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FOUNTAINE (SIR ANDREW), kot. whose ancestors were seated at Narford, in Norfolk, so early as the reign of Henry III. was educated as a commoner of Christchurch, Oxford, under the care of that eminent encourager of literature, Dr. Aldrich. He at the same time studied under Dr. Hickes the Anglo-Saxon language, and its antiquities; of which he published a specimen in Hickes's “ Thesaurus," under the title of “ Numismata Anglo-Saxonica et Anglo-Danica, breviter illustrata ab Andreà Fountaine, eq. aur. & ædis Christi Oxon. alumno. Oxon. 1705," in which year Mr. Hearne dedicated to bim his edition of Justin the historian. He received the honour of knighthood from king William ; and travelled over most parts of Europe, where he made a large and valuable collection of pictures, ancient statues, medals, and inscriptions; and, while in Italy, acquired such a knowledge of virtù, that the dealers in antiquities were not able to impose on him. In 1709 his judgment and fancy were exerted in embellishing the “ Tale of a Tub" with designs almost equal to the excellent satire they illustrate. At this period he enjoyed the friendship of the most distin. guished wits, and of Swift in particular, who repeatedly mentions him in the Journal to Stella in terms of high regard. In December, 1710, when sir Andrew was given over by his physicians, Swift visited him, foretold his recovery, and rejoiced at it; though he humourously says, “I have lost a legacy by his living; for he told me he had left me a picture and some books,” &c. Sir Andrew was vice-chamberlain to queen Caroline wbile princess of Wales, and after she was queen.
He was also tutor to prince William, for whom he was installed (as proxy) knight of the Bath, and bad on that occasion a patent granted bim, dated Jan. 14, 1725, for adding supporters to his arms. Elizabeth his sister, married colonel Clent of Knightwick, in Worcestershire. Of bis skill and judgment in medals ancient and modern, he made no trilling profit, by furnishing the most considerable cabinets of this kingdom; but if, as Dr. Warton tells us, Annius in the “ Dunciad” was meant for him, his traffic was not always of the most honourable kind. In 1727 he was appointed warden of the mint, an office which he held till his death, which happened Sept. 4, 1753. He was buried at Narford, in Norfolk, where he had erected an elegant seat, and formed a fine collection of old china ware, a valuable
Jibrary, an excellent collection of pictures, coins, and many curious pieces of antiquity. Sir Andrew lost many miniatures by a fire at White's original chocolate-house, in St. James's-street, where he had hired two rooms for his collections. A portrait of him, by Mr. Hoare of Bath, is in the collection at Wilton house; and two medals of him are engraved in Snelling's “ English Medals,” 1776. Montfaucon, in the preface to “ L'Antiquité Expliquée,” calls sir Andrew Fountaine an able antiquary, and says that, during his stay at Paris, that gentleman furnished him with every piece of antiquity that he had collected, which could be of use to his work, several were accordingly engraved and described, as appears by sir Andrew's name on the plates.'
FOUQUIERES (JAMES), a Flemish painter of the 17th century, born at Antwerp in 1580, was one of the most learned and celebrated of landscape painters. Some have placed him so near Titian, as to make the difference of their pictures consist, rather in the countries represented, than in the goodness of the pieces. The principles they went upon are the same, and their colouring alike good and regular. He painted for Rubens, of whom he learned the essentials of his art. The elector palatine employed him at Heidelberg, and from thence he went to Paris, where, though he worked a long time, and was well paid, yet grew poor for want of conduct, and died 1659, in the house of an ordinary painter called Silvain, who lived in the suburbs of St. Jaques.?
FOURCROY (ANTHONY FRANCIS), an eminent French chemist, was born at Paris June 15, 1755, where bis father was an apothecary, of the same family with the subject of the succeeding article. In his ninth year he was sent to the college of Harcourt, and at fourteen he completed the studies which were at that time thought necessary. Having an early attachment to music and lively , poetry, he attempted to write for the theatre, and had no higher ambition than to become a player, but the bad success of one of his friends who had encouraged this taste, cured him of it, and for two years he directed his attention to commerce. At the end of this time an intimate friend of his father persuaded him to study medicine, and
I Nichols's Bowger.-Bowles's edit. of Pope, vol. V. p. 302.-Swift's Works; see Index.
9 D'Argenville.—Pilkington, and Strutt.
accordingly he devoted his talents to anatomy, botany, chemistry, and natural history. About two years after, in 1776, be published a translation of Ramazzini, “on the diseases of artisans," which he enriched with notes and illustrations derived from chemical theories which were then quite new. In 1780, he received the degree of M. D. and regent of that faculty, in spite of a very considerable opposition from his brethren, and from this time his chemical opinions and discoveries rendered hin universally known and respected. The fertility of his imagipation, joined to a style equally easy and elegant, with great precision, attracted the attention of a numerous school. In 1784, on the death of Macquer, he obtained the professorship of chemistry in the Royal Gardens, and the year following he was admitted into the academy of sciences, of the section of anatomy, but was afterwards admitted to that of chemistry, for which he was more eminently qualified. In 1787, he in conjunction with his countrymen De Morveau, Lavoisier, and Berthollet, proposed the new chemical nomenclature, which after some opposition, effected a revolution in chemical studies. (See LAVOISIER.) Although constantly occupied in scientific experiments, and in publishing various works on subjects of inedicine, chemistry, and natural history, he fell into the popular delusion about the time of the revolution, and in 1792 was appointed elector of the city of Paris, and afterwards provisional deputy to the national convention, which, bowever, he did not enter until after the death of the king.
In Sept. 1793, he obtained the adoption of a project for the regulation of weights and measures, was chosen secretary in October, and in December following president of the Jacobins, who denounced him for his silence in the convention. This he answered by pleading his avocations and chemical labours, by which, he who had been born withont any fortune, had been able to maintain his father and sisters. In Sept. 1794, he became a member of the committee of public safety, and was again elected to it in Feb. 1795. Besides proposing some improvements in the equipment of the armies, which were then contending with all the powers of Europe, he was particularly engaged in schools and establishments for education, to which new names, as polytechnic, normal, &c. were given, that they might consign to oblivion as much as possible the ancient
institutions of France. The re-election of two thirds of the convention removed him to the council of elders, one of the fantastical modes of government established in 1795, where, in November, he had to refute several charges levelled against him respecting the murder of Lavoisier. He was afterwards nominated professor of chemistry, and a member of the institute; and in May 1797, left the council. During the time he could spare from his public employments, he continued to cultivate his more honourable studies, and had attained the highest rank among the men of science whom the revolutionary tribunals had spared, when he died Dec. 16, 1800. At this period lie was a counsellor of state for life, a count of the empire, a commander of the legion of honour, directorgeneral of public instruction, a member of the national institute, professor of chemistry in the medical and polytechnic schools, and in the museum of natural history, and a member of most of the learned societies of Europe.
Fourcroy's works rank among the most considerable which France has produced in chemistry, and must be allowed in a great measure to confirm the high encomiums which his countrymen have bestowed on him, not only as a profound, but a pleasing and elegant writer. He published, 1. “ The translation of Ramazzini," before-inentioned. 2. “ Leçons elementaires d'histoire naturelle et de chimie,” 1782, 2 vols. 8vo, of which there have been many editions, the last in 1794, 5 vols. Evo. 3. “Memoires et observations pour servir de suite aux elemens de chimie," 1784, 8vo. 4. “ Principes de chimie a l'usage de l'ecole veterinaire," 2 vols. 12mo. 5. “ L'art de connoitre et d’employer les medicamens dans les maladies qui attaquent le corps humain,” 1785, 2 vols. 8vo. 6. “Entomologia Parisiensis” by Geoffroy, an improved edition, 1785, 2 vols. 12mo. 7. “ Methode de nomenclature chimique proposer par Morveau, &c.” with a new system of chemical characters, 1787, 8vo. 8. “ Essai sur le phlogistique, et sur la constitution des acides," from the English of Kirwan, with notes by Morveau, Lavoisier, Bertholet, and Fourcroy, 1788, 8vo. 9. “ Analyse chimique de l'eau sulphureuse d'Enghein, pour servir a l'histoire des eaux sulphureuse en general,” by Fourcroy & La Porte, 1788, 8vo. . 10. “ Annales de Chimie,” by Fourcroy and all the French chemists, published periodically, from 1789 to 1794, 18 vols. 8vo. 11. “ La Medicine
eclairée par les sciences physiques,” 1791, 1792, 12 vols. 12. “ Philosophie chimique,” 1792. Fourcroy wrote also in the “ Magasin encyclopedique," and the “ Journal de l'ecole polytechnique,” and drew up several reports for the national convention, which were published in the Moniteur, &c. His last publications were, 13.“ Tableaux pour servir de resumé aux leçons de chimie faites a l'ecole de medicine de Paris pendant 1799 et 1800. 14. “Systeme des connoissances chimiques, et de leurs applications aux phenomenes de la nature et de l'art,” 1800, 10 vols. 8vo, and 5 vols. 4to. To these extensive labours may be added, the chemical articles in the Encyclopædia Fourcroy left a very valuable library, which was sold by auction at Paris, in 1810, and of which Messrs. Tilliard, the booksellers, published a well-arranged catalogue.
Several of his works have been translated into English.'
FOURCROY (CHARLES RENE' DE), marechal de camp, grand cross of the order of St. Louis, director of the royal corps of engineers, member of the council at war and of the naval council, and free associate of the academy of sciences, was born at Paris Jan. 19, 1715. He was the son of Charles de Fourcroy, an eminent counsellor at law, and Elizabeth L'Heritier. Destined to the bar as an hereditary profession, his inclination impelled him into the paths of science, and accident led him into the corps of engineers. An officer of that corps was involved in an important law-suit, which he chose M. de Fourcroy to conduct. M. de Fourcroy directed his son to converse with the officer for the purpose of procuring every information necessary to the success of his cause; but the youth, whose thirst of science was already conspicuous, shewed less attention to the particulars of the lawsuit, than desire to be acquainted with what concerned the service of an engineer; and being informed of the preliminary studies requisite to an admission into that body, he was soon enabled to offer himself for examination.
In 1736 he was admitted into the corps, and was employed under marshal d’Asfeld. His activity, zeal, and knowledge above his years, procured him the confidence of his commander; but, remarking an error in a project which the inarshal communicated to him, he informed him
1 Dict. Hist.--Biog. Moderne. -Short Memoir prefixed to the catalogue of bis Library.