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OUGEROUX DE BONDAROY (AUGUSTUS DENNIS), a learned Frenchman, and member of the academy of sciences, was born at Paris Oct. 10, 1732. He was the nephew of the celebrated Duhamel, and acquired a similar laste for those studies that end in objects of real utility. He travelled over Anjou and Brittany to investigate the nature of the slate-quarries, and then went to Naples to make observations on the alum mines and other natural productions. On his return he had the misfortune to lose his tutor and uncle Duhamel, to whose estate he succeeded, and 'on which be carried on very extensive agricultural improvements and experiments, and acquired by his amiable private character the esteem of every one who knew hiin. He died Dec. 28, 1789, leaving the following valuable publications: 1. " Memoires sur la formation des Os,” 1760, 8vo, in which, with some discoveries of his own, he ably defends his uncle's theory on that part of physiology. 2. « L'art de l'Ardoisier," 1762. 2. « L'art de travailler les cuirs dorés.”
4. " L'art de Tonnelier,' 1752. 5. “L'art de Coutelier.” All these form part of the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences. 6. “ Recherches sur les ruines d'Herculaneum, et sur les lumieres qui peuvent en resulter ; avec un traité sur la fabrication des mosaiques,” 1769, 8vo.
7. “ Observations faites sur les cotes de Normandie," 1773, 4to. He was the author also of a great number of miscellaneous papers in the Memoirs
of the Academy.'
| Eloges des Academiciens, vol. V.-Dict. Hist, VOL. XV.
FOUILLOU (JAMES),' a celebrated licentiate of the Sorbonne, was born in 1670 at Rochelle, where he studied ethics in the Jesuits' college. He went afterwards to Paris, and continued his studies in the community of M. Gillot, at the college of St. Barbe, including the time of his being licentiate, and was immediately nominated theoloyal of Rochelle; this office, however, he declined, nor had he ever any benefice, but the commendatory priory of St. Martin de Prunieres, in the diocese of Mende. M. Fouillou having engaged in the affair of the “ Case of Conscience,” was obliged to conceal himself in 1703, and to retire into Holland about 1705;. but the air of that country not agreeing with him, he was seized with an asthma, wbich proved incurable. He returned to Paris about 1720, and died there September 21, 1736, aged sixty-six, leaving several theological works, all anonymous, and all discovering great opposition to the bull Unigenitus. The principal are, 1. “Considerations sur la Censure of the Cas de Conscience) de M. l’Eveque d'Apt.” 2.“ Defense des Theologiens contre M. de Chartres," 12mo. 3. “Traité sur le Silence respectueux,” 3 vois. 12mo. 4. “ La Chimere du Jansenisme, et le Renversement de la Doctrine de St. Augustin, par l'Ordonnance de Luçon, et de la Rochelle," 12mo. 5. “ Traité de l'Equilibre," a small piece containing observations on the 101 propositions censured by the bull Unigenitus. Fouillou had also a great share in the first edition of “ L’Action de Dieu sur les Creatures,” 410, or 6 vols. 12mo; “ Gemissemens sur PortRoral,” 12mo; “ Grands Hexaples,” 1721, 7 vols. 4to, and « l'Histoire du Cas de Conscience,” 1705, S vols. 12mo.'
FOULIS (Robert and ANDREW), two learned printers of Scotland, were, it is supposed, natives of Glasgow, and passed their early days in obscurity. Ingenuity and perseverance, however, enabled them to establish a press from which have issued some of the finest specimens of correct and elegant printing which the eighteenth century has produced. Even Bodoni of Parma, or Barbou of Paris, have not gone beyond some of the productions from the press of Robert and Andrew Foulis. It would be highly agreeable to trace the progress of these ingenious men, but their history has been neglected by their coun
Moreri. L'Avocat's Dict. Histo
trymen, and at this distance little can be recovered. Robert Foulis began printing about 1740, and one of his first essays was a good edition of Demetrius Phalereus, in 4to. In 1744 he brought out his celebrated immaculate edition of Horace, 12mo, and soon afterwards was in partnership with his brother Andrew. Of this edition of Horace, the sheets, as they were printed, were hung up in the college of Glasgow, and a reward was offered to those who should discover an inaccuracy. It has been several times reprinted at Glasgow, but not probably with the same fidelity. The two brothers then proceeded in producing, for thirty years, a series of correct and well printed books, particularly classics, which, either in Greek or Latin, are as remarkable for their beauty and exactness as any in the Aldine series. Among those classics we may enumerate 1. “ Homer," 4 vols. fol. Gr. 2. “ Herodotus," 9 vols. 12mo. 3. “ Thucydides,” 8 vols. 12mo. 4. “ Xenophon," 8 vols, 12mo. 5. “ Epictetus,” 12mo. 6. “ Longinus," 12mo. 7. “ Ciceronis Opera,” 20 vols. 12mo. 8. “ Horace," 12mo and 4to. 9. “ Virgil,” 12mo. 10. “ Tibullus and Propertius," 12mo. 11. “ Cornelius Nepos,” 3 vols. 12ino. 12. “ Tacitus," 4 vols. 12mo. 13. “ Juvenal and Persius," 12mo. 14. “ Lucretius," 12mo. To these may be added a beautiful edition of the Greek Testament, small 4to ; Gray's Poems ; Pope's Works; Hales of Eton, &c. &c. &c.
It is a melancholy reflection that the taste of these worthy men for the fine arts at last brought about their ruin ; for having engaged in the establishment of an'academy for the instruction of youth in painting and sculpture in Scotland, the enormous expence of sending pupils to Italy, to study and copy the ancients, gradually brought on their decline in the printing business; and they found the city of Glasgow no fit soil to transplant the imitative arts into, although the literary genius of Greece and Rome had already produced them ample fortunes. Unsuccessful as they were, however, in this project, it ought not to be forgot that Robert Foulis, with whom it originated, was the first who endeavoured to establish a school of the liberal arts in Great Britain. Andrew Foulis died in 1774 ; and Robert in 1776 exhibited and sold at Christie's in Pall Mall, the remainder of his paintings. The catalogue forms 3 vols.; and the result of the sale was, that after all the concomitant expences were defrayed, the balance in
his favour amounted only to the sum of fifteen shillings. He died the same year, on his return to Scotland.'
FOULON or FOULLON (JOHN ERARD), a German divine and historian, was born at Liege, of an ancient and distinguished family, in 1609; and in 1625 he entered the order of the Jesuits. His tutors, observing that his qualifications were peculiarly adapted to the duties of a preacher, took care to instruct him in the requisites for undertaking the office, and he became celebrated for his public services for more than thirty years, as well as for his extensive knowledge, wbich embraced every branch of science. He was successively appointed rector of the colleges at Huy and Tournay, and died of a pestilential disorder in the latter city, in 1668. He is known as an author by many theological pieces, particularly “ Commentarii Historici et Morales ad libros I. et II. Machabæorum, additis liberioribus Excursibus," in 2 vols. folio; and by his “ Historia Leodiensis, per Episcoporum et Principum Seriem digesta ab origine populi usque ad Ferdinandi Bavari tempora,” &c. in 3 vols. fol. This work, though not very ably executed, is said to throw much light on the history of the Low Countries.”
FOULON (WILLIAM), a Dutch Latin poet, styled by himself, in allusion to his real name, Gulielmus Gnaphæus, was born in 1483, at the Hague, and became master of a school in that place. He wrote several comedies in Latin, which sometimes have been sought by foreign collectors, rather as rare than for their intrinsic nierit; yet the “ AcoJastus” is common and cheap in this country. We know of three of these comedies: 1. “ Martyrium Johannis Pistorii," Leyden.. 2. “ Hypocrisis,” a tragi-comedy, 1554. 3. “ Acolastus, de filio prodigo,” a comedy : all in 8vo. He died at Horden in Friezeland, where he had arrived to the rank of a burgomaster, in 1558. Many critics would say that nothing very lively could be expected in the comedies of a Dutch burgomaster. His “ Acolastus" was reprinted at Paris, in 1554, with elaborate notes by Gabriel Prateolus ; and is said, in the title, to be formed so diligently of sentences from Plautus and Terence, that to interpret it might serve as an extensive comment on both those authors.
Nichols's Bowyer.---Lemoine's Hisi. of Printing. 2 Moreri.- Foppen Bibl. Belg.