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tenance, that the inhabitants of Assisi thought him dis, tracted. His father, thinking to make him resume his profession, employed a very severe method for that purpose, by throwing him into prison; but finding this made 10 impression on him, he took him before the bishop of Assisi, in order to make him resign all claim to his paternal estate, which he not only agreed to, but stripped off all his clothes, even to his shirt. He then prevailed with great numbers to devote themselves, as he had done, to the poverty which he considered as enjoined by the gospel; and drew up an institute or rule for their use, which was approved by popé Innocent II, in 1210. The year after, he obtained of the Benedictines the church of Portiuncula, near Assisi, and his order increased so fast, that when he held a chapter in 1219, near 5000 friars of the order of Minors (so they were called) were present. Soon after he obtained also a bull in favour of his order from pope Honorius III. About this time he went into the Holy Land, and endeavoured in vain to convert the sultan Meledin. It is said, that he offered to throw himself into the flames to prove his faith in what be taught. He returned soon after to his native country, and died at Assisi in, 1226, being then only fortyfive. He was canonized by pope Gregory IX. the 6th of May, 1230; and Oct. the 4th, on which his death happened, was appointed as his festival.

His order soon rose to great splendor, and has done great services to the Roman pontiffs. Some popes, several cardinals, and a great number of prelates, and celebrated authors, have been of it. It is divided into several bodies, some of which are more rigid than others; and all strongly inherit the ancient emulation, which soon broke out between the children of St. Francis and those of St. Do. minic. Before the reformation, the Franciscans had in England about eighty convents, besides some nunneries. Those who are desirous to know more of St. Francis and his order, besides our authorities at the bottom of the page, may be referred to his life written by Bonaventure. But perbaps the most ample and circumstantial accounts are given by Luke Wadding, in the first volume of his " Annales Ordinis Minorum,” which contains a complete bistory of the Franciscan order, confirmed by a great number of authentic records. The best edition of this work is that published at Rome in 1731, and following years, in 18 vols. fol. by Joseph Maria Fonseca ab Ebora. It is to the VOL. XV.


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same Wadding that we are indebted for the “ Opuscula S. Francisci," and the “ Bibliotheca ordinis Minorum," the former of which appeared in 4to, at Antwerp, 1625, and the latter at Rome in 1650. The history of these orders will, it is hoped, be of less consequence hereafter, when a more enlightened state of society bas shown their insufficiency in the advancement of real religion, but it can never be uninteresting to know the early rise of those formidable bodies of ecclesiastics which once beld the world in awe.

The life of St. Francis, like that of most of the Romish saints, is rendered incredible and ridiculous by the addition of miracles and prodigies, the fictions of after-times, but could they be separated from what is genuine, he might probably appear an enthusiast, yet sindere in what he believed and practised.'

FRANCIS (of PAULO), another Romish saint, who to exceed his predecessor in humility, founded the order of Minims (least), as he had that of Minors (inferiors). He was born in 1416, at Paulo in Calabria. He began his career of mortification by retiring to a cell on a desert part, of the coast, where his sanctity soon obtained followers, and they ere long constructed a monastery round his cell. Thus was his order commenced. He formed a rule for it, which was approved by pope Alexander VI. and confirmed by Julius II. His rule was extremely rigorous, enjoining perpetual abstinence from wine, fish, and meat. His disciples were always to go bare-footed, never to sleep upon a bed, and to use many other mortifications. He died in France, to which country he went at the earnest solicita.. tion of Louis XI. who hoped to be cured of a dangerous malady by his presence. This event took place at Plessisdu-Parc, in 1508, when he was at the age of ninety-one. He was canonized in 1519, by Leo X. By the confession of his admirers he was perfectly illiterate.

FRANCIS DE SALES, (ST.), was born at the castle of Sales, in the diocese of Geneva, August 21, 1567. He descended from one of the most ancient and noble families of Savoy. Having taken a doctor of law's degree at Padua, he was first advocate at Chambery, then provost of the church of Geneva at Annecy. Claudius de Granier, his bishop, sent him as missionary into the valleys of his

I Gen. Dict. Mosheim and Milner's Church Hist.-- Pabrie. Bibl. Lat. Med
Batler's Lives of the Saints.

Moreri. --Butler's Lives of the Saints.

diocese to convert the Zuinglians, and Calvinists, which he is said to have performed in great numbers, and his sermons were attended with wonderful success. The bishop of Geneva chose him afterwards for bis coadjutor, but was obliged to use authority before he could be persuaded to accept the office. Religious affairs called him afterwards into France, where he was universally ésteemed; and cardinal du Perron said, “ There were no heretics whom he could not convince, but M. de Geneva must be employed to convert them.” Henry IV. being informed of his merit, made him considerable offers, in hopes of detaining him in France; but he chose rather to return to Savoy, where he arrived in 1602, and found bishop Granier had died a few days before. St. Francis then undertook the refor. mation of bis diocese, where piety and virtue soon flourished through his zeal; he restored regularity in the monasteries, and instituted the order of the Visitation in 1610, which was confirmed by Paul V. 1619, and of which the baroness de Chantal, whom he converted by his preaching at Dijon, was the foundress. He also established a congregation of hermits in Chablais, restored ecclesiastical discipline to its ancient vigour, and converted nume. rous hereties to the faith. At the latter end of 1618 St. Francis was obliged to go again to Paris, with the cardinal de Savoy, to conclude a marriage between the prince of Piedmont and Christina of France, second daughter of Henry IV. This princess, herself, chose de Sales for her chief almoner; but he would accept the place only on two conditions ; one, that it should not preclude his residing in bis diocese; the other, that whenever he did not execute his office, he should not receive the profits of it. These unusual terms the princess was obliged to consent to, and immediately, as if by way of investing him with his office, presented bim with a very valuable diamond, saying, condition that you will keep it for my sake." To which he replied, “ I promise to do so, madam, unless the poor stand in need of it." Returning to Annecy, he continued to visit the sick, relieve those in want, instruct the people, and discharge all the duties of a pious bishop, till 1622, when he died of an apoplexy at Lyons, December 28, aged fifty-six, leaving several religious works, coilected in 2 vols. fol. The most known are, “ The Introduction to a devout Life;" and “ Philo," of a treatise on the love of God. Marsollier has written his life, 2 vols. 12mo, which

66 On

was translated into English by Mr. Crathorne. He was canonized in 1665.'


FRANCIS I. king of France, surnamed “the Great, and the restorer of learning," succeeded his father in law Louis XII. who died without a son in 1515. Francis I. was the only son of Charles duke of Orleans, constable of Angoulême, and born at Cognac, September 12, 1494. Immediately after his coronation he took the title of duke of Milan, and put himself at the head of a powerful army to assert his right to that duchy. The Swiss, who defended it, opposed his enterprize, and attacked him near Marignana; but they were cut to pieces in a sanguinary contest, and about 15,000 left dead on the field. The famous Trivulce, who had been engaged in eighteen battles, called this “ The battle of the Giants,” and the others “ Children's play.” It was on this occasion that the king desired to be knighted by the famous Bayard. That rank was originally the highest that could be aspired to : princes of the blood were not called monseigneur, nor their wives madame, till they had been knighted ; nor might any one claim that honour, unless he could trace his nobility at least three generations back, both on his father's and mother's side, and also bore an unblemished character, especially for military courage and valour. The creation of a knight was attended with few ceremonies, except at some festivals, in which case a great number were observed. This institution, which may be traced up to the first race, contributed not a little to polish the minds of the French, by restraining them within the bounds of a benevolent morality. They swore to spare neither life or fortune in defence of religion, in fighting against the infidels, and in protecting the widow, the orphan, and all who were defenceless. By this victory at Marignana, Francis I. became master of the Milanese, which was ceded to him by Maximilian Sforza, who then retired into France. Pope Leo X. alarmed by these conquests, held a conference with the king at Bologna, obtained from him the abolition of the Praginatic Sanction, and settled the Concordate, which was confirmed the year following in the Lateran council. From that time the kings of France appointed to all consistorial benefices, and the pope received

I Moreri..Dict. Hist.-Butler.

one year's income upon every change. The treaty of Noyon was concluded the same year between Charles V. and Francis I. one principal article of which was the restoration of Navarre. Charles V. on the death of Maximilian I. being elected emperor, 1519, in opposition to Francis, the jealousy which subsisted between those two princes broke out immediately, and kindled a long war, which proved fatal to all Europe. The French, commanded by Andrew de Foix, conquered Navarre in 1520, an: lost it again almost directly; they drove the English and Imperialists from Picardy, took Hesdin, Fohtarabia, and several other places; but lost Milan and Tournay in 1521. The following year, Odet de Foix, viscount of Lautrec, was defeated at the bloody battle of Bicoque, which was followed by the loss of Cremona, Genoa, and a great part of Italy. Nor did their misfortunes end here. The constable of Bourbon, persecuted by the duchess of Angoulême, joined the emperor 1523, and, being appointed commander of his forces in 1524, defeated admiral Bonevet's rear at the retreat of Rebec, and retook all the Milanese. He afterwards entered Provence with a powerful army, but was obliged to raise the siege of Marseilles, and retired with loss. Francis I. however, went into Italy, retook Milan, and was going to besiege Pavia ; but, having imprudently detached part of his troops to send them to Naples, be was defeated by the constable de Bourbon in a bloody battle before Pavia, February 24, 1525, after having two horses killed under him, and displaying prodigious valour. His greatness of mind never appeared more conspicuously than after this unfortunate engagement. In a letter to his mother he says, “Every thing is lost but honour.” He was conducted as a prisoner to Aladrid, and returned the following year, after the treaty which was concluded in that city, January 14, 1526. This treaty, extorted by force, was not fulfilled; the emperor had insisted on the duchy of Burgundy being ceded to him; but, when Lannoi went to demand it in his master's Dame, be was introduced to an audience given to the deputies of Burgundy, who declared to the king, that he had no power to give up any province of his kingdom. Upon this the war re-commenced immediately. Francis I. sent forces into Italy, under the command of Lautrec, who rescued Clement VII. and at first gained great advantages, but perished afverwards, with his army, by sick

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