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organized. This committee's function would be to inspect the sanitary condition of the camp once a month or bi-monthly, and then meet with the superintendent, and advise with him as to conditions needing attention. If possible, a record should be kept of the more important proceedings.

5. Since many physicians are as a rule too busy attending the sick and fail to see the significance of "welfare work,” it would be a good plan for the miner's hospitals to be supplied with extra nurses trained in social work to visit the homes, and by instruction and personal effort train the wives and children in matters of sanitation that prevent disease. .

6. Hygiene should be one of the required subjects taught in the public schools. It should be begun in the primary department with practical talks by the teacher. No teacher should be given a certificate who has not been trained in this subject. “School hygiene" is not sufficient; it must be a training that can grasp the local problems so that there may be instilled into the children the importance of these local conditions upon their health. Such courses can be had from members of the medical faculty at the State University. This element of our public education should not be longer ignored.

7. Some réans must be devised for safer methods of disposing of human excreta. The widely used method of contaminating the breakways, gobs, and entire entries of the mines should be substituted by more modern methods. For the outside there should be devised a regulation closet, the essential features of which should be required by public health regulation. Ample power should be given in each case to make such regulation effective.

8. The water supply of all corporations should be examined periodically, and the pernicious system of connecting the supply tank with two system of pipes, one supplying deep well water and one supplying surface water, should either be prohibited or strictly regulated.

(5) Such committees could meet with the state public health officer upon his periodic visit, and gain the benefit of expert advice; the difficulties that the local authorities could not handle alone might easily be solved by (ooperation with the state authority.

REPORT

OF THE

Bacteriological Department

OF THE

Hygienic Laboratory

OF THE

WEST VIRGINIA

STATE BOARD OF HEALTH

BY

AARON ARKIN, Ph. D., M. D.

REPORT OF THE BACTERIOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT

Dr. S. L. Jepson,

Secretary State Board of Health, Dear Sir:

I have the honor to present the following report of the bacteriological department for the year ending November 30, 1914.

In November, 1913, Gov. H. D. Hatfield and a committee of the State Board of Health visited the laboratory of pathology and bacteriology and decided to locate the hygienic laboratory in connection with the university: We immediately began to organize and equip the laboratory to handle the work required of a hygienic laboratory. This was a difficult task in view of the fact that our state in the fifty years of its existence had never before had a state hygienic laboratory. The laboratory had to be equipped, and all circulars, data cards, etc., printed with nothing to guide us. After a visit to a few of the better equipped hygienic laboratories, I obtained the necessary equipment for the bacteriological work.

The next task was the publication of a “Bulletin of information concerning the hygienic laboratory of the West Virginia Board of Health,” a copy of which is embodied in this report. We sent a copy of this bulletin to every registered physician in the State last April.

Following the issue of the Bulletin, permission was obtained from the postmaster general to receive pathological specimens in containers which comply with the postal regulations. These containers were obtained after considerable difficulty and prepared for distribution, containing all the necessary information, data cards, etc.

The next step was the establishment of distributing stations for the free distribution of outfits for tuberculosis, typnoid, diphtheria, etc. I established a station in each county of the state. The list of stations is given at the end of this report.

On April 1st Mr. E. B. Fink, Sc. B., was appointed assistant bacteriologist of the department. We are now prepared to do the work required by the physicians of the state. Our greatest handicap is lack of space because of our crowded quarters and the increase in the amount of work. If the work continues to increase at the same rate we shall need more assistance, especially in the manual labor required in the preparation of outfits, media, glassware, etc. We hope soon to have larger quarters for our work, as arrangements have been made to carry on this work in the new medical building.

In addition to the routine work done by the laboratory as described below, we are now engaged in the study of several problems in hygiene and preventive medicine. A careful analysis of over 300 complete bacteriological examinations of water from 35 counties in the state will bacteria, tests for bacillus coli, tests for acid forming colonies, were carried out. Furthermore, valuable data concerning the kind of well, depth of well, formation of the soil, relation to possible sources of contamination, a study of the relation of the unsanitary privy to water pollution, the prevalence of intestinal diseases in the community, etc.. have been collected. This investigation when completed will give us a knowledge of the source of our cases of typhoid fever, thus forming a working basis for the proper sanitation in the country districts. A complete bacteriological survey of the water supplies of the state should be made, and we are prepared to do this work, with aid from the state.

Comparative results on sputum examinations are being collected to determine the best method for determining the presence of the tubercle bacillus in sputum.

Studies on the bacteriology of food products, especially bread and fruits, are under way in an effort to obtain data concerning these foods as the possible source of the spread of infectious diseases.

The hygienic laboratory is now prepared to make the following examinations free of charge for physicians and health officers:

1. Examination of sputum for tubercle bacilli in suspected tuberculosis.

2. Examination of swabs for diphtheria. 3. Examination of blood for typhoid. 4. Examination of smears of pus for gonococci. 5. Examination of brains of animals for the diagnosis of rabies.

6. Examination of water, bacteriological and chemical, for its general fitness for drinking purposes.

7. Examination of specimens for anthrax, actinomycosis, glanders, or trichinosis.

8. Examination of smears for the spirocheta pallida of syphilis.

9. Examination of feces for intestinal parasites, as hookworm, tapeworm, roundworm.

10. Examination of spinal fluid for meningococcus.

11. Toxicological examinations and chemical analysis of milk, food, and drugs.

Complete details concerning the preparation and sending of specimens are given in a bulletin of “information concerning the hygienic laboratory of the West Virginia Board of Halth,” which has been sent to every registered physician of the state, and a copy of which is given below.

An inspection of the list of examinations made by the hygienic laboratory reveals the fact that these are limited to transmissible diseases. It is obviously unfair to expect the community to pay for what is of benefit to a few, so if an examination is desired by an individual for personal reasons, such examination is regarded as private. The examination of sore throats for diphtheria, of sputa for tubercle bacilli, of blood for evidence of typhoid fever, etc., are of importance to the entire community, for the presence or absence of the disease in question determines the spread. On the other hand, the examination of urine

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