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by his descendant the late rev. William Gilpin. The pres sent article has reached its 'utmost length, but will not be useless if it direct the attention of the reader to one of the most exemplary pieces of biography in our language. It remains only to notice, that after a life devoted to every virtue that can dignify the character of an ecclesiastic, he found himself in February 1583 so weak, from a fall, and the infirmities of age, as to be sensible that his end was drawing near. He told his friends of his apprehensions, and spoke of his death with great composure. He was soon confined to his chamber; but retained his senses to the last. A few days before his death, he desired his friends, acquaintance, and dependents, &c. might be called into bis chamber; and being raised in his bed, addressed himself to them on matters of eternal concern. He also sent for several persons, who had hitherto made no good use of his advice, and upon whom he imagined bis dying words might have a better effect, but bis speech began to faulter before he bad finished his exhortations. The remaining hours of his life he spent in prayer, and broken conversation with some select friends, mentioning often the consolations of the gospel, declaring they were the only true ones, and that nothing else could bring a man peace at the last. He died March 4, 1583, in the sixtysixth year of his age.
Tbus died Bernard Gilpin, who, for his exemplary piety, Jaborious virtue, and unbounded benevolence, deserves to have his name transmitted to posterity with respect and reverence, and who obtained, and most deservedly, among his contemporaries, the title of the Northern Apostle. By his unwearied application he had amassed a great stock of knowledge, and was indeed ignorant of no part of learning at that time in esteem. “He had given more than common attention to the study of the dead languages, to history and divinity; he is said to have excelled in poetry, but he expended little time in the pursuit of any thing that was foreign to his profession. His temper was naturally warm, but; by degrees, he succeeded in obtaining an entire command of himself. His disposition was serious, yet, ainong his particular friends, he was cheerful and even facetious. His severity had no other object but himself: to others he was mild, candid, and indulgent. His “ Sermon preached at the court at Greenwich, before K. EJkard VI.” in 1552, is the only revised composition of Mr.
Gilpin's that has survived him. It is printed in his Life by bishop Carleton, 1636, 12mo, fourth edition ; and in that more elaborate and elegant life by his descendant; first printed in 1753, 8vo."
GILPIN (RICHARD), a nonconformist divine and phy.sician, probably of the same family with the preceding, was a native of Cumberland, and educated in Queen's college, Oxford, whence he took the degree of M. D. but afterwards entered into holy orders, and became minister of Greystock, in his own county; but preached with great applause in London, at Lambeth, the Savoy, &c. and in many other parts of the kingdom ; till he was silenced for refusing to comply with the act of uniformity, 1663. He afterwards practised physic in the north of England, particularly at Newcastle, where he was greatly esteemed by all that knew liim, both as a physician and a divine. He died in 1657. He was the author of several treatises; but his discourse on “Satan's Temptations,” 1677, 4to, is most esteemed. ?
GILPIN (Sawrey), a late artist, and a descendant of the Apostle of the North, was born at Carlisle in 1733, from whence, after having acquired some relish for the art from his father, who was a captain in the army, he came to London, and was articled to a ship-painter. His first interesting works were composed of some market groups which struck his eye from his window. Soon after he went to Newmarket, being encouraged by the late William, duke of Cumberland, where he executed many compositions which might have vied with Hogarth in point of character. In the duke's stud he acquired that knowledge of the horse, which he afterwards displayed with such superior spirit and beauty; and when we see with what felicity he applied it to the higher departments of the art, to historic compositions in the triumph of Camillus, the election of Darius, the story of Phaeton, we must lament that such talents should have been drawn aside to the meaner employment of horse-portrait painting, which occupied too much of bis valuable life.
His drawings of animals, in pencil and water-colours, display a degree of taste and skill seldom attained. Many of his most capital pictures are in the possession of noblemen and collectors; his chef-d'auvre, a group of tigers, is
I Lives as abore. -- Biog. Britannica.
in the possession of S. Whitbread, esq. The etchings of cattle which accompany his brother's descriptive writings, are his productions. As a man he was equally esteemed for probity of character and simplicity of manner, and, as a member of the royal academy, he added honour to the institution. He died at Brompton, March 8, 1807, three years after his learned and amiable brother, the rev. William Gilpin."
GIN (Peter Louis CLAUDE), a voluminous and useful French writer of the last century, was born at Paris, Nov. 17, 1726, and being educated in the profession of the Jaw, became successively counsellor of the parliament of Paris, and member of the grand council. He died in that city in 1807. His countrymen owe to him various translations, which are held in high repute, particularly one of Homer, first printed in 1784, 8vo, of which there were afterwards two splendid editions printed by Didot; and translations of Hesiod, Theocritus, Demosthenes, and Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield. His original works were, 1. “ Traité de l'eloquence de barreau," 1767, 12mo. 2. “ De la Religion, par un homme du monde," 1778, and following years, 5 vols. 8vo. This work, though loaded with a superabundance of quotations, which render it too prolix, was well received. In 1785 he published a judicious abridgment of it, under the title of “ Nouveaux Melanges de Philosophie et de la Litterature," exhibiting in a regular plan the fundamental principles of religion in general, and the moral government of the Deity. 3. “Les vrais principes du Governement Française," Geneva, Svo, Paris, 8vo, and 2 vols. 12mo. 4. “ Analyse raisonnée du droit Français," Paris, 1782, 4to. ?
GIOCONDO. See JOCUNDUS.
GIOIA (Flavio), to whom the invention of the compass has been ascribed, was a Neapolitan, and born about the year 1300. At that time the sovereigns of Naples were younger branches of the royal family of France; and, to mark the circumstance of this invention of the compass originating with a subject of Naples, Gioia distinguished the north with a fleur de lis, a particularity which has been adopted by all nations, to whom the use of this instrument is known. Some have pretended that the ancients
I Pilkington, by Faelic-Geat. Mag. vol. LXXVII, 2 Dici. Hist.
were not ignorant of the power of the magnet; but it is certain that Pliny, who often speaks of the load-stone, knew nothing of its appropriate direction to the pole. Some authors also have conferred the honour of this important discovery on the Chinese, and it has by Dr. Wallis been ascribed to the English. However this may be, the territory of Principato, which is part of the kingdom of Naples, and in which place Gioia was born, bears a compass for its arms. If it be only an improvement of an invention, though but partially known, which may be imputed to Gioia, he is without dispute entitled to a distinguisbed place in the rank of those who have contributed to the benefit of society.'
GIORDANI (VITAL), a skilful mathematician, was born December 13, 1633, at Bitonto. He spent his youth in idleness and debauchery, and married a young woman without any fortune; and having killed one of his brothersin-law, who reproached him with his indolence and laziness, he entered as a soldier in a fleet fitted out by the pope agaiust the Turks. The admiral, finding that he did not want genius, gave him a writer's place which happened to be vacant; and Giordani, being obliged in consequence to learn arithmetic, eagerly studied that of Clavius, and acquired a taste for mathematics. Returning to Rome, in 1659, he was made keeper of the castle of St. Angelo, and devoted the leisure that office afforded him to mathematical studies, in which he made so rapid a progress, that queen Christina chose him for her mathematician during her stay at Rome; aud Louis XIV. appointed him to teach mathematics in the academy of painting and sculpture which he had founded in that city, 1666. Giordani was made engineer to the castle of St. Angelo by pope Clement X., appointed mathematical professor at the college della Sapienza 1685, and admitted into the academy of the Arcadi, May 5, 1691. He died November 3, 1711. His principal
“ Euclide restituto,” folio; “De componendis gravium momentis," folio; “ Fundamentum doctrinæ mo. tus gravium,” 1705, folio; “Ad Hyacinthum Christophorum Epistola,” 1705, folio. ?
GIORDANO (LUCA), an eminent artist, was born at Naples, in 1629, and at first was the disciple of Spagno
| Moreri.-Cyclopaedia, art. COMPASS.
Moreri.--Niceron, vol. Ill...Dict. Hist.
letto, and afterwards of Pietro da Cortona. When he quitted the school of the latter, he went to Lombardy, to study Corregio ; and then travelled to Venice, to improve himself by the colouring and compositions of the best Venetian artists. He had a fruitful imagination, and a surprising readiness and freedom of hand; his tone of colouring is agreeable; and his design, when he chose, correct. He studied the manners and particularities of the greatest masters with such care and judgment, and possessed so happy a memory, that he not only retained in his mind a distinct idea of the style of every celebrated master, but had the skill and power to imitate them with such a critical exactness, as to deceive even the ablest connoisseurs. In his early time this might have been the effect of study, and an attempt to arrive at excellence; but we may observe the same disposition of mind in those pictures which he painted in the best periods of his life, inany of them being in the peculiar manner of Titian, Tintoretto, Guido, and Bassan. Some of those paintings are so like, that it is said there are in the most capital collections in England, some called Titian's which are incontestably the sportings of Giordano's pencil. One of his most considerable productions is the altar-piece of the church of the Ascension at Naples, representing the fall of Lucifer. And at Genoa, is a fine picture of Seneca dying in the Bath ; of which, also, there is a duplicate in the gallery at Dresden. In Spain he executed many compositions at Madrid, Toledo, and at the Escurial; and employed only two years to paint ten arched ceilings of the church and staircase of that palace. He was exceedingly industrious, generally painting six or seven hours every day; and being highly favoured by the king, became exceedingly rich. In 1692 he first arrived at Madrid, and did not return to Italy till 1702, when he accompanied "Philip V. tó Naples, and in 1704 died there. The appellation of “Luca fa Presto" was accidentally applied to Giordano; not on account of the fame he had acquired by his expeditious manner of painting, but from the mercenary eagerness of his father, who , sold at a high price the designs of Luca, which he made after the compositions of the great masters, while he pursued his studies. The father of Luca scarce allowed him time to refresh himself, but still said to bim while he was at his meals as well as at his work, “ Luca, fa presto," or, " Luca, make haste;"