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for the purpose, if we may judge from the result of the experiment hitherto carried on, upon which the convicts might be most usefully employed in clearing the ground, and cultivating the spices until such time as the trees began to produce, when perhaps the best system wou Id be to divide the plantations into gardens of a proper size for the management of private individuals, to whom they could be farmed for any terms of years that might seem most advantageous for both parties. Numbers of industrious Chinese would be glad of an opportunity of employing themselves in a way so congenial to their habits and inclinations, and I have no doubt that many Europeans would be inclined to embark in a business which would give returns in the course of a year. But unless Government take a lead in it, I am much afraid that it will be almost entirely neglected and that the trade will fall into the hands of the Dutch, an opportunity they will not be slow to take advantage of or they will act very differently from their usual policy. In some degree to prevent which the garden seems to ms to afford the means of raising such a supply of young plants as will meet any demand for plants for Government use, and private individuals might also be supplied with plants if they felt inclined to cultivate. I trust that the interest of the subject will be my apology for having encroached so much upon your valuable
I have, &c.
NOTES TO ILLTJSTBATE THE GENEALOGY OF THE MALAYAN EOYAL FAMIIES*
1. For deduction from Alexander the Great to Tarsi Badarus, the first in this list, see "Table of Descents, from Rajah Kidah Hindee to Tarsi Badarus."
2. The dates over each of the kings are taken from Crawford, who gives Van der "Worm, Valentijn and Marsden as his authorities. It will be observed that these dates do not agree with the statements of the annalist, as for example from the accession of Bajah Ketchil Besar, 2nd king of Singapore in 1208, till the accession of Sultan Mahomed Shah in 1276. There are 6 kings in lineal succession from father to son, yet the whole time allowed is 68 years, or 11 years for a generation. Eleven years might be admitted as the length of a reign in collateral successions but of course cannot be received in descents from father to son.
We must therefore either reject the annalist's statements of lineal successions or Mr Crawford's chronology. Suppose for the sake of argument we choose the latter course, and accept as our earliest ascertained date the introduction of Mahomedanism, in the reign of Sultan Mahomed Shah in 1276, the first of his reign. Seven kings reigned and allowing 25 years for each reign, which will be perhaps as fair a calculation as can be fixed on, we have Singapore founded in 1101, and the dates of each reign as follows:—
Sri Tribuana 1101
„ VicramaVira 1126
„ Rama Vicrama 1151
„ Maharajah 1176
Rajah Secunder Shah 1201
„ Ahmed 1226
Sultan Mahamed 1276
3. Considerable confusion exists in the annals with regard to
the younger branch of the Singapore family—the Bandahara Tun
Perpatih Besar, the son of Rajah Ketchil Mudah called Tun Per
patih Permuka Berjaja, the first Bandahara, is said in the XI annal
• The accompanying Tables are supplementary to the "Abstract of the Sijara Malayu or Malay Annals, with notes, by T. Braddell, Esq.", published in the 5th and 6th Vols, of this Journal.—Ed.
I Sri Tribuana liad 2 sons about the year 1110, or by Mr Crewford 'sacct. 1100
D born in 1210 or 1271 might bave married Radin Bagus in 1230 or 1280.
Filius, bom 1110 or
1160, bail a son at 20 years of age.
1130 orlltJO, Rama Vicrama
A epos, bad n son at 20.
I'Od a son at 20.
1170 or 1220 Hujah Secunder
Abncpos, bad a son at 20.
1111 or 1161
had a son at 60.
1171 or 1221 Tan Perpatih
Nepos, had a son at 00.
1231 or 1281
at 40 years of
age might hare
Cudu in the vear
1270 or 1320.
1100 or 1210 najab Ahmed
Adnepoa, had a son at 20.
1210 or 1260 Radin Bagus*
Trinepos, bad a son at 20.
1230 or 1280
had a daughter
1250 or 1300
to have been appointed Punghulu Bandari. This was after the introduction of Mahomedanism in 1276. TunPerpatih, son of the first Bandahara, must have been born between the year 1200 and 1210 by Mr Crawford's chronology and about 1130 by that offered here, so in either case he could not have been appointed Punghulu Bandari in 1726. I have added Tun Perpatih Besar as a son of Tun Perpatih Tulos and thus the difficulty may be overcome, and as shown in the prefixed table, the 3 daughters of Tun Perpatih Tulos might have married the 3 sons of Eajah Ahmed and Tun Perpatih Besar himself might have married Tun Cudu daughter of Sriwah Eajah and the divorced wife of Sultan Mansur Shah.
This system will not be so singular if we recollect the Asiatic custom of marriages—that is, men marry at different periods of life,chusing a new wife after the last has lost her charms and beauty.
This table is given in order to point out the possibility in point of time of a marriage having taken place between Tun Perpatih Besar and Tun Cudu, even with a full allowance of time for each descent from father to son. According to Mr Crawford's dates Tun Perpatih Tulos might himself have married Tun Cudu.
4. According to Mr Crawford's chronology Badin Tengah, 3rd king of Malacca, is omitted, and only two years allowed from the accession of Eajah Ahmed, 2nd king of Malacca, to that of Sultan Mahomed Shah, the 4th king, yet the annalist expressly states the Badin Tengah was son of Eajah Ahmed, and Sultan Mahomed son of Badin Tengah.
5. The dates subsequent to the introduction of Mahomedanism appear to require revision. Mahomed Shah reigned according to
Mr Crawford from 1276 to 1332 or 56 years.
Sultan Abu Shehed from 1332 to 1334 or 2 years. This
date agrees with the Annalist who informs us that monarch reigned 1 year and 5 months and was succeeded by his brother Sultan Muzaffer who reigned from 1334 to 1374 or 40 „
Sultan Mansur reigned from 1374 to 1447 or 73 „
Sultan Alaoodin reigned from 1447 to 1477 30 „
Sultan Mahmud reigned from 1477 to 1513 or 36 „
5|235 years. 47