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the bay, beyond which the tops of some mountains indicate the south coast.
A jetty 300 ells long, built on piles, on which is the landing place and the harbour office, leads to the town. To the left is the road to the campong of the Amoy Chinese. On both sides of the broad road are the houses, some of two stories, some of one, covered with tiles. In the middle of the Campong stands the temple surrounded by a brick wall.
On the sea side, behind the houses of the campong, are the cane huts of the fishermen and poor people.
A side road leads from the campong to a large plain in which ia the neat Protestant church. This building was erected in 1827 by subscriptions raised in lthio and Java, and a contribution from government. The other civil public buildings are, a magazine for provisions, a school-house, a convict quarter, a house for the Military commandant and an infirmary. The fort Kroon-prins was built in 1820, and is situated on a hillock 200 feet high. It consists of a dry ditch, 10 feet deep and 20 broad, a wall of hewn stone with four bastions and a lunette. In the fort are the barracks, quarters for the officers, powder magazines, treasury and civil gaol. It commands the approaches to the harbour, but would be of little avail against an European foe, as it has no supply of water, which is only to bo found at the foot of the hills, and it is overlooked by a neighbouring eminence.
The campong of the Canton Chinese lies on the other side of the bay. It is not so neatly built although more populous than the Amoy one. The houses are all of attap and stand on piles in the water. These houses communicate with each other by means of stages made of split nibongs, over which it is difficult to walk unless you are accustomed to it. The houses are so close to each other, that in case of fire the greater number would be destroyed, as has, indeed, several times happened. The only house built of stone is that of the Captain China.
Very pretty walks are to be found in the neighbourhood of Bhio, extending in all directions through the country. The rocky nature of the ground renders it difficult in general to keep the roads in good order. Not far from the town is the European burying ground, surrounded by a wall and having some monuments in it. On the same road is the native burying ground, as well as the Chinese graves, the last being built on the slopes of hills.
Beyond the immediate neighbourhood of Rhio there are few or no roads and only here and there a foot path. If I am not mistaken there was formerly a design to construct a broad road round the island of Bintang, but the disappointment in the large expectations which were cherished in respect to Rhio has prevented the work being undertaken.
The island Mars, called by the Malays Peningat, lies at about 1,500 ells from Tanjong Pinang. This small hilly island is the present residence of the Viceroy and his nobles. An extensive campong lies on the south and east sides. The residence of the viceroy has many spacious buildings, amongst which the balei is conspicuous. A high gateway with a round roof, besides a wall on either side, protects the entrance. Not far from this stands the new mosque, a building, it is said, on the model of the great mosque at Mecca. "With its four minarets and cupola, all covered with white plaster, this building has a striking appearance seen at a distance, which however diminishes on approaching, owing to the want of proportion in it, especially the small height of the roof from the ground and the very short but unusually thick pillars which support it. The mausoleum of the late viceroy is situated at the foot of a hill. A capital stone jetty, with a landing place built on piles, having on either side a building for the receipt of import duties, is of the same date as the mosque, 1848-49. Amongst the other buildings, the stone-house of the viceroy's brother, Rajah Abdulla, is conspicuous on account of its neat appearance and the manner in which it is kept, matters that are very seldom attended to by the natives in these countries. On the north-east point a small benting, mounted with cannon, was built in 1848, which has a flag-staff, from which floats the black flag of Lingga. The north and west sides of the island have no buildings on them and are covered with brushwood. Some fruit trees are scattered up and down the campong.
In former times the princes of Rhio resided at Old Rhio, lying further within the bay, where their graves are still to bo seen. The place is now entirely deserted. In the roads there sometimes lay 100 vessels at anchor. The roads were protected by a small fort on the islet Bajam, in the middle of the bay, the ruins of which still remain.
Several of the small islets in the neighbourhood have been given as gifts to different members of the royal family, and are principally covered with cocoanut and other fruit trees. The viceroy Bajah Jaft'er gave the island Loos, near Sengarang, to the Resident Elout as a present. This was disapproved of by the government, on which this functionary gave it to the missionary society, as the viceroy would not receive back his gift. It was inhabited by the missionary then stationed at Ehio, who had a house and garden upon it, which, however, have now disappeared.
The campong Dai, the present capital of the kingdom, lies on the island Lingga, a little within the mouth of the river, also called Dai, which takes its rise at the foot of the mountain, and falls into the sea to the north of the anchorage Klombo. It is a large scattered campong extending on both sides of the small river. Close to the mouth of the river, are about ten miserable huts belonging to fishermen. A little higher up the campong commences. We have first on the right bank the Chinese campong with the fish-market, and small shops for the sale of cloth and provisions. As at Ehio, these are placed under a covered verandah. The floors of these houses, consisting of split nibong, are raised about two feet above the ground. A little further up we find on both sides some Bugis houses, recognisable by their greater ornamentation with caned and festoon work, and from the high roofs, which, with intervals, lie over each other. After these we have the Malay campong, mostly in a miserable and dilapidated condition, surrounded by cocoanut trees and raised about six feet from the ground on posts. Everything here bespeaks disorder and indolence; fallen trees, which have not been removed, all the filth of the houses heaped up beneath them, every where high grass and weeds among the trees, testify how little inclination there is on the part of the inhabitants, to do anything for the improvement of their place of abode. The dalam (palace) of the Sultan is further up on the right bank. A large space, partly surrounded by a wall, is covered with numerous dwellings, some of them of stone but mostly of wood. A gateway gives admission to the inner space, where the mother of the Sultan, his wives, concubines, servants, &c. reside. In front of the Sultan's own residence there is a spacious balei of wood,
with a double verandah round it, one lower than the other. In front of the balei there are some metal and iron guns on slight carriages. .Although these are sometimes used for salutes, they are as good as useless, and occasionally cause sad accidents to those who fire them. The roads which traverse the campong, were last year brought into a serviceable state by being raised with sand, formerly they were nothing but mud holes, which were kept in that state by the daily rains. There is a good stone mosque not far from the dalam of the Sultan. With the exception of some of the houses of the nobles and chiefs, all the dwellings are of wood covered with at tap, and surrounded by groups of cocoanut trees. The greatest traffic is on the river. We constantly see sampans for ferrying, and also water sampans, which bring drinking water from higher up, for on account of the low, swampy nature of the banks no potable water is to be found in the lower part of the river. The traversing of the river is not a little hindered by the great number of prahus lying in it. They are generally prahu tope and penjajap. At very high water these vessels may be hauled into the river and then lie close tothe bank on both sides. If the prahus require to be examined or if they are not intended to be used for some time, they are placed in dry docks, called perkalangan. For this purpose a hole is cut in the bank at right angles with the river, the vessel is hauled into it, the opening is closed by a dam formed of a double row of piles with earth between them, and the water is then baled out. The boat is raised upon some pieces of wood so that every part of it can be got at. We find many prahus laid up in this manner.
About a mile from the dalam a house was begun for the Sultan, intended to serve as a place for recreation and occasional retirement. The plans were prepared in -ingapore, but the funds became low and the building was brought to a stand, so that it is still very far from completion.
On Lingga, Sinkep and other islands, we find campongs here and there, which however in most respects are like those already described. A collection of houses, generally placed near each other, without regularity, is sometimes surrounded by a paggar (fence). If the head is a man of consequence he has a balei in front of his house, if not, it is only an ordinary native house. Wherever practicable the campongs are built on the rivers. Bridges are nowhere to be found, so that people must cross at the fordable places. The roads are not much more than small foot paths where people generally sink up to the ankle in the mud.
The population of this Archipelago is aboriginal and foreign. To the first belong the Malays and a peculiar wild-living race; the foreigners are Europeans, Chinese, Arabs, Bugis, Javanese and other settlers here.
As these last do not differ in any respects from what we find elsewhere, it will be sufficient to describe them very briefly.
The Europeans settled here are all Government servants or pensioners. There is only one exception to this in a trader on a small scale.
The Chinese are by far the most numerous. According to their origin, they are divided into Canton or Amoy Chinese, who, as already mentioned, inhabit separate campongs and have separate heads. Between these two parties there exists a permanent illwill, which sometimes breaks out into open strife. This is to be ascribed, amongst othor causes, to two religious sects called the Chiuchi hoei and the Kwanie hoei, the followers of which have spread everywhere. They are secret societies, the members of which are bound to secrecy by the most fearful oaths. The members of these societies recognise one another by certain tokens. Their chiefs are to be found everywhere. These two sects do each other as much injury as they can; to this is to be ascribed, amongst other things, the laying waste of the gambier plantations on G-allang in August 1817. Here as elsewhere the Chinese are industrious workmen, traders and cultivators, principally of gambier and pepper. The capitals employed in trade are very trifling, with very few exceptions, and the trade consists chiefly in that of gambier and the retail of provisions, cloth, earthenware and such like. The rowers of the trading vessels between Ehio and Singapore are all Chinese, principally from Canton. They are large strong men, and also work as coolies. The Amoy people are in general much less vigorous and devote themselves more exclusively to trade. The Chinese manner of living is frugal, except in the use of opium, which is very general. The only luxury indulged in by them is at tho religious festivals, such as the Loga, Sambayang, Berbut, &c; but the yearly increasing empoverishment naturally shows its traces