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to admit himself of their order in 1683. After his noviciate, and when he had finished his course of philosophy at Paris, he was sent to Caen to teach the belles lettres, where he contracted a friendship with Huet and Segrais, and much improved himself under their instructions. The former advised him to spend one part of the day upon the Greek authors, and another upon the Latin : by pursuing which method, he became an adept in both languages. Four years being passed here, he was recalled to Paris, where he spent other four years in the study of divinity. At the end of this course, he was shortly to take upon him the occupation of either preaching, or teaching; but finding in himself no inclination for either, he quitted bis order in 1694, though he still retained his usual attachment to it. Being now at liberty to indulge his own wishes, be devoted himself solely to improve and polish his understanding. He soon after assisted the abbé Bignon, under whose direction the “ Journal des Sçavans' was conducted; and he had all the qualifications necessary for such a work, a profound knowledge of antiquity, skill not only in the Greek and Latin, but also Italian, Spanish, and English tongues, a sound judgment, an ex. act taste, and a very impartial and candid temper. He afterwards formed a plan of translating the works of Plato ; thinking, very justly, that the versions of Ficinus and Serranus had left room enough for correction and amendments. He had begun this work, but was obliged to discontinue it by a misfortune which befel bim in 1709. He had borrowed, as we are told, of his friend father Hardouin, & manuscript commentary of his upon the New Testament, in order to make some extracts from it; and was busy at work upon it one summer evening, with the window half apen, and himself inconsiderately almost undressed. The cold air had so unhappy an effect in relaxing the muscles of his neck, that he could never afterwards hold his head in its natural situation. The winter increased his malady; and he was troubled with involuntary convulsive motions of the head, and with pains which often bindered him from sleeping; yet he lived nineteen years after; and though he could not undertake any literary work, constantly received visits from the learned, and conversed with them not without pleasure. He died suddenly of an apoplexy, 1728, in his sixty-second year. He had been made a member of the academy of inscriptions in 1705, and of the French academy in 1708.
His works consist of Latin poems, and a great number of very excellent 'dissertations in the Memoirs of the French academy *. His poems were published at Paris in 1729, in 12mo, with the poems of Huet, under the care of the abbé d'Olivet, who prefixed an eulogy of Fraguier ; and at the end of them are three Latin dissertations concerning Socrates, which is all that remains of the Prolegomena he had prepared for his intended translation of Plato. These dissertations, with many others upon curious and interesting subjects, are printed in the Memoirs above-mentioned.'
FRANCESCA (Pietro Della), commonly called FRANCESCO DAL BORGO A SAN SEPOLCRO, a painter of considerable renown, was born at Borgo in Umbria, in 1372. In his youth he studied the mathematics; but at fifteen years of age determined on being a painter, when he was patronised by Gindobaldo Fettro, duke of Urbino. He did not, however, so completely devote his time to painting as to neglect his former studies, but wrote several essays on geometry and perspective, which were long preserved in the duke's library at Urbino. He afterwards painted in Pesara, Ancona, and Ferrara ; but few of his works remain at either of these places. Having obtained much reputation, he was sent for to Ronie by pope Nicholas V. to paint two historical subjects in the chambers of the Vatican, in concurrence with Bramante di Milano, called Bramantino; but Julius II. destroyed these to make room for Raphael's Miracle of Bolsena, and St. Peter in Prison. Notwithstanding this degradation of his labours, before the superior powers of Raphael, he was very deserving of esteem, if the account which Vasari gives of him be true, and we consider the imperfect state of the art at the time in which he lived. He exhibited much know
* " This learned academician was into the form of a memoir, and preunable to persuade bimself that anti sented it to the academy of iuscripquity, so enlightened, and so ingenious tions and belles lettres, in 1716. M. in the cultivation of the fine arts, could Burette acquaints us that this abbé have been ignorant of the union of learned to play on the harpsichord at different parts, in their concerts of an advanced age, and concluding that voices and instruments, which be calls the ancients, to whom he generously • the most perfect and sublime part of gave all good things, could not do music;' and thinking that he bad hap- without counterpoint, made them a pily discovered, in a passage of Plato, present of that barmony, with whiệh an indubitable and decisive proof of his aged ears were so pleased."-By the apcients having possessed the art Dr. Buraey, in Rees's Cyclopædia. of counterpoint, he drew up his opinion
| Niceron, rol. XVIII.-Chaufepie.-Mureri,
ledge of anatomy, feeling of expression, and of distribus tion of light and shade. The principal work of Francesca was a night scene, in which he represented an angel carrying a cross, and appearing in vision to the emperor Constantine sleeping in his tent with his chamberlain near him, and some of his soldiers. The light which issued from the cross and the angel illuminated the scene, and was spread over it with the utmost discretion. Every thing appeared to have been studied from nature, and was executed with great propriety and truth. He also painted
a battle, which was highly commended for the spirit and fire with which it was conducted; the strength of the expression, and the imitation of nature ; particularly a groupe of horsemen, which, Vasari says, “ considering the period, cannot be too highly commended.”
Having exercised the various talents nature had bestowed upon him till he was eighty-six years old, he died in 1458.
FRANCESCHINI (MARC ANTONIO), an historical painter, born at Bologna in 1648, was at first a disciple of G. Battista Galli, and from him entered the school of Carlo Cignani, who soon discovered the talents of his pupil, and not only formed his style, but made him bis relation by marrying him to his niece, and he soon became his principal assistant. He was employed in embellishing many churches and convents in his native city, and in other parts of Italy; and particularly at Modena, he painted the grand hall of the duke's palace so much to the satisfaction of that prince, that he wished to retain him at his court by an offer of a large pension, and such honours as were due to his merit. But Franceschini preferred his freedom and ease to the greatest acquisitions of wealth, and with polite respect refused the offer. At Genoa he painted, in the great council chamber, a design that at once manifested the fertility of his invention, and the grandeur of his ideas; for most of the memorable actions of the republic were there represented with a multitude of figures nobly designed, judiciously grouped and disposed, and correctly drawn. And in the Palazzo Monti at Bologna is a small gallery painted by him, of which the colouring is exceedingly lovely, though the figures appear to want roundness. Franceschini, though of the school of
1 Vasari.- Pilkington.-Rees's Cyclopædia.
Cignani, is original in the suavity of his colour, and the facility of his execution. He is fresh without being cold, and full without being crowded. As he was a machinist, and in Upper Italy what Cortona was in the Lower, symptoms of the mannerist appear in his works. He had the habit of painting his cartoons in chiaro-scuro, and, by fixing them to the spot where the fresco was to be executed, became a judge of their effect. He preserved the powers of his mind and pencil unaltered at a very advanced age; and when he was even seventy-eiglıt years old, he designed and coloured his pictures with all that fire and spirit for which he had been distinguished in his best time. He died in 1729, at the age of eighty-one.'
FRANCHINUS. See GAFFURIUS.
FRANCIA (FRANCESCO), an historical painter, whose real name was Raibolini, was born at Bologna in 1450, and was bred to the profession of a goldsmith, which he exercised for some time with very considerable celebrity, having the coinage of the city of Bologna under his care. His desire of reputation, and his acquaintance with Andrea Mantegna and other painters, led him to the study of painting, but from whom he received the first elements of instruction is not known. In 1490 he produced a picture of the Virgin seated, and surrounded by several figures; among whom is the portrait of M. Bart. Felisini, for whoin the picture was painted. In this be still calls himself “ Franciscus Francia, aurifex," and it, with another picture of a similar subject, painted for the chapel Bentivoglio a St. Jacopo, gained him great reputation. He painted many pictures for churches, &c. in Bologna, Modena, Parma, and other cities ; but they were in the early, Gothic, dry manner, called “ stila antico moderno,” which he greatly improved upon in his latter productions. On Pietro Perugino he formed his characters of heads, and his choice of tone and colour; on Gian. Bellino, fullness of outline and breadth of drapery; and if the best evidence of his merit, the authority of Raphael, be of weight, in process of time he excelled them both. In a letter dated 1508, edited by Malvasia, Raphael declares that the Madonnas of Francia were inferior, in his opinion, to none for beauty, devoutness, and form. His idea of Francia's talents exhibited itself still stronger in his entrusting his picture of St.
" D'Argenville, vol. 11.--Pilkington.--Rees's Cyclopædia.
Cecilia, destined for the church of St. Gio da Monte at Bologna, to his care, by letter soliciting bim as a friend to see it put in its place, and if he found any defect in it, that he would kindly correct it. Vasari says that Francia died with grief in 1518, upod seeing by this picture that he was as nothing in the art, compared with the superior genius of Raphael; but Malvasia proves that he lived some years afterwards, and in an improved style produced his celebrated St. Sebastian, which Caracci describes as the general model of proportion and form for the students at Bologna. A copy of this figure still exists in the church della Misericordia.?
FRANCIABIGIO (MARCO ANTONIO), or FRANCIA BiGIO, was an historical painter, born in 1489. He studied for a short time under Albertinelli, but is chiefly known as the competitor, and in some works the partner of Andrea del Sarto. Similar in principle, but inferior to him in power, he strove to supply by diligence the defects of nature; with what success, will appear on comparison of his work in the cloister of the Nunziata at Florence, with those of Andrea at the same place. On its being uncovered by the monks, the painter in a fit of shame or rage gave it some blows with a hammer, nor ever after could be induced to finish it. He appears to have succeeded better in two histories which he inserted among the frescos of Andrea at the Scalzo, nor is he there much inferior. He likewise emulated him at Poggio a Cajano, where he represented the return of M. Tullius from exile, a work, which though it remained unfinished, shews him to great advantage. This artist died in 1524, in the prime of life. S
FRANCIS of Assisi, a celebrated saint of the Romish church, and founder of one of the four orders of mendicant friars, called Franciscans, was born at Assisi in Umbria, in 1182. He was the son of a merchant, and was christened John, but had the name of Francis added, from his facility of talking French, which he learned to qualify him for his father's profession. He was at first a young man of dissolute manners, but in consequence of an illness about 1206, he became so strongly affected with religious zeal, that he took a resolution of retiring from the world. He now devoted bimself so much to solitude, mortified himself to such a degree, and contracted so ghastly a coun: | Pilkington--Rees's Cyclopadia,