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his house, and gave bim his daughter in marriage. To this union his success in life is in a great measure to be ascribed. In 1762, after having sustained an inaugural thesis, “ De Ossibus," he was appointed public lecturer in the university of Bologna, and reader in anatomy to the institute in that city, chiefly by the interest of his wife's relations. By the excellence of his method of teaching he obtained crowded audiences, and by his researches and experiments in physiology and comparative anatomy he established a high reputation throughout the schools of Italy. A singular accident is said to have given birth to the discovery which has immortalized his name. His wife, to whom he was most tenderly attached, being in a declining state of health, used a soup made from frogs as a restorative: and some of these animals, skinned for the purpose, happening to lie on a table in Galvani's laboratory, on which was placed an electrical machine, one of the assistants in his experiments, by accident, brought the point of a scalpel near the crural nerves of a frog lying not far from the conductor. Instantly the muscles of the limb were agitated with strong convulsions. The experiment was repeated, the fact ascertained, and a long series of new experiments, ingeniously varied, were put in execution, by which he investigated the law of nature of which accident had thus given him a glimpse. His first publication on the subject was printed for the institute at Bologna in 1791, and entitled “ Aloysii Galvani de viribus Electricitatis in motu Muscalari Commentarius.” This work immediately excited the attention of philosophers both in Italy and other countries, and the experiments were repeated and extended. In the hands of the celebrated Volta the agent was increased in power to a great extent; and, directed by the genius of sir Humphrey Davy, it has already led to most important discoveries in regard to the composition of many substances, heretofore deemed elementary, and bids fair to change the whole face of chemical science.

In conjunction with his physiological inquiries, the daties of his professorship, and his employment as a sargeon and accoucheur, in which practice he was very eminent, gave full occupation to the industry of Galvani. Besides a number of curious observations on the urinary organs, and on the organ of bearing in birds, which were published in the Memoirs of the Institute of Bologna, he drew various memoirs on professional topics, which have re


mained inedited. He regularly held learned conversations with a few literary friends, in which new works were read and commented upon.

He was a man of most amiable character in private life, and possessed of great sensibility, insomuch that the death of his wife, in 1790, tbrew him into a profound melancholy. His early impressions on the subject of religion remained unimpaired, and he was always punctual in practising its minutest rites. During the troubles in Italy he had espoused the side of the old established government, and was stript of all his offices, because he refused to take the oaths of allegiance to the new Cisalpine republic; and most of his relations perished by sudden or violent deaths, many of them in defence of their country. In a state of melancholy and poverty he retired to the house of his brother James, a man of very respectable character, and fell into an extreme debility. The republican governors, probably ashamed- of their conduct towards such a man, passed a decree for his restoration to his professional chair and its emoluments : but it was now too late. He expired Dec. 5, 1798.'

GAMA (Vasco, or VASQUEZ DI), an illustrious Portugueze, is immortalized by his discovery of the passage to the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope. The maritime town of Sines in Portugal was the place of his birth, his family was good, but not noble, till made so by the bonours he acquired. In 1497, Emanuel king of Portugal, earnestly desirous of making discoveries in those parts of the globe, appointed Gama to command an expedition to endeavour to sail round the Cape, then called the Cape of Tempests. Vasco bigbly pleased with this appointment, which suited his undaunted and adventurous spirit, sailed from the Tagus, July 8, having two ships besides his own, and a store ship. At Lisbon he was generally considered as going to certain destruction, and the whole equipment as devoted; but though, on his approach to the Cape, he actually encountered dreadful storms, his perseverance was not to be conquered. Like Columbus, he had to contend with the mutinous despondence of his own people, as well as with tbe elements, but was superior to all. Having doubled the Cape on the 20th of November, he sailed along the eastern coast of Africa, but met with inveterate

1 Rees's avd Nicholson's Cyclopædias.--Thomson's Hist, of the Royal Society. Philosophical Transactions.

hostility and treachery from the Moorish settlers, except the king of Melinda. He proceeded as far as Calicut, doubled the Cape again in April 1499, and returned to Lisbon in the space of two years and almost two months. The king and nation were overjoyed at this success, and he was created count of Vidiguere, and admiral of the Indian, Persian, and Arabian seas. Gama now rested a few years, while Cabral was sent out with thirteen ships; and John de Nova, with a reinforcement of three more, visited Calicut; but it was found that greater force was wanted, and in 1502, he set sail again, having twenty ships'under his command. He returned in September 1503, with thirteen ships laden with riches. When Emanuel, king of Portugal died, the credit of Gama continued unimpaired, and in 1524, he was by his successor, John III. appointed viceroy of India. He returned thither a third time, and established his seat of government at Cochin, but died on the 24th of December 1525, almost as soon as he was settled. He was honoured with the title of don for himself and his posterity, and created a grandee of Portugal. Gama was formed by nature to conduct the most arduous enterprises. His intrepidity, which was invincible, was not more remarkable than his sagacity and prudence: and the feelings of his heart appear to wonderful advantage, when we find him, amidst all the extravagance of public applause, after his first return from India, droop-. ing for the loss of his brother and companion of his voyage, Paulus de Gama, and unable to enjoy his fame. He had even sent his flag-ship home before him, under the command of Coello, his next officer, that he might attend and sooth the death-bed of this beloved brother. Such a victory of tenderness over ardent and successful ambition, gives a better picture of his heart than the most elaborate eulogium. The poem of Camoens, entitled “ The Lusiad," on Gama's first expedition, is now well known in this country by Mickle's able translation.'

GAMACHES (Stephen Simon), a writer of some eminence, and a member of the French academy of sciences, was born at Meulan in 1672, and, entering the church, obtained the office of canon of the Holy Cross de la Bre. tonniere, and died at Paris in 1756. He was much esteemed for his literary talents, which appeared in the following

i Moreri, Robertson's Hist, of America. VOL. XV.


works: 1. “ Physical Astronomy," 1740, 4to. 2. “ Litesary and Philosophical Dissertations,” 1755, 8vo. 3.“System of the Christian Philosopher,” 1721, 8vo. 4. “ System of the Heart,” published in 1708, under the feigned name of Clerigny. 5. “ The Elegancies of Language reduced to their Principles," a book called by one writer, the “ Dictionary of fine Thoughts,” and by others pronounced to be a work which every man who writes should read.'

GAMBARA (LORENZO), was an Italian poet of the sixteenth century, protected and beloved by cardinal Alexander Farnese, whose writings were mucli esteemed in his day, but now are thought fat and insipid. He wrote,

1. “A Latin treatise on Poetry, in wbich he dissuades Christian poets from using pagan mythology.” This was the amende honorable for many licentious and profave poems written in his youth. 2. “A Latin poem on Columbus." Also eclogues, entitled, “Venatoria,” and other productions. Muretus treats this author with the greatest contempt, but he is highly praised by Giraldi and Manutius. He died in 1556, at the age of 90.”

GAMBARA (VERONICA), an Italian poetess, born in 1485, was the daughter of the count John Francis Gambara, and was married in 1509 to Giberto X. lord of Correggio, whom she survived many years. Her natural disposition, the course of her education, and, above all perhaps, the instructions and advice of Peter Bembus, led her in her youth to devote a part of her leisure to the cultivation of her poetical talents, which through all the vicissitudes of her future life, was her occasional amusement. In 1528 she went to reside at Bologna, with a brother who was governor of that city, where she established a kind of academy that was frequented by many of the literati, who. then resided at the Roman court. On her return to Correggio, she had the honour of receiving as her guest the emperor Charles V. She died in 1550.

ller writings which had been dispersed in various collections of the time, were corrected and published by Zamboni in 1759, Brescia, 8vo, with a life of the authoress. They display a peculiar originality and vivacity, both in sentiment and language, which raise them far above those insipid effusions, which under the name of sonnets at that time inundated Italy.

9 Tiraboschi. --Moreri.-Saxii Onomast. > Tiraboschi, vol, VII. Roscoe's Leo. Moreri,


1 Dict. Hist.

GAMBOLD (JOHN), a pious bishop among the Moravian brethren, was born near Haverford West in SouthWales, and became a member of Christ-church, Oxford, where he took the degree of M. A. May 30, 1734; and was afterwards vicar of Stanton Harcourt, in Oxfordshire, to which he was presented by Dr. Secker, when bishop of Oxford. At this place, in 1740, he wrote “The Martyrdom of Ignatius, a Tragedy,” published after his death by the rev. Benjamin La Trobe with the Life of Ignatius, drawn from authentic acconuts, and from the epistles written by him from Smyrna and Troas in his way to Rome, 1773, 8vo. A sermon, which he preached before the university of Oxford, was published under the title of “ Christianity, Tidings of Joy," 1741, 8vo. In 1742 he published at Oxford, from the university-press, a neat edition of the Greek Testament, but without his name, “ Textu per omnia Milliano, cum divisione pericoparum & interpuncturâ A. Beogelii,” 12mo. Joining afterwards the Church of the Brethren *, established by an act of parliament of 1749 +, and known by the name of “ Unitas Fratrum,” or, the United Brethren; he was, for many years, the regular minister of the congregation settled at London, and resided in Neville's-court, Fetter-lane, where he preached at the chapel of the society. His connexion with these sectaries commenced in 1748, when Peter Boehler visited Oxford, and held frequent meetings with John and Charles Wesley, for the edification of awakened people, both learned and unlearned. His discourses were in Latin, and were interpreted by Mr. Gambold. He was consecrated a bishop at an English provincial synod held at Lindsey house in Nov. 1754, and was greatly esteemed for his piety and learning by several English bishops, who had

his person.

* The following particulars were com and patron, to associate with people, municated to the author of the “ Anec. auiong whom, though he might be indotes of Bowyer” by a friend who knew nocent, have been some monstrous chahim in the early part of life: “Mr. Gam racters. When he was young, he had bold was a singular, over-zealous, but nearly perished through disregard to innocent enthusiast. He had not quite

At this time he was kindly fire enough in him to form a second Si. relieved by his brother collegian in the meon Stylites. He was presented to Sian. same department ; Dr. Free, a person ton Harcourt by bishop Secker, I think well known in London; but the tale is in 1739, but cannot be certain. He not worth giving." had been only chaplain of Christ-church, + The “ Petition of the Brethren" not a student (the name give

to the

on this occasion, nost probably drawa fellows), of that royal foundation. He up by Mr. Gambold, is preserved in deserted his flock in 1742, without the " Jouroals of the House of Comgiving any notice to bis worthy diocesan mons," vol. XXV. p. 717.

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