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of “A Treatise on the art of Dancing, by Giovanni Andrea Gallini, director of the dancers at the royal theatre in the Haymarket," 8vo. Until the more elegant “ Lettres sur la Dance" of the celebrated ballet-master Noverre, published at Stutgard in 1760, had penetrated into this country, Gallini's book was much read and talked of as a literary performance; but unluckily, in a work of M. Cahusac, published at the Hague, in three small volunes, 1754, 12mo, we find all the historical part of Gallini's treatise, with the same stories of the wonderful powers of the ancient minics Bathyllus and Pylades, at Rome, their quarrel, and the feuds it occasioned; and his biograpber seems to think that he never had literature sufficient to write an original work in his own language, or even to translate such a one as that of Noverre or Cahusac into any language. Gallini, by temperance and exercise, enjoyed a good state of health, and escaped decrepitude to the last : for it was said in the printed accounts that “ sir John Gallini, on Saturday, 5th of January, 1805, rung his bell at eight o'clock, and, upon his servant entering his chamber, ordered his breakfast to be prepared immediately, his chaise to be at the door at nine o'clock, and his chariot in waiting at three.” A few minutes after giving these directions, he complained of not being well, and said, “ I will rest till nine o'clock." In half an hour be rang bis bell again, and ordered medical assistance, as lie had a violent pain in his stomach. Dr. Hayes and Dr. Wood immediately attended; but at nine o'clock he expired without a groan, aged about 71.'
GALLOIS (John), a learned Frenchman, was born of a good family, at Paris, in 1632. He had studied divinity, ecclesiastical and profane history, philosophy, mathematics, the Oriental, together with the Italian, Spanish, EngJish, and German languages; and was deemed an universal scholar. He is now memorable chiefly for having been the first who published the “ Journal des Sçavans," in conjunction with M. de Sallo, who had formed the design of this work. The first journal was published on Jan. 5, 1665; but these gentlemen censured new books with so much severity, that the wbole tribe of authors rose up against their work, and effectually cried it down. De Sallo abandoned it entirely, after having published a third journal, in March following. Gallois was determined to
Rees's Cyclopædia.—Gent. Mag. 1805.
continue it, yet did not venture to send out a fourth journal till Jan. 1666, and then not without an humble advertisement in the beginning of it, in which it is declared, that the author “will not presume to criticize, but only simply to give an account of books.” This, and the protection shewn by the minister Colbert, who was much pleased with the work, gradually reconciled the public to the Journal. Thus began literary journals, which have been continued from that time to this under various titles, and by various authors, among whom are the names of Bayle and Le Clerc. Gallois continued his journal to 1674, when more important occupations obliged him to drop it, or rather transfer it to another person. Colbert had taken bim into his house the year before, with a view of being taught Latin by him; and the minister of state, it is said, took most of bis lessons in his coach, as he journeyed from Versailles to Paris. Voltaire observes on this occasion, that “the two men, who have been the greatest patrons of learning, Louis XIV. and Colbert, neither of them understood Latin." Gallois bad been made member of the academy of sciences in 1668, and of the French academy in 1673. He lost his patron by death in 1683; and then, being at liberty, was first made librarian to the king, and afterwards Greek professor in the royal college. He died of the dropsy in 1707; and in 1710 a catalogue of his books was privted at Paris, consisting of upwards of 12,000 volumes. It is remarkable of this learned man, that though he had served many friends by bis interest with Colbert, yet he had neglected to make any provision for himself : whence it happened, that, at the death of that minister, he was but in poor circumstances, although an abbé.'
GALLONIUS (ANTHONY), a native of Rome, where he died in 1605, excelled in theology, and was priest of the congregation of the oratory. His works were numerous, but he is chiefly known by his “ Trattato de gli instrumenti di Martirio, &c.”; “ A Treatise on the different kinds of Cruelties inflicted by the pagans on the Martyrs of the primitive Church, illustrated with engravings of the instruments of torture made use of by them." This work, first published in Italian in 1591, was compiled from unquestionable authorities. In 1594 the author translated it into Latin, and published it at Rome, under the
| Niceron, vol. VIII.-Moreri.--Chaufepie.
title “ De Sanctorum Martyrum Cruciatibus, &c." illustrated with wood cuts. It has since gone through many editions on the continent. In 1591 he published his “ History of the Virgins," also in Italian; “ The Lives of certain Martyrs," 1597, 4ro; “ The Life of St. Philip Neri ;” and “ De Monachatu Sancti Gregorii," the account of St. Gregory when a monk, in 1604.'
GALLUCCI (ANGELO), an Italian Jesuit, was born at Macerata in 1593, and in his thirteenth year entered the Jesuits' college, where he was educated, and where be afterwards taught rhetoric for twenty-four years. He died at Rone, Feb. 28, 1674. He is the author of some Latin orations, but principally of a history of the wars of the Netherlands, “ Commentarii de Bello Belgico," including the period from 1593 to 1609. This history, wbich is written in Latin, was published at Rome, 1671, 2 vols. fol. and in 1677 in 2 vols. 4to. It was afterwards translated into Italian by James Cellesi. His style is pure, but less flowing than his predecessor on the same subject, Strada.
GALLUCCI (JOHN PAUL), a learned Italian astronomer, who lived in the sixteenth century, and was a member of the academy of Venice, is said to have invented an instrument for observing the celestial phænomena. He published sereral works, among which are, 1.“ Della fabrica et uso eli diversi strumenti di Astronomia et Cosmografia," Venice, 1597. 2. “ Specimen Uranicum," Venice, 1593. 3.“ Celestium corporum et rerum ab ipsis pendentium Explicatio," Venice, 1605. This work has been improperly ascribed to Paulus Galvicius in the catalogue of Thuanus's library. 4. “ Theatrum mundi et temporis," Venice, 1589. 5. “ De Themate erigendo, parte fortuna, divisione Zodiaci, dignitatibus Planetarum et temporibus ad medicandum accommodatis." This is printed with “ Hasfurtus de cog. noscendis et medendis morbis ex corporum cælestium positione, cui argumenta et explicationem inscripsit,” Venice, 1584.8
GALLUCCI (TARQUINIUS), an Italian Jesuit, was born at Sabina, in Italy, in 1574, and was for some years a celebrated professor of rhetoric at Rome. He was then made rector of the Greek college in that city, where he died July 28, 1649. He published a small volume of orations on various literary arguments, an oration recited by him at
Moreri. -Gen. Dict.
: Gen, Dict.-Moreri.
the funeral of cardinal Bellarmine, also “ Virgilianæ Vindicationes,” with three commentaries on tragedy, comedy, and elegy, Rome, 1621, 4to. He was a strenuous de. fender of Virgil, in whose behalf, against Homer, be contended with madam Dacier. His most considerable publication was a commentary on Aristotle's Morals, published at Paris, 2 vols, fol. 1632-1645.'
GALLUS (CORNELIUS), an ancient Roman poet, and a person of distinction, was born at Frejus, in Provence, or as some think Friuli, in Italy. He was the particular favourite of Augustus Cæsar, who made him governor of Egypt, after the death of Antony and Cleopatra; but he was guilty of such mal-administration in his government, that he was condemned to banishment, and deprived of his estate. This disgrace so afflicted him that he put an end to his life, when he was aged about forty-three, in the year 26. Virgil has complimented him in many places; and the whole tenth eclogue is on the subject of his love to Lycoris, the poetical name of Gallus's mistress, whose cruel disdain is there lamented. Gallus had written four books of elegies on his amour, which Propertius commends; but Quintilian thinks him not so tender as Tibuk lus or Propertius. As to those six elegies which have been published under his name, the critics are agreed that they are spurious, and that they were written by Maximus Etruscus, a contemporary with Boethius. Aldus Manutius met with some fragments at Venice ascribed to Gallus; which, though written in a better taste than the former, Joseph Scaliger has proved to be also spurious. Some think he is the author of the little poem called “ Ciris," found among the works attributed to Virgil. His fragmeots have been printed with the editions of Catullus, printed in 1659, 1755, &c. ?
GALLY (HENRY), an English divine, born at Beckenham, in Kent, in August 1696, was admitted pensioner of Bene't college, under the tuition of Mr. Fawcett, May 8, 1714, and became scholar of the house in July following. He took the degree of M. A. in 1721, and was upon the king's list for that of D. D. (to which he was admitted April 25, 1728) when his majesty honoured the university of Cambridge with his presence. In 1721 he was chosen
1 Gen. Dict.-Moreri.
lecturer of St. Paul's Covent-garden, and instituted the same year to the rectory of Wavenden, or Wanden, in Buckinghamshire. The lord chancellor King appointed him his domestic chaplain in 1725, preferred bim to a prebend in the church of Gloucester in 1728, and to another in that of Norwich about three years after. He presented him likewise to the rectory of Ashney, alias Ashton, in Northamptonshire, in 1730 ; and to that of St. Giles's in the fields, in 1732; his majesty made him also one of his chaplains in ordinary in October 1735. Dr. Gally died August 7, 1769. He was the author of, 1. “ Two sermons on the Misery of Man, preached at St. Paul's Covent-garden, 1723," 8vo. 2. i The Moral Characters of Theophrastus, translated from the Greek, with notes, and a Critical Essay on Characteristic Writing," 1725, 8vo. 3. “ The Reasonableness of Church and College Fines asserted, and the Rights which Churches and Colleges have in their Estates defended," 1731, 8vo. This was an answer to a pamphlet called “ An Enquiry into the Customary Estates and Tenants of those who hold Lands of Church and other Foundations by the tenure of three Lives and twenty-one years. By Everard Fleetwood, esq." 8vo. 4. “ Sermon before the House of Commons, upon the Accession, June 11, 1739,” 4to. 5. “ Some Considerations upon Clandestine Marriages," 1750, 8vo. This was much enlarged in a second edition the year following, and had the honour afterwards to be noticed in the house of coinmons in the debates on the marriage act. 6. " A Dissertation against pronouncing the Greek language according to Accents," 1754, 1755, 8vo. 7. “A Second Dissertation," on the same subject, 8vo."
GALVANI (Lewis), from wiose vame the appellation of Galvanism was given to a supposed new principle in nature, also called animal electricity, was born Sept. 9, 1737, at Bologna, of a family, several of which had distinguished themselves in the professions of law and divinity. In his early youth he shewed a great propensity to religious austerities; but being dissuaded from entering into an order of monks, whose convent he frequented, he directed his attention to the study of medicine. He pursued this study under able masters, and gained their esteem, especially that of professor Galcazzi, who received him into
Nichos's Bowyer.-Lord Orford's Works, vol. V. p. 56,