at the time of the French revolution, he could not resist the temptations which were thrown out in that country for turning the peony in the purchase of the estates of the guillotined and emigrant nobility and gentry under the title of national domains. And he bought an estate near Boulogne, which cost him 30,000l. ; but of which, by the artifice of French lawyers, and connivance of the usurpers, he was never able to obtain secure possession, and at length abandoned all hopes of the estate or his money. This loss had much less effect upon his avaricious character than could be expected, considering that he was so rigid an economist, that his private life would furnish materials for a new drama on the subject of frugality. It has, however, been justly said of him, that he was generally considered as the most able teacher of his art that ever appeared in this country; and is supposed, by his incessant labours in this respect, notwithstanding his great losses, to have left money and effects to the amount of 100,0001. to portion his family, which consisted of a son and two daughters. He was a very shrewd, intelligent man, who perfectly knew the world; and, if he was not generous, he was, however, honourable in his dealings; and if few had cause to be grateful for his bounty, no one had a right to complain of his injustice.
In the height of his professional practice and favour he published a book, in which he gave a history of dancing, from its origin, and the manner in which it is practised in various parts of the world. It appeared in 1762, under the title