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bilee, Jan. 1700," in German, ibid. 1700, 4tó. 8. “ Posthuma, quibus accedunt illustrium eruditorum ad eum Epistolæ,” ibid. 1706, 8vo.'
FRANCK DE FRANCKENAU, (GEORGE), an eminent Ger man physician, was born at Naumburg, in Upper Saxony, May 3, 1643.
His father, although living as a simple peasant, was of a noble family. After going through his school education, George went to Jena at the age of eighteen, and was crowned a poet by court palatine Richter, in consequence of his extraordinary talent for writing verses in the German, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages. But he exhibited still greater talents during his course of medical studies, and the canons of Naumburg, who recognized his merits, afforded him liberal means of subsistence while he applied himself to this science. Be. fore he took his doctor's degree (in 1666), he was deemed eligible to give lectures in botany, chemistry, and anatomy, and acquired great reputation. In 1672, the elector palatine appointed him to the vacant professorship of medicine at Heidelberg, and a few years afterwards nominated bim bis own physician. But the troubles occasioned by the war obliged him in 1688, to retire to Francfort on the Main. John George III. elector of Saxony, then received him into his service, and appointed him professor of medicine at Wittemberg; an office which he filled with so much eclat, that the principal professorship, and the title of dean of the faculty at Leipsic, were soon offered to him. This, however, he refused, by the instigation of his friends, who sought to retain him at Wittemberg. The two succeeding electors likewise loaded this physician with so many favours, that it was supposed he could never dream of quitting Heidelberg. Nevertheless, he was induced by the offers of Christian V. king of Denmark, to remove to Copenhagen, where he was received most graciously by the royal fanily, and was honoured with the title of Aulic counsellor, which was continued to him by Frederick IV. the successor of Christian. Death, however, terminated bis brilliant career on the 16th of June, 1704, in the sixtieth year of his age.
Franck was a member of several learned societies, and was ennobled by the emperor Leopold in 1692, and in 1693 was created count palatine, by the title of “ De
Niceron, vols. XH. ana XX. Moreri.---Saxii Onomasti
Franckenau.” His principal works are, 1.“ Institutionum Medicarum Synopsis,” Heidelberg, 1672. 2. “Lexicon Vegetabilium usualium,” Argentorati, 1672. This was re-published several times. In the edition of Leipsic, 1698, the title of “ Flora Francica" was given to it. 3. “Bona nova Anatomica," Heidelberg, 1680. Parva Bibliotheca Zootomica,” ibid. '1680. 5. “De calumniis in Medicos et. Medicinam," ibid. 1686. 6. “De Medicis Philologis,” Wittebergæ, 1691. 7. De palingenesia, sive resuscitatione artificiali plantarum, hominum, et animalium, è suis cineribus, liber singularis,” Halæ, 1717, edited by Nehring. 8. “ Satyræ Medicæ XX.” Leipsic, 1722. 'I'hese pieces, which had begun to appear in 1673, were published by his son, George Frederic Franck, who was also a teacher of medicine at Wittemberg, and wrote several works on botany and physic.'
FRANCK, or FRANCISCUS FRANCKEN, but more generally called Old FRANCKS, was an artist of the sixteenth century. Very few circumstances relative to bim are handed down, although bis works are as generally known in these kingdoms as they are in the Netherlands; nor are the dates of his birth, death, or age, thoroughly ascertained; for Descamps supposes him to be born in 1 544, to be admitted into the society of painters at Antwerp in 1561, which was at seventeen years of age ; and fixes his death in 1666, by which computation Francks must have been a hundred and twenty-two years old when he died, which appears utterly improbable; though others fix his birth in 1544, and his death in 1616, aged seventy-two, which seems to be nearest the truth. He painted historical subjects taken from the Old or New Testament, and was remarkable for introducing a great numher of figures into his compositions, which he had the skill to express very distinctly. He had a fruitful invention, and composed readily; but he wanted grace and elegance in his figures, and was apt to crowd too many histories into one scene,
His touch was free, and the colouring of his pictures generally transparent; yet a predominant brown or yellowish tinge appeared over them, neither natural nor agreeable. But, in several of his best performances, the colouring is clear and lively, the design good, the figures tolerably correct, and the whole together very
* Moreri.-Rees's Cyclopædia, from Eloy.--Saxii Oavmasticon,
pleasing. At Wilton is his “ Belshazzar's Feast," a very curious composition.
Vandyck often commended the works of this master, and esteemed them worthy of a place in any collection. Many of them are frequently seen at public sales, which render bim well known, though several are also to be met with in those places, which are unjustly ascribed to Francks, and are really unworthy of him.'
FRANCK, commonly called Young FRANCKS, the son of the preceding, and of both his names, was born in 1580, and instructed in the art of painting by his father, whose style and manner he imitated in a large and small size; but when he found himself sufficiently skilled to be capable of improvement by travel, he went to Venice, and there perfected his knowledge of colouring, by studying and copying the works of those artists who were most eminent. But it seems extraordinary that a painter so capable of great things in his profession, should devote his pencil to the representation of carnivals and other subjects of that kind, preferably to historical subjects of a much higher rank, which might have procured for bim abundantly more honour. At his return, however, to Flanders, his works were greatly admired and coveted, being superior to those of his father in many respects; his colouring was more clear, his pencil more delicate, his designs had somewhat more of elegance, and his expression was much better. The taste of composition was the same in both, and they seemed to have the same ideas, and the same defects, multiplying too many historical incidents into one subject, and representing a series of actions, rather than one principal action or event. The subjects of both painters were usually taken from the Old and New Testament, and also from the Roman history (except the subjects of young Francks while he continued in Italy); and it might have been wished that each of them had observed more order and propriety in the disposition of their subjects.
He had a great particularity in touching the white of the eyes of bis figures, which appears as if a small lump of unbroken white was touched on, with the point of a fine pencil, and it gives the figures a great deal of spirit. Even that particularity, well attended to, may be a means
I Pilkington.--Descamps.--D'Argenville, vol. III. -Reynolds's Works, vol. II. p. 286.
of determining the hand of this master. It ougbt to be observed, that from the similarity of names, taste, style, and colouring of the Old and Young Francks, their works are often mistaken and miscalled, and the work of the one purchased for the work of the other. The most capital performance of this painter, is a scriptural subject in the church of Notre Dame at Antwerp; and an excellent picture, in the small size, is “ Solomon's Idolatry,” in which that king is represented as kneeling before an altar, on which is placed the statue of Jupiter. There is a noble expression in the figure of Solomon, and the drapery of the figure is broad and flowing ; the altar is exceedingly enriched with fine bas-relief in the Italian style, and is exquisitely finished; the penciling is neat, the colouring clear and transparent, and the whole picture appears to have been painted on leaf gold. Young Francks died in 1642.
FRANCKE (Avgustus HERMAN), a learned and pious German divine, and a great benefactor to his country, was born at Lubeck, March 12, 0. S. 1663.
His father, John Francke, was then one of the magistrates of Lubeck, aud afterwards entered into the service of Ernest the Pious, duke of Saxe Gotha, as counsellor of the court and of justice. His mother, Anne Gloxin, was the daughter of one of the oldest burgomasters of Lubeck. Young Francke þad the misfortune to lose his father in 1670, when he was between six and seven years old, and at this early age had shown such a pious disposition, that he was intended for the church, and with this view his mother placed him under the instructions of a private tutor. His proficiency in classical studies was such, that at the age
of fourteen he was considered as well qualified to go to the university. It was not, however, until 1679, that he went to that of Erfurt, and from thence to Kiel, where he studied some years under Kortholt and Morhoft. In 1689, he returned to Gotha, and visited Hamburgh in his way, where he remained two months to improve bis knowledge of the Hebrew language, under Esdras Edzardi. Jn 1684 he went to Leipsic, and took his degree of M. A. in the following year. During his stay here, he formed a society for Literary conversation among his friends, which
1 Pineington.--D'Argenville, val. III. where are iwo more of the same name, Ambrose and Jerome, but of inferior nute.
long subsisted under the name of “ Collegium Philobibli. cum,” their favourite topic being the study of the Holy Scriptures. Some time after he went to Wittemberg, where he was received with great respect by the literati of that university, and thence to Luneburg, where he attended the divinity lectures of the celebratd Sandhagen. From Lunebourg he returned to Leipsic, and gave a course of lectures on the holy scriptures, practical as well as critical, which were frequented by above three hundred students. This success, with a more than common earnestness and seriousness in his method and address, occasioned some jealousy, and created him enemies likewise at Erfurt, whither, in 1690, he was invited to become pastor of St. Austin. The objection to him was that of pietism, and it increased with so much violence, that in 1691 he was deprived of his charge, and ordered to quit the city within iwo days. How little he deserved this treatment, had already appeared in some of his writings, and was more ma. nifest afterwards in his conduct and services.
The court of Gotha, uninfluencer' by these clamours, and convinced of his innocence and worth, lost no time in offering a suitable employment for his talents. He was about the same time offered a professorship in the college of Cobourg, and another at Weimar, but he preferred the offers made to him by the elector of Brandenbourg, (afterwards Frederic I. of Prussia), the very day that he was ordered to quit Erfurt. The university of Halle, in Saxony, had been just founded, and Mr. Francke was in 1691 appointed professor of the Greek and oriental languages, and pastor of Glaucha, a suburb of Halle. In 1698 he resigned his professorship of the languages for that of divinity, but although he had a principal hand in establishing the new university, which soon became pre-eminent among the seminaries of Germany, he acquired greater fame as the founder of the celebrated school, hospital, or rather college, for the poor at Glaucha. The whole history of education does not produce an instance more remarkable in its origin and progress than this singular foundation, by the labour, industry, and perseverance, of professor Francke.
There was a very ancient custom in the city and neighbour .. hood of Halle, for such persons as give relief to the poor, to appoint a particular day on which they were to come to their doors to receive it. When professor Francke came to