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being uninhabited, it became an integral portion of the empire, with the same superabundant numbers as in China itself. Manila and Java received vast accessions of population, after the waywas pointed out by the Europeans; but their increase has been checked by the timid policy of the Dutch and Spaniards. The tyrannical and depressing systems of both those governments were unsuited to the genius of the Chinese, who were often driven to a resistance which was always taken advantage of. The emigration to Borneo under native governments appears to have commenced earlier, and, at first, to have been very extensive. The great value of the productions of that island had early attracted the Chinese to its shores, and under the mild government of the original native sovereigns, the Chinese increased in a remarkable degree. This appears to have been the only exception to the rule that emigration on a large scale did not commence till after the 16th century. The Chinese do not appear at any period to have settled at the spice islands, probably not being suited to their climate they did not place such a value on the nutmeg and clove as did the northern European nations.
Under a Malayan government in Borneo, and under their own government in Formosa, the Chinese increased in numbers, but in Manila and Java they have been kept down so sternly that, till this day, they do not appear to be more numerous than they were 150 years ago, notwithstanding the yearly additions to their numbers: and, though largely intermixing with the females of whatever countries they visit, their descendants do not appear to be so numerous as we might expect. The principle, common to all the great nations of South Eastern Asia, of preventing female emigration, has hitherto interfered, except in the case of Formosa, to prevent the formation of great Chinese settlements in any of these islands. It can scarcely be doubted that, if that restriction had been removed, and the settlement of Chinese been unmolested, and guided by recognized authority, the whole Archipelago would long ere this have been inhabited, and the almost incredible tesources of the several islands have been developed, by a full nnd enterprising population, instead of lying stagnant under the domineering influence of a foreign nation, whose subjects cannot themselves work, and whose timid policy, fearful of losing what I Ik.'v cannot rightly retain, has prevented the ingress of a race in every way fitted for the work of colonizing these places. The tendency to emigrate from China is remarkably shewn by late facts connected with California and Australia, where immense numbers of these people have proceeded. Whatever may be the advantages of Chinese immigration to the islands of this Archipelago, and to all our tropical colonies, where climate prevents our own countrymen from efficiently tilling the ground, it may be doubted whether any advantage can arise to such settlements as Australia and California, from a large influx of a peculiar race like the Chinese. Under a democratic form of government, such as that of the United States and, socially speaking, as that of our Australian colonies, no class of the population ought to be allowed to grow up with separate interests, or on a distinct footing from the rest of the inhabitants. * The only way to prevent the Chinese from forming separate interests, either as masters or servants of the colonies, will be the absorption of the race with the Anglo Saxonj an idea abhorrent to the feelings of the most liberal cosmopolite. After the first glow of the gold finding mania is passed, we may expect a cessation of emigration from China to the Anglo Saxon colonies in Australia and California. The enterprising spirit, long in operation, and recently stimulated by gold prospects, will seek new channels. At first, from the extreme want of labour in Australia, Chinese immigrants were encouraged, but it may be expected they will Eoon find their condition unpleasant, under the discouragement of a race jealous of intermixture, and anxious to preserve themselves and their country from the taint of inferior blood. The natural field for Chinese emigration is found in the islands of the Indian Archipelago, where, with a climate suited to their bodily constitution, and with a soil capable of producing the most valuable and varied articles of intertropical growth, and requiring only hands to work, they will find every requisite for the formation of a great colonial empire capable of vieing with the proudest European establishments. When the race of competition with
• The helotagc of Africans can be excluded here. Slavery is universally considered as an evil, its defenders only insist on the necessity of the ca-<e for its continuance. It is not considered by uny class as an institution advantageous to the general iutereats of the Kej-ublic.
the rest of mankind has commenced, and when the Chinese become in reality part of the great human family, we may expect to see emigrants of the middle and higher classes, and not as now, of the very lowest, entering the field; and, assisted by their greater applicability to the climate, it is not difficult to conceive the result, in course of time, of the unequal competition which will then arise between the Chinese and the native islanders on the one hand and the Europeans on the other.
The degree of civilization attained by the Chinese places them far in advance of any of the other purely Asiatic races met with in these Settlements, while their physical superiority is obvious to the eye of the most casual observer. A peculiarity attending their emigration will sufficiently account for their not having taken up higher ground in these seas, where they have been content to remain subjects; while, from their superiority, we might have expected a desire to rule. After the consequences of the connexion of Europeans with the several nations in S. E. Asia had been shadowed out, it became the policy of the Chinese government to put a stop to all intercourse, either on their own land or abroad;—all traffic, except such as was absolutely necessary, was discouraged, and the weight of authority was exerted, in connexion with religious scruples, to prevent emigration. It was considered disgraceful, among a people remarkable for pious regard to ancient customs, to desert their ancestral halls and to depart from the resting places of their forefathers' remains. Among the middling and higher classes emigration was most effectually checked, but poverty in China, as elsewhere, breaks down all artificial rules, and among the myriads of almost destitute paupers in the eastern provinces, when suffering from the pangs of hunger, many were found willing to undergo any distant and imaginary evil as the price of present ease and plenty. Our immigrants, unfortunately, are all of the lowest classes, and under the disadvantages of their position, it must be a subject of wonder, to the candid mind, that they have asserted their superiority so fully and that they have not been found more obnoxious to good government. Landing, as they do, on our shores, naked, diseased and poverty striken, we must be surprised at the wonderful capabilities of these countries, as well as at the aptness in taking advantage of their opportunities, to find after a few months, the same people well clad, well fed, and in the enjoyment of the best health. From the large proportion of absolute paupers arriving in the junks, it has been asserted that the Mandarins in the shipping ports take advantage of the opportunity of the sailing of the emigrant vessels to force on board their diseased paupers and criminals, thus getting rid of a nuisance, and improvising a system of criminal transportation at the expence of other nations.
The emigrants to the Straits are all from the south eastern provinces, chiefly Canton and Fokien. Leaving China in December and January, the commencement of the north east monsoon, (their winter) they sail down the China Sea with strong fair winds, and in about 10 to 20 days arrive at Singapore. The last year's (1853) arrivals at Singapore were as follows :—
By Junks. By Square-rigged vessels
Amoy 560 3,456
Macao 1,185 169
Canton 994 127
Ching Lim 2,645
Other Porte 675
Previous to this they averaged for some years about 5,000. In addition to these, a number of square-rigged vessels yearly import Chinese into Pinang. The numbers thus brought must be added to the total, not having entered at Singapore, unlike the junks, which touch there first, and afterwards sail on to Malacca and Pinang. From Singapore the labourers are distributed over the countries between the Malayan Peninsula and Sumatra.
The mode of conducting the emigration business is as follows; and would appear to be deserving of attention, as perhaps capable of being introduced elsewhere. The passenger, (called " Sinkay") not having money to pay for his passage, enters into an agreement with the master of the junk, to bind himself apprentice to some one at the port of arrival for one year, without wages, only receiving food, clothing and a small sum for barber's expences, tobacco, and other little indispensable luxuries; the balance of consideration for the labour of the year is to be handed over to the master of the junk, as payment of the passage money. The Sinkays are kept on board the junks, as security for the passage money, till taken by an employer, who, in consideration of obtaining his services for a year at a low rate, pays part of a year's wages in advance, with which advance the Sinkay clears himself with the junk master. This is the principle of the operation, but as the business is conducted, not through each Sinkay, but directly, between the junk master and the intending employer, and as the amount for passage money varies with the demand for labour, it has a certain colouring of slave dealing which has prejudiced many against the system. The Sinkay is not bound to go with any person who chooses him. If he pays his passage money, as he agreed to do when starting, at the same rate as the others, he is quite free to go wherever he pleases. If government had any interest or object in adding to the population of these Settlements, a regulation affording protection to the parties to these agreements would have the effect of attracting large numbers of emigrants yearly. As it is, at present when the junks arrive the masters are not allowed to detain the men on board. If it is represented on shore that any passengers are detained, a police force is sent off at once to free them from restraint. It is not, as it certainly should be, in all fairness, explained