« 이전계속 »
from which expression perpetually uttered, his companions gave him the nick-name of “ Fa Presto." I
GIORGI (AUGUSTINE ANTHONY), an Italian ecclesias. tic of considerable learning, was born in 1711 at St. Maur in the diocese of Rimini. In 1727 he entered the Augus. tin order, and studied in their various schools at Verona, Bologna, Padua, &c. where he became an accomplished scholar, particularly in the oriental languages... He afterwards was professor at various Italian seminaries until 1745, when pope Benedict XIV. invited him to Rome to the theological chair of La Sapienza, which he filled with great reputation for some time. The same pontiff also made him librarian del Angelica, and ordered him to efface from the Index Expurgatorius of the Spanish inquisition, the works of cardinal de Novis, which that tribunal had condemned. During the height of his reputation the emperor Francis I. endeavoured to persuade him to settle at Vienna, and made him most liberal offers, which he repeatedly declined. When the missionaries were sent by the college de Propaganda to Thibet, they found themselves much embarrassed to understand the language of that country, notwithstanding the assistance afforded by Hyde, Lacroix, Vespiere, and other authors, but were much relieved by a valuable publication of Giorgi's, which appeared in 1761, entitled " Alphabetum Thibetanum,” 4to, enriched with valuable dissertations on the geography, mythology, history and antiquities of Thibet ; and in this he explains with great ability the famous manuscripts found in 1721 near the Caspian sea by some Russian troops, and sent by Peter I. to M. Bignon. His next publication was not less important to the learned world, “ Fragmentum Evangelii S. Johannis Græco-Copto Thebaicum sæculi quartı; additamentum ex vetustissimis membranis lectionum evangelicarum divinæ Missæ Cod. Diaconici reliquiæ, et liturgica alia fragmenta, &c.” Rome, 1789, 4to. His other works, enumerated by Fabroni, consist of letters, and dissertations on subjects of oriental criticism and antiqui. ties, and some polemical treatises. Among his unpublished wriungs, was one on the Greek marbles of the temple of Misztesi at Rimini. Giorgi died May 4, 1797.'
Pixlr and Strutt. - Argenville, vol. II. - Reynolds's Works. * Pct.oci Vitæ Italorum.
GIORGIONE, an eminent artist, whose name was Gioggio BARBARELLI, but was generally known by the appellation of Giorgione, from loftiness of figure and gait, or the grandeur that stamps his style, was born at Castelfranco, in Frioul, 1477, and became the scholar of Giovanni Bellini. Even then he dismissed the minuteness which chained his master, and substituted that freedom, that disdainful superiority of handling, which, if it be not the result of manner, is the supreme attainment of execution.
Ample outlines, bold fore-shortening, dignity, and vivacity of aspect and attitude, breadth of drapery, richness of accompaniment, more natural and softer passages from tint to tint, and forcible effects of chiaroscuro, marked the style of Giorgione. This last, the great want of the Venetian school, had, indeed, already been discovered to Upper Italy, by Lionardo da Vinci. To him, or rather to certain pictures and drawings of his, all unknown to us, Vasari pretends that Giorgione owes his chiaroscuro; but neither the line and forms peculiar to Vinci, nor his system of light and shade, seem to countenance this assertion. Gracility and amenity of aspect characterize the lines and fancy of Lionardo; fulness, roundness, those of Giorgione. Fond of a much wider diffusion of shades, and gradually diminishing their mass, the Tuscan drives light to a single point of dazzling splendour. Not so the Venetian; more open, less dark, neither brown nor ferrugineous in his demi-tints, but transparent and true; to tell the whole, he is nearer to Corregio. He may, however, bave inspected and profited by the example of Lionardo, the inventor of chiaroscuro; but so as Corregio did by the fore-shortening of Mantegna. His greatest works were in fresco, of which little but the ruins remain. His numerous oil-pictures, by vigorous impasto, and fulness of pencil, still preserve their beauty. Of these, his portraits have every excellence which mind, air, dignity, truth, freshness, and contrast, can confer; he sometimes indulged in ruddy, sanguine tints, but, on the whole, simplicity is their standard. His compositions are few; the most considerable was, perhaps, that of the “ Tempest allayed,” in the school of St. Marco at Venice. Some consider as his master-piece “ Moses taken froin the Nile, , and presented to the daughter of Pharaoh," in the archiepiscopal palace at Milan, in which a certain austerity of
tone gives zest to sweetness. One large picture of a holy family is in possession of the marquis of Stafford, which is bighly laboured as to effect. But, perhaps the most perfect work of his in this country, is a small picture in the collection of the earl of Carlisle, a portrait of Gaston de Foix, with a servant putting on his armour. We are not acquainted with any picture that has more truth or beauty of colour, and style of ebaracter. It is told of Giorgione, that having a dispute concerning the superiority of sculpture or painting; and it being argued, that sculpture had the advantage, because the figures it produces may be seen all around , he took the adverse side, maintaining, that the necessity of moving, in order to see the different sides, deprived it of its superiority ; whereas the whole figure might be viewed at one glance, in a minute. To prove his position, be painted a figure, and surrounded it with mirrors, in which all the various parts were exhibited, and obtained great applause for bis ingenuity. This artist is said to have fallen in love with a young beauty at Venice, who was no less charmed with him, and submitted to be his mistress. She fell ill with the plague ; but, not suspecting it to be so, admitted Giorgione to her bed, where, the infection seizing him, they both died in 1511, he being no more than 33.'
"Argenville, vol. I.-Pilkington, by Fuseli.--Rees's Cyclopædia.
Those marked thus * are new.
*Francius, Peter ....
1 *Franck de Franckenau, G..75
2 +Franck or Old Francks ....76
6 +Francois, Laurence ..86
.6 *Francucci, Innocent .87
12 Franklin, Benjamin 88
14 +Frantzius, Wolfgang ....99
16 * Fraunce, Abraham ...,
23 Freher, Marquard . 107
36 Freigius, John Thomas ... ib.
ib. Fresnaye, J. Vauquelin de la 193
. 66 Fresne, Cha. du Cange du 124
de Sales .. ... ib. fFresnoy, Charles Alph. du 126
king of France....68 Fresny, Charles Riviere du 128
71 *Freytag, Fred. Gotthilf... 199