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buttresses that, stretching over the said ailes, support the upper walls, the rich open battlenient which surmounts these walls; and the elegant sweep that contracts them to the size of the great eastern window: the two gorgeous canopies which crown the extreme turrets, and the profusion of elegant carved work that covers the whole east front, tapering up to a point, where we view the breathing statue of the pious founder resting upon his chosen emblem, the Pelican. In a word, neglected and mutilated as this work has been during the course of nearly three centuries, it still warrants us to assert, that if the whole cathedral had been finished in the style of this portion of it, the whole island, and perhaps all Europe, could not have exhibited a gothic structure equal to it*."
His last appearance in parliament was in 1523 ; he had then been nearly five years deprived of his sigbt, which he never recovered. Wolsey endeavoured to persuade bim to resign his bishopric to him, and accept of a pension, but this he rejected, asserting, according to Parker, that " Tho' by reason of his blindness he was not able to distinguish white from black, yet he could discern between true and false, right and wrong; and plainly enough saw, without eyes, the malice of that ungrateful man, which he did not see before. That it behoved the cardival to take care not to be so blinded with ambition as not to foresee his own end. He needed not trouble himself with tbe bishopric of Winchester, but rather should mind the king's affairs.”
His last days were spent in prayer and meditation, which at length became almost uninterrupted both day and night. He died Sept. 14, 1528, and was buried in the fine chantry which he built for that purpose in Winchester cathedral, immediately behind the high altar, on the south side. During his residence here, he was indefatigable in preaching, and exciting the clergy to their duty. He was also unbounded in his charities to the poor, whom he assisted with food, clothes, and money; at the same time exer
• Milner's History of Winchester, ferent parts of the church, with their vol. II. p. 19, 20. On the top of the names inscribed on the face of the wall which he built round the presby- chest, and a crown on each. But the fery, he placed, in leaden chests, three havock of fanaticism in the late civil 'on a side, the bones of several of the war deranged the bones, which were West Saxon kings and bishops, and some collected again as well as circumstances later princes, who had been originally permitted, 1661. Googh, Vetusta Moburied behind the bigh altar, or in dit. pumenta, rol. Il. plate L
cising hospitality, and promoting the trade of the city, by a large establishment which be kept up at Wolvesey, of two bundred and twenty servants.
“ His character," says Mr. Gough,“ may be briefly summed up in these two particulars : great talents and abilities for business, which recommended him to one of the wisest princes of the age; and not less charity and munificence, of which he has left lasting monuments.” OF his writings, we have only an English translation of the " Rule of St. Benedict," for the use of his diocese, printed by Pinson, 1516, and a Letter to cardinal Wolsey, the subject of which is the cardinal's intended visi. tation and reformation of the clergy. Fox expresses his great satisfaction at any measures which might produce so desirable an effect. The general and respectful style of this letter either affords a proof of Fox's meek and conciliatory temper, or suggests a doubt whether our historians have not too implicitly followed each other in asserting that Wolsey's ingratitude was the principal cause of his retiring from court. That Wolsey was ungrateful may be inferred from the preceding quotation from archbishop Parker, but Fox's discovery of it, there implied, was long subsequent to his leaving the court; and it is certain that in the letter now mentioned, and in another written in 1526, be addresses the cardinal in terms of the utmost res spect and affection. Of these circumstances Fiddes and Grove, the biographers of Wolsey, have not neglected to avail themselves, but they have suppressed all notice of his offer to Fos respecting the resignation of the bishopric.
The foundation of Corpus Christi college was preceded by the purchase of certain pieces of land in Oxford, belonging to Merton college, the nunnery of Godstow, and the priory of St. Frideswyde, which he completed in 1513. But his design at this time went no farther than to found & college for a warden and a certain number of monks and secular scholars belonging to the priory of St. Swithin, in Wincbester, in the manner of Canterbury and Durham colleges, which were similar nurseries in Oxford for the priories of Canterbury and Durham. The buildings for this purpose were advancing under the care of William Vertue, mason, and Humphrey Cook, carpenter and master of the works, when the judicious advice of Hugh Oldham, bishop of Exeter, induced him to enlarge his plan to one of more usefulness and durability. This prelate, an emi
nent patron of literature, and a man of acute discernment, is said to have addressed him thus : “ What! my lord, shall we build houses, and provide livelihoods for a company of monks, whose end and fall we ourselves may live to see? No, no, it is more meet a great deal, that we should have care to provide for the increase of learning, and for such as who by their learning shall do good to the church and commonwealth.” These arguments, strengthened probably by others of a similar tendency, induced Fox to imitate those founders who had already contributed so largely to the fame of the university of Oxford. Accordingly, by licence of Henry VIII. dated Nov. 26, 1516, he obtained leave to found a college for the sciences of divinity, philosophy, and arts, for a president and thirty scholars, graduate and not graduate, more or less according to the revenues of the society, on a certain ground between Merton college on the east, a lane near Canterbury college (afterwards part of Christ-church), and a garden of the priory of St. Frideswyde on the west, a street or lane of Oriel college on the north, and the town wall on the south, and this new college to be endowed with 350l. yearly. The charter, dated Cal. Mar. 1516, recites that the founder, to the praise and honour of God Almighty, the most holy body of Christ, and the blessed Virgin Mary, as also of the apostles Peter, Paul, and Andrew, and of St. Cuthbert and St. Swithin, and St. Birin, patrons of the churches of Exeter, Bath and Wells, Durham, and Winchester, (the four sees which he successively filled) doth found and appoint this college always to be called CORPUS CHRISTI College. The statutes are dated Feb. 13, 1627, in the 27th year of his translation to Winchester, and according to them, the society was to consist of a president, twenty fellows, twenty scholars, two chaplains, two clerks, and two choristers.
But wbat conferred an almost immediate superiority of reputation on this society, was the appointment of two lectures for Greek and Latin, which obtained the praise and admiration of Erasmus and the other learned men who were now endeavouring to introduce a knowledge of the classics as an essential branch of academic study. With this enlightened design, the founder invited to his new college Ludovicus Vives, Nicholas Crucher the mathematician, Clement Edwards and Nicholas Utten, professors of Greek; Thomas Lupset, Richard Pace, and other
men of established reputation. This, Mr. Warton observes, was a new and noble departure from the narrow plan of academical education. The course of the Latin lecturer was not confined to the college, but open to the students of Oxford in general. He was expressly directed to drive barbarism from the new college, barbariem e nostro alveario pro virili si quando pullulet e.rtirpet et ejiciat. The Greek lecturer was ordered to explain the best Greek classics, and those which Fox specified on this occasion, are the purest in the opinion of modern times. But such was the temper of the age, that Fox was obliged to introduce his Greek lectureship, by pleading that the sacred canons had commanded, that a knowledge of the Greek tongue should not be wanting in public seminaries of education. By the sacred canons he meant a decree of the council of Vienne, in Dauphiny, promulged so early as 1311, which enjoined that professorships of Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic, should be instituted in the universities of Oxford, Paris, Bononia, Salamanca, and the court of Rome. This, however, was not entirely satisfactory. The prejudices against the Greek were still so inveterate, that the university was for some time seriously disturbed by the advocates of the school-learning. The persuasion and example of Erasmus, who resided about this time in St. Mary's college, had a considerable effect in restoring peace, and more attention was gradually bestowed on the Jearned languages, and this study, so curiously introduced under the sanction of pope Clement's decree of Vienne, proved at no great distance of time, a powerful instrument in effecting the reformation. Those who would deprive Clement of the liberality of his edict, state his chief motive to have been a superstitious regard for the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, because the superscription on the cross was written in these languages.'
FOX (HENRY), LORD HOLLAND, the first nobleman of that title, was the second and youngest son of the second marriage, of sir Stephen Fox, and brother of Stephen first earl of Ilchester. He was born in 1705, and was chosen one of the members for Hendon, in Wiltshire, on a vacancy, in March 1735, to that parliament which met Jan. 23, 1734; and being constituted surveyor-general of
| Chalmers's Hist. of Oxford.-Life in Biog. Brit. and especially that by Mr. Gough, in the Vetusta Monumenta.-Wood's Colleges and Halls.--Ath. Ox. vol. I. ---Jortin's Erasmus, &c.
bis majesty's board of works, a writ was ordered June 17, 1737, and he was re-elected, In the next parliament, summoned to meet June 25, 1741, he served for Wind. sor; and in 1743, being constituted one of the commissioners of the treasury, in the administration formed by the Pelbams, a writ was issued Dec. 21st of that year, for a new election, and he was re-chosen. In 1746, on the restoration of the old cabinet, after the short administration of earl Granville, he was appointed secretary at war, and sworn oue bis majesty's most honourable privy-council On this occasion, and until he was advanced to the peerage, he continued to represent Windsor in parliament, In 1754, the death of Mr. Pelham produced a vacancy in the treasury, which was filled up by bis brother the duke of Newcastle, who, though a nobleman of high honour, unblemished integrity, and coosiderable abilities, yet was of too jealous and unstable a temper to manage the house of communs with equal address and activity, and to guide the reins of government without a coadjutor at so arduous a conjuncture. The seals of chancellor of the exchequer and secretary of state, vacant by the death of Mr. Pelbam, and by the promotion of the duke of Newcastle, became therefore the objects of contention. The persons who now aspired to the management of the house of commons, were Mr. Fox and Mr. Pitt (afterwards earl of Chatham) whose parliamentary abilities had for some time divided the suffrages of the nation ; who had so long fostered reciprocal jealousy, and who now became public rivals for power. Both these rival statesmen were younger brothers, nearly of the same age; both were educated at Eton, both distinguished for classical knowledge, both commenced their parliamentary career at the same period, and both raised themselves to eminence by their superior talents, yet no two characters were ever more contrasted. Mr. Fox inherited a strong and vigorous constitution, was profuse and dissipated in his youth, and after squandering his private patrimony, went abroad to extricate himself from his embarrassments. On his return he obtained a seat in parliament, and warmly attached himself to sir Robert Walpole, whom he idolized; and to whose patronage he was indebted for the place of surveyor-general of the board of works. His marriage in 1744 with lady Caroline Lennox, danghter of the duke of Richmond, though at first displeasing to the family, yet finally