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generation grew hardened to the climate it had reached; and that aftef their arrival in America they would again be gradually accustomed to warmer and warmer climates, in their removal from north to south, ai they had in the reverse, or from south to north. Part of the tigers still inhabit the eternal snows of Ararat, and multitudes of the very fame species live, but with exalted rage, beneath the line, in the burning foil of Borneo or Sumatra; but neither lions or tigers ever migrated into the New World. A few of the first are found in India and Persia, but they are found in numbers only in Africa. The tiger extends as far north as western Tartary, in lat 40. 50. but never has reached Africa."
In fine, the conjectures of the learned respecting the vicinity of the Old and New, are now, by the discoveries of our great navigators, lost in conviction; and, in the place of imaginary hypotheses, the real place of migration is uncontrovertibly pointed out. Some (from a passage in Plato) have extended over the Atlantic, from the straits of Gibraltar to the coast of North and South America, an island equal in size to th« continents of Asia and Africa; over which had passed, as over a bridge, from the latter, men and animals; wool-headed negroes, and lions and tigers, none of which ever existed in the New World. A mighty sea arose, and in one day and night engulphed this stupendous tract, and with it every being which had not completed its migration into America. The whole negro race, and almost every quadruped, now inhabitants of Africa, perished in this critical day. Five only are to be found at present in America; and of these only one, the bear, in South America: Not a single custom, common to the natives of Africa and America, to evince a common origin. Of the quadrupeds, the bear, stag, wolf, fox, and weesel, are the only animals which we can pronounce with certainty to be found on each continent. The stag, fox, and weesel, have made also no farther progress in Africa than the north; but on the fame continent the wolf is spread over every part, yet is unknown in South America, as arc the fox and weesel. In Africa and South America the bear is very local, being met with only in the north of the first, and on the Andes in the last. Some cause unknown arrested its progress in Africa, and impelled the migration of a few into the Chilian Alps, and induced them to leave unoccupied the vast tract from North America to the lofty Cordilleras.
Allusions have often been made to some remains on the continent of America, of a more polished and cultivated people, when compared with the tribes which possessed it on its first discovery by Europeans. Mr. Barton, in his Observations on some parts ofNatural History, Parti, has collected the scattered hints cf Kaltn, Carver, and some others, and has
added a plan of a regular work, which has been discovered on the banks of the Mufkingum, near its junction with the Ohio. These remains are principally stone-walls, large mounds of earth, and a combination of these mounds with the walls, suspected to have been fortifications. Ib some places the ditches and the fortress are said to have been plainly seen; in others, furrows, as if the land had been ploughed.
The mounds of earth are of two kinds: they are artificial tumuli, designed as repositories for the dead; or they are of a greater size, for the purpose of defending the adjacent country; and with this view they are artificially constructed, or advantage is taken of the natural eminences, to raise them into a fortification.
The remains near the banks of the Mufkingum, are situated about one mile above the junction of that river with the Ohio, and 160 miles below Fort Pitt. They consist of a number of walls and other elevations, of ditches, &c. altogether occupying a space of ground about 300 perches in length, and from about 150 to 25 or 20 in breadth. The town, as it has been called, is a large level, encompassed by walls, nearly in the form of a square, the sides of which are from 96 to 86 perches in length. These walls are, in general, about 10 sect in height above the level on which they stand, and about 20 sect in diameter at the base, but atthe top they arc much narrower; they are at present overgrown with Ttgetables of different kinds, and, among others, with trees of several ieet diameter. The chasms, or opening in the walls, were probably intended for gate-ways: they are three in number at each side, besides tke smaller openings in the angles. Within the walls there are three elevations, each about six feet in height, with regular ascents to them; these elevations considerably resemble some of the eminences already mentioned, which have been discovered near the river Mississippi. This author's opinion is, That the Tolticas, or some other Mexican nation, were the people to whom the mounts and fortifications, which he has described, owe their existence; and that those people were probably the descendants of the Danes. The former part of this conjecture is thought probable, from the similarity of the Mexican mounts and fortifications described by the Abbe Clavigero, and other authors, to those described by our author; and from the tradition of the Mexicans, that they came from the north-west: for, if we can rely on the testimony of late travellers, fortifications similar to those mentioned by Mr. Barton. have been discovered as far to the north as Lake Pepin; and wen hjl them, as we approach to the south, even as low as the coasts of "* Ju The second part of our author's conjecture appears not so well siippc.
Productions. This vast country produces most of the metals, minerals, plants, fruits, trees, and wood, to be met with in the other parti of the world, and many of them in greater quantities and high perfection. The gold and silver of America have supplied Europe with such immense quantities of those valuable metals, that they are become vastly more common; so that the gold and silver of Europe now bears little proportion to the high price set upon them before the discovery of America. .>
It also produces diamonds, pearls, emeralds, amethysts and other valuable stones, which, by being brought into Europe, have Contributed likewise to lower their value. To these, which are chiefly the production of Spanish America, may be added a great number of other commodities, which, though of less price, are of much greater use; and many of them make the ornament and wealth of the British empire in this part of the world. Of these are the plentiful supplies of cochineal, indigo, anatto, logwood, brazil, fustic, pimento, lignum vitae, rice, ginger, cocoa, or the chocolate nut, sugar, cotton, tobacco, banillas, redwood, the balsams of Tolu, Peru, and Chili, that valuable article in medicine the Jesuit's bark, mechoacan, sassafras, sarsaparilla, cassia, tamarinds, hides, furs, ambergrease,, and a great variety of woods, roots, and plants; to which, before the discovery of America, we were either strangers, or forced to buy at an extravagant rate from Asia and Africa, through the hands of the Venetians and Genoese, who then engrossed the trade of the eastern world.
On this continent there grows also a variety of excellent fruits; as pine-apples, pomegranates, citrons, lemons, oranges, malicatons, cherries, pears, apples, figs, grapes, great numbers of culinary, medicinal, and other herbs, roots, and plants, with many exotic productions which are nourished in as great perfection as in their native soil..
Having given a summary account of America in general; of its first discovery by Columbus, its extent, rivers, mountains, &c. of the Aborigines, and of the first peopling this continent, we shall next turn our attention to the Discovery and Settlement of'north America.
DISCOVERIES AND SETTLEMENTS
ARRANGED IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER.
I ORTH AMERICA was discovered in the reign os Henry VII. a period when the Arts and Sciences had made very considerable progress in Europe. Many of the first adventurers were men of genius and learning, and were careful to preserve authentic records of such of their proceedings as would be interesting to posterity. These records afford ample documents for American historians. Perhaps no people on the globe can trace the history of their origin and progress with so much precision as the inhabitants of North America; particularly that part of them who inhabit the territory of the United States. The fame which Columbus had acquired by his first discoveries on this western continent, spread through Europe and inspired many 1456 with the spirit of enrerprize. As early as 1496, four years onlyafter the first discovery of America, John Cabot, a Venetian, obtained a commission from Henry VII. to discover unknown lands and annex them to the crown.
In the spring he sailed from England with two ships, carrying with him his three sons. In this voyage, which was intended for China, he fell in with the^north side of Terra Labrador, and coasted northerly as far as the 67th degree of latitude.
1497.—The next year he made a second voyage to America with his son Sebastian, who afterwards proceeded in the discoveries which his father had begun. On the 24th of June he discovered Bonavista, on the north-east side of Newfoundland. Before his return he traversed the coast from Davis's Straits to Cape Florida.
1502.—Sebastian Cabot was this year at Newfoundland; and on his return carried three of the natives of that island to Henry VII.
1S13-—In the spring of 1513, John Ponce sailed from Porto Rico -. • northerly northerly and discovered the continent in 300 8' north latitude. He landed in April, a season when the country around was covered with verdure, and in full bloom. This circumstance induced him to call the country Florida, which, for many years, was the common name for North and South America.
1516.—In 1516, Sir Sebastian Cabot and Sir Thomas Pert explored the coast as far as Brazil in South America.
This vast extent of country, the coast whereof was thus explored, remained unclaimed and unsettled by any European power, (except by the Spaniards in South America) for almost a century from the time of its discovery.
1524.—It was not till the year 1524 that France attempted discoveries on the American coast. Stimulated by his enterprizing neighbours, Francis I. who possessed a great and active mind, sent John Verrazano, a Florentine, to America, for the purpose of making discoveries. He traversed the coast from latitude 280 to 500 north. In a second voyage, some time after he was lost.
1525.—The next year Stephen Gomez, the first Spaniard who came upon the American coast for discovery, sailed from Groyn in Spain, to Cuba and Florida, thence northward to Cape Razo, in latitude 460 north, in search of a north-west passage to the East Indies.
1534.—In the spring of 1534, by the direction of Francis I. a fleet was silted out at St, Malo's in France, with design to make discoveries in America. The command of this fleet was given to James Cartier. He arrived at Newfoundland in May of this year. Thence he sailed northerly; and on the day os the festival of St. Lawrence, he found him'seisin about latitude 480 30' north, iu the midst of a broad gulf, which he named St. Lawrence. He gave the same name to the river which empties into it. In this voyage, he failed as far north as latitnde 51°! expecting in vain to find a passage to China.
1535.—The next year he sailed up the river St. Lawrence 300 leagues to the great and swift Fall. He called the country New France; built a fort in which he spent the winter, and returned in the following spring to France.
1542.—In 1542, Francis la Roche, Lord of Robewell, was sent to Canada, by the French king, with three sliips and 200 men, women and children. They wintered here in a fort which they had built, and returned in the spring. About the year 1550, a large number of adventurers sailed for Canada, but were never after heard of. In 1598, the king of France commissioned the Marquis de la Roche to conquer Canada, and other countries not possessed by any Christian prince. We do