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out of the driveways leading to the face. Many of the miners had been infected by the mud from their shoes or from the mud left upon the rungs of the ladders used in certain sections of the mine as a means of exit. · Thus one miner was responsible for infecting a whole mine.

Another illustration will reveal how men working in one industry may transmit parasites to men of another industry. After the great hookworm epidemic at St. Gothard's tunnel in 1879, many of the workers in this tunnel migrated northward, some of them reaching Hungaria, Westphalia and Germany. In those days, there were brick yards and clay pits managed in a very crude manner, the clay being mixed by semi-naked laborers with their bare feet and hands. The workers, as is often even now the case, were not compelled to use safe, sanitary out houses. The result was that infected human excreta were deposited on the higher ground of the clay pits and eventually washed into the pit itself by subsequent rains. The eggs of the parasite hatched out, and the workers who mixed the muddy clay were infected through their hands and bare legs. Later these infected workers left the clay pits at the close of warm weather and became workers in the mines of Hungaria and Westphalia. The coal dust of these mines was likewise infected through the careless disposal of the men's excreta in breakways and along entries. The result was that thousands of miners contracted the disease.

We cite an example that comes closer home, which obviously holds grave possibilities. Upon examining the home surroundings of one of the miners infected with hook worm, it was found that the out house was an open one; the fecal matter dropped down a sandy clay bank along a small stream. At the bottom of the bank was a deposit of moist coal dust. The children played along this stream, wading in the mud and coal dust with their bare feet. Upon examining these children it was found that every one of them was infected with hookworm. The burden of proof rests upon the possibility that these children were infected from the open out house along the creek.

It is evident, therefore, that a number of problems at once confronted the commission, and it was necessary to collect data of the kind mentioned in the foregoing in order to throw light upon these important points:

1. The extent of infection with intestinal parasites and the kind of infection.

2. The origin of primary infection.
3. The possibility of further spread of the infections.

4. The most practical remedies to remove the infection and to prevent a recurrence of it.

Gary.

There were several reasons for choosing Gary, a well crdered camp, for the base of investigation. This is the first work of the kind that has ever been done upon an extensive scale in West Virginia. Hence

IN

Figure 2. One of the outhouses of the row shown in Figure 1.
This is an excellent building, but a dangerous type of pri vy, since it is open at the back, where flies, rats and other
scavengers have access to it. During the dry, hot summer months the excreta accumulates upon the edge of the creek.
It is such methods of sanitation that have brought on West Virginia severe criticism by visitors passing through the
State.

[graphic]
[graphic]

Figure 3. An old timer which speaks for itself.

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