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whole Duty of a Communicant,” &c. with bishop Gauden's name prefixed to it.'

GAUDENTIUS (St.), bishop of Brescia, about the end of the fourth and the beginning of the fifth century, was elected to that see by the prelates and the people of the province, while performing a journey of devotion to the

appears that he was very reluctant to take upon him the office. Having at length accepted it, he was sent in the year 405 to Constantinople, with the legates of pope Innocent, to re-establish St. Chrysostom in his see, and to hold a general council. The time of his death is fixed by some at the year 410, and by others at 427. The 25th of October is celebrated as his day. He was author of several works, a life of his predecessor Philaster, and of letters and other pieces, which are inserted in the fifth volume of the “ Bibliotheca Patrum ;" but the most complete edition of his works was published at Brescia, in 1738, by Paul Galeardi, a canon of Brescia, His style is plain, but neither animated nor correct.:

GAULMIN (GILBERT), a French minor author, who while he lived, contrived to establish a fame superior to his real deserts, by haranguing in societies of beaux and ladies, was born in 1587. He became a counsellor of state, and died in 1667. His works are, 1. “ Notes and Commentaries on Psellus, and on Theodore Prodomus." 2. “ Notes on the Treatise of an anonymous Rabbi, concerning the life and death of Moses," 1629, 8vo. 3. “ Remarks on the false Callisthenes." 4. " An edition of the Romance of Ismenus and Ismenias, in Greek and Latin," 1618, 8vo. 5. Poems, consisting of Epigrams, Odes, Hymns, and a Tragedy." He had a competent knowledge of ancient and modern languages, and is allowed to have had some fire in his compositions, though such as greatly wanted the regulation of judgment. Another instance of his imprudence occurs in the case of his marriage. His curate having refused to marry him, he declared in his presence that he took that woman for his wife, and he lived with her afterwards as such. This occasioned an inquiry to be made into the validity of similar

| Biog. Brit.-Ath. Ox. vol. 11.--Nichols's Bowyer.—Maty's Review, vol. II. p. 253.-Gent. Mag. vol. XXIII. and XXIV.--Burnet's Own Times.---Laing's Hist. of Scotland.--Dean Barwick's Life.-Lloyd's Memoirs, fol.

Cave.-Moreri. --- Baron. Annal. Eccles.-Fabric. Bibl. Med. Lab.

marriages, which were called marriages “ A la Gaulmin," and were disallowed by the law.'

GAULTIER, or GAUTHIER (JOHN Baptist), was born about 1685, of a noble family, at Louviers. His refusing to sign the Formulary having put a stop to his degrees in the Sorbonne, he retired to the seminary of St. Magloir, and devoted himself to the study of theology. On his return home, he was appointed subdeacon of Evreux, but opposing the bull Unigenitus, was obliged to quit that diocese, upon which de Langle, bishop of Boulogne, gladly received him into his house, and ordained him priest ; from that time Gaultier was the prelate's counsellor, proctor, grand vicar, friend, and secretary. De Langle dying in 1724, Colbert bishop of Montpellier, took Gaultier to be his librarian, as was supposed, but in fact to be bis adviser, confessor, and secretary ; while he was looked upon at Montpellier merely as a quiet inoffensive man, with just abilities sufficient to take down the bishop's books and put them in order again. Colbert died in 1738, and Gaultier went the same year to Paris, where he lived as retired as at Montpellier, only visiting his native place once a year for relaxation. In the last of these journies, returning to Paris with a friend, their post-chaise was overset, and Gaultier being dangerously hurt by his fall, was carried to Gaillon as the nearest place, where he died five days after, October 30, 1755. Besides what he wrote for messrs. Langle and Colbert, he left various works on the affairs of his time, all anonymous except the largest, which has been published since his death, and is entitled “ Lettres Théologiques ..... contre le systême impie et Socinien des Peres Berruyer et Hardouin," 1756, 3 vols. 12mo. This book is the most forcible, and the most esteemed of all that have been written against P. Berruyer. Among his other works are, 1. * Relation de ce qui s'est passé durant la Maladie et la Mort de M. de Langle, Eveque de Boulogne,” 1724, 4to. “ The Preface to M. Colbert's works," 1739, 4to. 3. “ Lettre à M. Berger de Charancy, Eveque de Montpellier,” 1740, 4to ; it is known by the title of Verges d'Heliodore.” 4. “ Relation de la Captivité de la Sour Marie Desforges,” 1741, 12mo. 5. “ Les Jesuites convaincus d'Obstination à permettre l'Idolatrie dans la Chine," 1743, 12mo. 6.“ Lettre


I Moreri, - Dict. Hist.

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au sujet de la Bulle de N. S. P. le pape, concernant les Rits Malabares," 1745, 12mo. 7. “ Pope's Essay on Man proved to be impious," 1746, 12mo. 8. « The Re. futation of a Libel entitled La voix du Sage et du Peuple," 1750, 12mo. 9. “ Vie de M. Soanen, Eveque de Schez,” 1750, 4to and 12mo. 10. " Les Lettres Persannes convaincues d'Impieté,” 1751, 12mo. 11. “ Hist. abregée du Parlement de Paris, durant les Troubles du Commencement du Regne de Louis XIV." 1754, 12mo.'

GAUPP (John), an able divine and mathematician, was born at Lindau, in Swabia, in 1667, and after some education here, was sent to Ulm, and afterwards to the university of Jena, where he took the degree of M. A. and becanie a considerable proficient in mathematics. After this he spent some time in different German universities, įmproving himself in theology and mathematics, and then visited Amsterdam and London. In 1693 he was ordained, and appointed in 1728 principal pastor of Lindau. His leisure hours he devoted to mathematical and philosophical pursuits, became a lecturer in these branches of science, in which character his reputation procured him the correspondence of many of the most learned mathematicians in foreign countries. He was a practical mechanic, as well as an able illustrator of the higher branches of science; and many of the instruments wbich he made use of were constructed by himself. He had begun the erection of an observatory, but death terminated his labours in 1738. He was the author of “ Gnomonica Mechanica Universalis ;" of various calendars, and calculations and descriptions of eclipses ; of other philosophical treatises, and of sermons. His Ephemerides and astronomical observations were received by the royal academies of sciences at Paris and Berlin, and several of them were inserted in the Memoirs of those learned societies.”

GAY (John), a very popular English poet, was born in 1688, near Barnstaple, in Devonshire; and at the freeschool there, acquired a taste for classical literature, but his family estate being much reduced, his fortune was not sufficient to support him as a gentleman; and his friends, therefore, bound him apprentice to a silk-mercer in London. But this step being taken without consulting the taste and temper of the youth, the shop soon became his

1 Moreri.--L'Avocat's Dist. Hist:

2 Moreri.-Dict. Hist.

aversion, and in a few years his master, upon the offer of a small consideration, willingly consented to give up his indentures. Being thus released, he indulged himself in that course of life to which he felt himself irresistibly inclined : poetry became at once his delight and his talent; and he suffered not bis muse to be disturbed by any disagreeable attention to the expence of cultivating his mind.

These qualities recommended him to such company and acquaintance as delighted him most; and among others to Swift and Pope, who were struck with the sincerity, the simplicity of his manners, and the easiness of his temper. To the latter he addressed the first-fruits of his muse, entitled “ Rural Sports, a Georgic,” printed in 1711 *. This piece discovered a rich poetical vein, peculiar to himself, and met with some agreeable attestations of its merit, that would have been enjoyed with a higher relish, had not the pleasure been interrupted by the state of his finances; which, by an uncommon degree of thoughtlessness and cullibility t, were reduced now to a low ebb. Our poet's purse was an unerring barometer of his spirits ; which, sinking with it, left him in the apprehension of a servile dependence, a condition he dreaded above any thing that could befal bim. The clouds were, however, shortly dispelled by the kindness of the duchess of Monmouth, who appointed him her secretary in 1712, with a handsome salary. This seasonable favour seating him in a coach, though not his own, kindled his muse to new efforts. He first produced his celebrated poem called " Trivia; or the Art of Walking the Streets,” and the following year, at the instance of Pope, he formed the plan of bis “ Pastorals.” There is not perhaps in history a more remarkable example of the force of friendship in an author, than was the undertaking and finishing of this inimitable poem. Pope, in the subscription of the Hanover-club to his translation of the “ Iliad,” had been ill used by Philips their secretary, and his rival in this species of poetry. The translator highly resented the affront; and, meditating revenge, intimated to Gay how greatly it

* In the same year he published in years afterwards, who there observes, prose “ The present State of Wit;" a that Providence never designed him, character of the then periodical papers. for this reason, to be above two and See Swift's Works.

twenty. Pope's Works, vol IX. Lei. † These are the words of Swift many ter 33. VOL. XV.


was in his power to pluck the bays from this envied rival's forehead. Gay immediately engaged in his friend's quarrel, and executed his request even beyond his expectation, The rural simplicity neglected by Pope, and admired in Philips, was found, though mixed with some burlesque, only in the “ Shepherd's Week.” This exquisite piece of nature and humour came out in 1714, with a dedication to lord Bolingbroke, which Swift facetiously called the author's original sin against the court.

In the mean time the most promising views opened to . him at court; he was caressed by some leading persons in the ministry; and his patroness rejoiced to see him taken from her house the same year, to attend the earl of Clarendon, as secretary in his embassy to the court of Hanover. But, whatever were his hopes from this new advancement, it is certain they began and ended almost together; for queen Anne died in fifteen days after their arrival at Hanover. This, however, did not prove an irreparable loss; his present situation made him personally known to the succeeding royal family ; and returning home he made a proper use of it, in a handsome compliment to the princess of Wales, on her arrival in England. This address procured him a favourable admittance at the new court; and that raising a new flow of spirits, he wrote his farce, “ The What d'ye call it,” which appeared upon the stage before the end of the season, and was honoured by the presence of the prince and princess. The profits, likewise, brought some addition to his fortune ; and his poetical merit being endeared by the sweetness and sincerity of his nature, procured him an easy access to persons of the first distinction. With these he passed his time with much satisfaction, notwithstanding his disappointment in the hopes of favours from the new court, where he met with nothing more valuable than a smile. In 1716 he made a visit to his native county at the expence of lord Burlington, and repaid his lordship with an humourous account of the journey. The like return was made for Mr. Pulteney's favour, who took bim in his company the following year to Aix, in France.

This easy travelling, with some decent appointments, was one of the highest relished pleasures of Gay's life, and never failed of calling forth his muse. Soon after his return from France, he introduced to the stage “ The Three Hours after Marriage." His friends Pope and Arbuthnot

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