« 이전계속 »
esh, ish, osh Milchanang
ta-sbe tham-che atung te-be to-thethe the checha
Kumi [chi, si may be from ki]
Kanawari Bhotia [i. e. the Chinese double
Tengsa (3rd pron.)
Angami (3rd pron.)
t- Sonthal (pre/.)
ni, un, ung, en, na, an
i, e, u
East Tibetan (? Bhotia yi, i)
i, e, Manyak [i Mongol, Manshu]
ni Bodo, Garo
na Singphu, Murmi (also Ia) [Scythic na, an, a]
la Murmi, Limbu, (qual.) Changlo (ib.)
ra Limbu (qual.)
lu, Io Changlo (qual.)
nang Namsangya Naga
rang n II. Chinese Possessives In Tibetan, Ganoetico-ultra
INDIAN AND N. Dratirian.
kkyi, khi, kyi, hi Bhotia
ga Changlo, Abor
g Abor, Daphla
ga, ka qual. Newar
ke, ku qual. Limbu
North UUraindian. ki, Male
ghi, hi Uraon
Gangetico- UUraindian. ti Serpa
chi Tengsa Naga
sei Tablung Naga
so, o Kiranti
Dravirian. [Possibly some of the dental forms may be Chi. nese and not merely variations of the Scythic «.]
Revenue* of Singapore. (Continued). In reporting the expediency or otherwise of establishing a monopoly on the articles of tobacco and salt at Singapore, I beg to submit the following considerations :—
17. The only kind of tobacco in use and estimation among the Chinese and Malays of the Eastern Archipelago, is that which is of the growth and manufacture of China and Java, and being of a peculiar taste and texture, cannot be substituted by the tobacco of Bengal or other countries, to which these natives are unaccustomed. The tobacco consumed and exported at Singapore is solely the produce of the aforementioned countries, and if monopolized by Government must still continue to be drawn from the same sources. The consumption on the island is too trifling as yet to form the source of a revenue, and any expectation of a considerable rise in the export price, which must constitute the principal value of the monopoly, would be defeated by the facility with which tobacco could be sent from Java to llhio, or even direct to the native ports, at a much lower rate than Government could afford to sell the same article at Singapore. It would also be difficult, in my opinion, to fix a tax on the internal consumption with reference to an unrestrained wholesale traffic, that would yield a certain sum to Government.
18. Singapore is at present nearly wholly supplied with this article from Siam to the amount of between 50 and 60,000 picula per annum or coyans 12 to 1,400 and exports from 11 to 1,200 coyans per annum, the purchase price is from 20 to 25 Spanish dollars per coyan. It is carried from hence chiefly to the East Coast of Sumatra, and from thence finds its way into the interior, supplying extensive districts, greatly to the interruption and injury of the Dutch trade in salt from other ports on the West Coast, the quality of the Siam salt being superior and better qualified to meet the vicissitudes of the climate in travelling, as well as being cheaper, the Dutch price at Fadang being 6 JRs
* Continued from p. 419 of vol. viii; 1854.
per picul, or 276 Rs- per Siam coyan, without the exponce of transportation.
19. Salt from the Coromandel Coast, was sold at public auction in Singapore, about a week ago, for 4 Spanish dollars per coyan, so inferior is it considered to that of Siam. It is estimated that the Coast or Coromandel salt, without even its first cost, could not be landed here for less thau 30 Sicca Rs- per ton, of 16 piculs, which is 100 per cent dearer than the salt of Siam, that averages only 15 Sicca Rs- per picul, and if the profit which is to form the value of the monopoly is added, it will be considerably dearer.
20. This profit, however, it must be observed, can only be estimated on the internal consumption of Singapore, because the natives without, will purchase salt wherever it is to be had cheapest, and the Siam salt being eventually excluded to favour the introduction of that from the Coast, the junks which now import from Siam, must be driven from this port, to supply Rhio and the native markets which are at present furnished from Singapore, it is evident that the preference given by the junks to dispose of their salt at Singapore, is on account of its contiguity and safety, and the opportunity afforded of selling other articles at the same time, such as rice and oil, as well as of procuring the sort of returns that are preferred.
21. The internal consumption of salt in Singapore is estimated at 12 coyans per month, or 144 coyans per annum, and is the only quantity on which the monopoly price can attach, subject nevertheless to reduction by the many favorable situations for smuggling the Siam salt into the island. Allowing 20 dollars per coyan, clear profit to Government, the revenue on this consumption would not exceed 2,880 dollars per annum, from which must bo deducted the charge of storing, issuing, wasteage and erection of godowns, and this profit could only be derived by obliging the consumer to pay nearly 60 dollars for what he now gets at 20 and 25 dollars, viz:—
Price of 40 piculs or 1 coyan of Coromandel salt at 30
Sicca Rs-per ton of 16 piculs Sea. R» 86 00