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published in 1765 a volume of “ Sermons on the relative duties,” which was well received by the publick. Next year he produced at Drury-lane theatre, the tragedy of « The Earl of Warwick,” taken, without any acknowledgement, from the French of La Harpe. In Nov. 1767, he was enrolled in the list of his majesty's chaplains. In 1768 he published a piece of humour, without his name, entitled " A Letter to a Bishop concerning Lectureships,” exposing the paltry shifts of the candidates for this office at their elections; and next year he wrote “ An Ode on the Institution of the Royal Academy.” In March of the same year, he translated Voltaire's “ Orestes” for the stage. In July 1770 he took the degree of D.D. but still debased his character by producing dramatic pieces of no great fame, and chiefly translations; “ Electra,” “Matilda,” and “ The Contract," a farce.
a farce. About 1776 he was presented to the living of Brasted, in Surrey, which he beld until his death. He had for some years employed himself on his excellent translation of the works of " Lucian,” which he published in 1789, in 2 vols. 4to. He was also concerned with Smollet, in a translation of Vol. taire's works, but, it is said, contributed little more than his name to the title-pages. There is a tragedy of his still in MS. entitled “ Mary Queen of Scots.” Dr. Francklin died at his bouse in Great Queen-street, March 15, 1784. He was unquestionably a man of learning and abilities, but from peculiarities of temper, and literary jealousy, seems not to have been much esteemed by his contemporaries. After his death 3 volumes of his “ Sermons” were published for the benefit of his widow and family. Mrs. Francklin died in May 1796. She was the daughter of Mr. Venables, a wine-merchant.
FRANCO, or FRANCHI (Nicolas), an Italian poet of the infamous class which disgraced the sixteenth century, was born at Benevento, in 1510, and under his father, who was a schoolmaster, acquired a knowledge of the learned languages. In his youth he became acquainted with Peter Arelino, and from being his assistant in his va. rious works, became his rival, and wbilst he at least equalled him in virulence and licentiousness, greatly surpassed him in learning and abilities. His first attempt at rivalship
1 Biog. Dram. originally written by Mr. Isaac Reed, for the European Ma. fuzine.-Davies's Life of Garrick.
was his “ Pistole Vulgari," in 1539. A fierce war was commenced between them, and sustained on each side with the greatest rancour and malignity. Franco left Venice, and took up his abode at Montserrat, where he published a dialogue, entitled “ Delle Belleze;" and a collection of sonnets against Aretino with a “ Priapeia Italiana,” which contained the grossest obscenity, the most unqualified abuse, and the boldest satire against princes, popes, the fathers of the council of Trent, and other eminent persons. Yet all this did not injure his literary repu. tation; he was a principal member of the academy of Argonauti at Montserrat, and in this capacity wrote bis “Rime Maritime," printed at Mantua in 1549. At Mantua he followed the profession of a schoolmaster; thence he removed to Rome, where he published commentaries on the “ Priapeia," attributed to Virgil, the copies of which were suppressed and burned by order of pope Paul IV. Under Pius IV, he continued to indulge his virulence, and found a protector in cardinal Morone. His imprudence, however, in writing a Latin epigram against Pius V. with other defamatory libels, brought upon him the punishment which he amply deserved. He was taken from his study in his furred robe, and hanged on the common gallows without trial or ceremony. He was author of several other works besides those already enumerated, and be left behind him in MS. a translation of Homer's Iliad.'
FRANCOIS (LAURENCE), a French abbe and very useful writer, was born at Arinthod, in Franche-comté, Nov. 2, 1698, and for some time belonged to the chevaliers of St. Lazarus, but quitting that society, came to Paris and engaged in teachiøg. He afterwards wrote several works, in a style perhaps not very elegant, but which were admired either for their intrinsic usefulness, or as antidotes to the pernicious doctrines of the French philosophers and deists, who, conscious of his superiority in argument, affected to regard bim as a man of weak understanding, and a bigot; reproaches that are generally thrown upon the advocates of revealed religion in other countries as well as in France. The abbé François, however, appears from his works to have been a man of learning, and an able disputant. He died: at Paris, far advanced in years, Feb. 24, 1782, escaping the miseries which those against wbom
"Tiraboschi.- Roscoe's Leo.-Moreri.
he wrote, were about to bring on their country. His principal works are, 1. “ Geographie,” 12mo, an excellent manual on that subject, otien reprinted, and known by the vame of “ Crozat,” the lady to whom he dedicated it, and for whose use he first composed it. 2. “ Preuves de la religion de Jesus Christ,” 4 vols. 12mo. 3. “ Defense de la Religion,” 4 vols. 1 2mo. 4. " Examen du Catechisme de l'honnête homme,” 12mo. 5. “ Examen des faits qui servent de fondement a la religion Chretienne," 1767, 3 vols. 12.no. 6. “ Observation sur la philosophie de l'histoire,” 8vo. He left also some manuscripts, in refutation of the “ Philosophical Dictionary," the “ System of Nature," and other works which emanated from the philosophists of France.
FRANCOWITZ. See ILLYRICUS.
FRANCUCCI (INNOCENT), an historical painter, born at Imola, and known by the name of Innocenzio da Imola, became a disciple of Francesco Francia, in 1506 ; then passed some time with Albertinelli at Florence; and from the evidence of his works, and the testimony of Vasari, studied much after Fra. Bartolomeo and Andrea del Sarto: for though the main disposition of his altar-pieces be still gothic, be no longer used the ancient gilding; he placed the Virgin on bigh in the centre, and surrounded her with saints and angels, architecture, and back grounds skilfully grouped and arranged with novelty and taste. Such is his style in the surprizing picture of the Duomo at Faenza, and in another at Pesaro. The aerial perspective and back ground remind us of Leonardo da Vinci." He sometimes placed smaller pictures under his altar-pieces, like that at St. Giacomo of Bologna, which breathes the very spirit of Raphael; that spirit he seems indeed to have aimed at in the greater part of his works, and to have approached it nearer than most of Raphael's own scholars. He excelled Francia and his fellow-scholar Bagnacavallo in erudition, majesty, and correctness. Subjects of novel combination and fiery fancy be has not produced; nor seem they to have been congenial with that mildness and tranquillity of character which history ascribes to him. He was fifty-six years old at the time of his death, but that is not known."
FRANKLAND (THOMAS), an English physician and historian of singular character, was born in Lancashire in 1633, and was entered a student in Brasenose-college,
· Dict. Hist.
2 Fuseli, in Pilkington,
Oxford, in 1649. He took a degree in arts, and obtained a fellowship in 1654. Afterwards studying divinity, he became a preacher according to the form of ordination during the usurpation. In 1662 he served the office of proctor, and the year after, having taken orders regularly, he was, but with much difficulty, admitted to the reading of the sentences. He afterwards studied physic, and settled in London, where he imposed upon the public for some time, by pretending to have taken his doctor's degree in that faculty, and at length offering himself as a candidate for fellow of the college of physicians, he produced a forged diploma, was admitted fellow, and afterwards was
His ungracious manners, however, procuring him enemies, an inquiry was made at Oxford in 1677, which discovered the fraud, and although by the connivance of some of the college of physicians, he remained among them, yet his credit and practice fell off, and being reduced in circumstances, he was imprisoned in the Fleet, where he died in 1690, and was interred in St. Vedast's church, Foster-lane. He wrote, “ The Annals of King James and King Charles I. containing a faithful history and impartial account of the great affairs of state, and transactions of parliament in England, from the tenth of king James, 1612, to the eighteenth of king Charles, 1642. Wherein several passages relating to the late civil wars (omitted in former histories) are made known," Lond. 1681, fol. He was supposed also to be the author of a folio pamphlet, Lond. 1679, entitled “ The honours of the Lords Spiritual asserted, and their privileges to vote in capital cases in parliament maintained by reason and precedents;” but Wood does not give this as certain. Dr. Frankland was esteemed a good scholar while at Oxford, but in the subsequent part of his character appears deserving of little esteem.'
FRANKLIN (BENJAMIN), the celebrated American philosopher, was sprung, as he himself informs us, from a family settled for a long course of years in the village of Ecton, in Northamptonshire, where they had augmented their income, arising from a small patrimony of thirty acres, by adding to it the profits of a blacksmith's business. His father, Josias, baving been converted by some nonconformist ministers, left England for America, in 1682, and
| Ath. Ox. vel, 11.
settled at Boston, as a soap-boiler and tallow-chandler. At this place, in 1706, Benjamin, the youngest of his sons, was born.
It appeared at first to be his destiny to become a tallow-chandler, like his father ; but, as he mapifested a particular dislike to that occupation, different plans were thought of, which ended in his becoming a printer, in 1718, under one of his brothers, who was settled at Boston, and in 1721 began to print a newspaper. This was a business much more to bis taste, and he soon shewed a talent for reading, and occasionally wrote verses which were printed in his brother's newspaper, although unknown to the latter, He wrote also in the same some prose ese says, and had the sagacity to cultivate his style after the model of the Spectator. With his brother he continued as an apprentice, until their frequent disagreements, and the harsh treatment he experienced, induced him to leave Boston privately, and take a conveyance by sea to New York. This happened in 1723. From New York he immediately proceeded, in quest of employment, to Pbiladelphia, not without some distressing adventures. His own description of bis first entrance into that city, where he was afterwards in so high a situation, is too curious to be omitted.
“On my arrival at Philadelphia, I was in my working dress, my best clothes being to come by sea. I was covered with dirt; my pockets were filled with shirts and stockings; I was unacquainted with a single soul in the place, and knew not where to seek for a lodging. Fatigued with walking, rowing, and having passed the night without sleep, I was extremely hungry, and all my money consisted of a Dutch dollar, and about a shilling's-worth of coppers, which I gave to the boatmen for my passage. As I had assisted them in rowing, they refused it at first, but I insisted on their taking it. A man is sometimes more generous when he has little, than when he has much money; probably because in the first case he is desirous of concealing his poverty.
“ I walked towards the top of the street, looking eagerly on both sides, till I came to Market-street, where I met a child with a loaf of bread. Often had I made my dinner on dry bread. I enquired where he bought it, and went straight to the baker's shop which he pointed out to me. I asked for some biscuits, expecting to find such as we had at Boston; but they made, it seems, none of that sort at