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be settled at Glaucha, he readily adopted this practice, and fixed on Thursday, as his day. But, as his profes. sion led him, he endeavoured to confer with the poor on the subject of religion, in which he found them mi. serably deficient, and incapable of giving their children any religious instruction whatever. His first contrivance to supply their temporal wants was by supplicating the charity of well-disposed students; but finding that mode inconvenient, he contented himself with fixing up a box in his parlour, with one or two suitable texts of scripture over it. In 1695, when this box had been set up about a quarter of a year, he found in it the donation of a single person amounting to 18s.6d. English, which he immediately determined should be the foundation of a charityschool. Unpromising as such a scheme might appear, he began the same day by purchasing eight-shillings-worth of school-books, and then engaged a studeut to teach the poor children two hours each day. He met at first with the common fate of such benevolent attempts; most of the children making away with the books entrusted to them, and deserting the school; for this, however, the remedy was easy, in obliging the children to leave them behind" them; but still his pious endeavours were in a great measure frustrated by the impressions made on their minds in school being effaced by their connections abroad. To remedy this greater evil, he resolved to single out some of the children, and to undertake their maintenance, as well as instruction. Such of the children, accordingly, as seemed most promising, he put out to persons of known integrity and piety to be educated by them, as he had as yet no house to receive them. The report
so excellent a design, induced a person of quality to contribute the sum of 1000 crowns, and another 400, which served to purchase a house into which twelve orphans, the whole number he had selected, were removed, and a student of divinity appointed master and teacher. This took place in 1696. The number of children, however, which demanded his equal sympatby, increasing, he conceived the project of building an hospital, such as might contain about two hundred people, and this at a time, he informs us, wlien he had not so much in hand as would answer the cost of a small cottage, and when his project was consequently looked upon as visionary and absurd. His reliance on Providence, however, was so firm, that having procured a
piece of ground, he laid the foundation stone' on July 5, 1698, and within the space of a year the workmen were ready to cover it with the roof. During this time as well as the time it subsequently required to complete it, the expences were defrayed from casual donations.
He never appears to have had any kind of annual subscription, or other help on which the least dependence could be placed; he soinetimes knew the names of his benefactors, but more generally they were totally unknown to him, and yet one succeeded another at short intervals, and often when he was reduced to the utmost distress. By such unforeseen and unexpected supplies, an establishment was formed, in which, in 1727, 2196 children were provided for, under 130 teachers. The whole progress of this great work, as related by professor Francke, is beyond measure astonishing and unprecedented; for he had applied none of the methods wbich have since been found useful in the foundation of similar establishments, and appears to have had nothing to support his zeal, but the strongest confidence in the goodness of Providence; and although the assistance he received was great in the aggregate, it not unfrequently happened that his mornings were passed in anxious fears lest the subjects of his care might want bread in the day. These supplies consisted principally in money, but many to whom that mode of contribution was inconvenient, sent in provisions, clothing, and utensils of various sorts, and a very considerable number sold trinkets of all kinds, lace, jewels, plate, &c. for the benefit of an hospital, the good effects of which were now strikingly visible, as its progress advanced. Some very considerable contributions came even from England, in consequence of a short account of the hospital having been sent over and published there in 1705. Dr. White Kennett, in particular, noticed it with high commendation, from the pulpit, and added that “nothing in the world seemed to him more providential, or rather more miraculous.” In the following year, 1706, it had grown up, not only into an hospital for orphans, and a refuge for many other distressed objects, but into a kind of university, in which all the languages and sciences were taught, and a printing-house established on a liberal plan, an infirmary, &c.
The establishment of this great undertaking fills up many years of professor Francke's bistory. The remaining VOL. XV.
events of his life are but few. He associated with bimself John Anastasius Freylinghausen, in his charge as pastor, and had him and other men of character and talents as assistants in his school. The variety of bis employments, however, injured his health, although he derived occasional benefit from travelling. One instance of his pious zeal is thus recorded : The duke Maurice, of Saxe-Zeitz, had embraced the Roman catholic religion, and professor Francke, at the request of the duchess, went to his court in 1718, and in several conferences so completely satisfied his mind, as to induce him to make a public profession of his return to the Protestant church, Francke's death was Oscasioned by profuse sweats, which were checked by degrees, but followed by a retention of urine, and a para-, lytic attack, which proved fatal June 8, 1727. Amidst much weakness and pain, he lectured as late as the 15th of May preceding. It would be difficult to name a man more generally regretted. Halle, Elbing, Jena, DeuxPonts, Augsbourgh, Tubingen, even Erfurt, where he was so shamefully persecuted, Leipsic, Dresden, Wittemberg, &c. all united in expressing their sense of his worth, by eulogiums written by the most eminent professors of these schools. By his wife, Anne Magdalene, the daughter of Otho Henry de Worm, a person of distinction, he left Gotthelf Augustus Francke, professor of divinity and pastor of the church of Notre-Dame, and a daughter who was married to M. Freylinghausen. In his learning, talents, eloquence, and piety, all his contemporaries seem agreed. As a public benefactor he has had few equals.
The history of his celebrated Orphan house has been long known in this country, in a translation by Dr. Josiah Woodward, under the title of “ Pietas Hallensis," Lond. 1707, 12mo, often reprinted, with some of his devotional tracts. These last were generally published by professor Francke in German. His Latin works are, 1. Manu, ductio ad lectionem Scripturæ Sacræ," Halle, 1693. Of this an improved translation by William Jaques, was published in 1813, &vo. 2. “ Observationes Biblicæ menstruæ in Versionem Germanicam Bibliorum Lutheri,' Halle, 1695, 12mo. 3. “ De Emphasibus Sac. Script." ibid. 1698, 4to. 4. “ Idea studii Theologiæ,” ibid. 1712, 12mo. 5. “ Prælectiones Hermeneuticæ,” ibid. 1712, 8vo. 6. “ Monita Pastoralia Theologica," ibid. 1717, 12mo. 7. “ Methodus studii Theologici,” ibid. 1723,
8vo. 8. “ Introductio ad lectionem Prophetarum,” ibid. 1724, 8vo. 9. “Commentatio de scopo librorum veteris et novi Testamenti,” ibid. 8vo.'
FRANCKLIN (THOMAS), D. D. chaplain in ordinary to his majesty, born 1721, was the son of Richard Francklin, well known as the printer of an anti-ministerial paper called « The Craftsman, in the conduct of which he received great assistance from lord Bolingbroke, Mr. Pulteney, and other excellent writers, who then opposed sir Robert Walpole's measures. By the advice of the second of these gentlemen, young Francklin was devoted to the church, with a promise of being provided for by Mr. Pulteney, who afterwards forgot his undertaking. Yet his father had a claim, from his sufferings at least, to all that these patriots could do for him. While engaged in their service, he was prosecuted by the crown several times, and had been confined several years in the King's-bench prison for a letter written from the Hague, and printed by him at their desire. It is true, indeed, that several noblemen and gentlemen subscribed a sum of 50l. each to Francklin, as a compensation for his losses, but it is as true that no more than three of them paid their money, of whom Mr. . Pulteney was one.
Young Francklin, however, was educated at Westmins ster school, where he was admitted a scholar in 1735, and whence in 1739 be was elected to Trinity-college, Cambridge, of which he became a fellow. He was afterwards for some time an usher at Westminster-school, and first appeared as an author, in a translation of “ Phalaris's Epistles," 1749, 8vo, and of “ Cicero on the Nature of the Gods." About the same time he is said to have published “ An Inquiry into the Astronomy and Anatomy of the Ancients," which was reprinted in 1775, 8vo. In June 1750, he was chosen Greek professor of Cambridge, in opposition of Mr. Barford, of King's-college, and in the same year became involved in a dispute with the university on the following occasion. On the 17th of November, he with a number of gentlemen educated at Westminster school, having met at a tavern, according to custom, to celebrate queen Elizabeth's anniversary, they
| Bibl. Germanique, vol. XVIII. - Niceron, vol. XIV. Hallensis,
Moreri. - Pietas
were interrupted by the senior proctor, who came into the company after 11 o'clock at night, and ordered them to depart, it being an irregular hour. For disobeying this order, some of them were reprimanded by the vice-chancellor, and others fined. Francklin, who was one of the party, had his share in the business, and is supposed to have written a pamphlet entitled “ An Authentic Narrative of the late extraordinary proceedings at Cambridge, against the Westminster Club," Lond. 1751, 8vo, denying the charge of irregularity, and laying the blame on the proctor. This dispute engaged the attention of the university for some time, as those who plead for the relaxation of discipline will never be without abettors.
In 1753, he published a poem called “ Translation," in which he announced his intention of giving a translation of “Sophocles.” In January 1757, on the periodical paper called “ The World” being finished, he engaged to publish a similar one, under the title of “ The Centinel," but after extending it to twenty-seven numbers, he was obliged to drop it for want of encouragement, The next year he published “A Fast Sermon” preached at Queen-street chapel, of which he was minister, and at St. Paul's Covent-garden, of which he was lecturer; and he afterwards published a few sermons on occasional topics, or for charities. In 1759 appeared his translation of “ Sophocles," 2 vols. 4to, which was allowed to be a bold and happy transfusion into the English language of the terrible simplicity of the Greek tragedian. This was followed by a “ Dissertation on ancient Tragedy,” in which he mentioned Arthur Murphy by name, and in terms not the most courtly. Murphy, a man equally, or perhaps more irritable, replied in a poetical “ Epistle addressed to Dr. Johnson," who calmly permitted the combatants to settle their disputes in their own way, which, we are told, amounted to a cessa tion of hostilities, if not to an honourable peace. At this time Francklin is said to have been a writer in the Critical Review, which indeed is acknowledged in an article in that review, and might perhaps be deduced from internal evidence, as, besides his intimacy with Smollet, his works are uniformly mentioned with very high praise. In 1757 he had been preferred by Trinity-college to the livings of Ware and Thundrich, in Hertfordshire, and although his mind was more intent on the stage than the pulpit, he