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202
Ancient and Modern Liverpool.

[March, building for Assemblies; the Rotunda; streets and squares, in the most eligithe Music Hall, and the Olympic ble situations, exhibit the natural efCircus. Under this head we may fects of commercial wealth, in refining class the Botanic Garden, which, in the style of domestic architecture, and the number of its exotics, is surpassed in combining splendour with conveonly by the Royal Gardens at Kew. nience.

Seventh. Structures of PUBLIC The Shops of the antient town reUTILITY.-We

e can find no building sembled the dwelling houses. They exclusively devoted to this purpose in were small, and there was nothing 1761. At present, however, we have elegant or ornamental to be seen. If two extensive water-works, an oil and they could be compared with the precoal Gas Company, a handsome and sent splendid ranges of spacious, elespacious covered Market (see vol. xcii. gant, and commodious 'shops, they ii.p. 113), and commodious Fish-stores. would form as striking a contrast as Under this head we may remark, that can be imagined. there was only one public market- The Streets and Squares of the place in 1761; now there are five. two periods present a very marked

Eighth. In 1761, there was contrast. Enfield, whose History, of building purposely constructed for a Liverpool appeared in 1773, speaking PRISON. The old tower * which for- of the streets at that period, says, “It merly stood at the bottom of Water- must be owned, that in the antient street, was then appropriated to the parts of the town, little attention has confinement of debtors and felons; been paid to regularity or elegance; but it was contracted, and very inse- and that in general, the buildings are cure. At present we have the airy, so crowded, that the inhabitants are spacious, and secure Borough Gaol, much more indebted for health to nain Great Howard-street. We may ture than to art.A survey of the also include in this division the large streets in the antient part of the town, and commodious County House of evince the truth of this statement. Correction, and elegant Court House They are mean, narrow, and gloomy. at Kirkdale, built upon the most judi. In fact, the widening and improving cious plan, and affording every facility of them has for many years employed, for the classification of prisoners. Here, and will continue to employ, a consihowever, we must yield the palm of derable portion of the ample funds of superiority to our ancestors; for it is the Corporation. But the modern not certainly in proof of our improved streets are regular, airy, and spacious ; morality, that so much prison room is and the squares highly ornamental, requireil.

some with beautiful gardens in the We have now, we believe, enume- centre. rated and contrasted all the public We now come to contrast the Chastructures existing at the two periods; RITABLE INSTITUTIONS of the two and having seen the immeasurable dis- periods. We have seen already that tance at which the antient is thrown there were only three buildings deby the modern town in point of orna- voted to charitable purposes in 1761, ment and embellishment, we are pre- and that eight have been added since. pared to meet a similar improvement But there are numerous charities, in the style of Domestic ARCHITEC- which, as they do not require them, TURE. Several mansions which, no have no buildings exclusively approdoubt, were deemed elegant in 1761, priated to their use, or none sufficientstill survive, but they cannot stand a ly conspicuous to deserve classification comparison with those of the present among the public structures. Among day. Strength and convenience, with them we may enumerate the Ladies' out much regard to external appear- Charity for the relief of poor women ance, seem to have been the only ob- in childbed; the Strangers' Friend Sojects which the architects of 176i had ciety; that for bettering the condition in view, in their dwelling houses. But of the Poor; the Society for promoting the face of the town has entirely Christian Knowledge; the Bible Sochanged; and the immense ranges of ciety; auxiliaries to all the Missionary elegant dwelling houses erected within Societies; and a great number of mithe last 20 years, and distributed into nor but useful Charities, which we

have not space to enumerate; ALL * Seen in the right corner of the view in supported by the bounty of indivi

duals.

Nor

p. 105.

1823.]
Ancient and Modern Liverpool.

203 Nor is modern Liverpool less con- and Greenock; one to the Bristol spicuous in Schools for eleemosynary Channel; one to Whitehaven and education of the children of the poor. Dumfries; one to the river Dee; two In 1761, the excellent Blue Coat Hos- to Bangor, Carnarvon, &c.; and eight pital, and the Free Grammar School *, on the river Mersey. To Dublin alone were the only charity schools in the we have also eight sailing packets, and town. The former institution still others to Newry, Belfast, and the Isle flourishes. But without entering into of Man. There is also an admirable a tedious enumeration of the different establishment of foreign packets, of modern institutions for this purpose, which four sail monthly to New York. we may state, on the authority of an In facility of Canal and Land accurate survey recently made, that the CONVEYANCE, the modern has an total number of children who now re- indisputed superiority over the antient ceive gratuitous instruction in Day and town. It enjoyed little inland naviSunday Schools, is 11,982, who are gation in 1761. The intercourse beeducated at an annual expense of 67391. tween the town and Manchester was

We have now delineated and con- then chiefly carried on by means of trasted all the prominent features in pack-horses. Now there are three cathe character of Liverpool, at the two nals to that town, and immense quanperiods of 1821 and 1701; features Lities of waggons, beside two mails, which distinguish her from other great and nine coaches, for the conveyance towns, and which have enabled her to of passengers daily. surpass most of them in the career to It would be unpardonable in us to opulence and fame. We shall now conclude this imperfect contrast, withproceed to contrast her in points not out comparing the state of that mighty so much peculiar to her, as common engine the Press. In 1761, there to the other great towns of the empire. was only one newspaper printed in

To begin with Places of pubLIC the town; at present there are four ACCOMMODATION and ENTERTAIN- political, two commercial, and three MENT. These have kept pace with the literary journals. growth of the town. "In 1761, there We have not, in this slight sketch, were only two inns, the Golden Lion contrasted the intellectual character and the Talbot. At present there are and refinement of the inhabitants at above 20 principal, besides a great the two periods. This might be deemnumber of inferior inns.

ed invidious; but we may observe, An elegant and extensive building without any design or wish to depreis now preparing for warm and cold ciate our revered ancestors, that the salt water Baths, in lieu of the old preceding detail demonstrates the inones, destroyed by building the Prince's finite superiority over them in the quaDock.

lities and attainments requisite for acThe first appearance in 1761 of a quiring and consolidating commercial stuge coach in this town from London, greatness. The poverty of taste and no doubt excited as much surprise in refinement in 1701, as compared with the minds of our forefathers, as the their perfection in 1821, was not so "appearance of steam boats in ihe river much the fault of our ancestors, as of in our minds a few years ago. A stage the times in which they lived. The coach hence to Prescot was set up in fine spirit which influences the pre1764, and is mentioned among the sent age, had scarcely gone abroad at memorabilia of that period. Could that period; and our present cultivated. our “rude forefathers' rise from their taste and high degree of refinement graves, and behold the present number are the growth of the last 20 or 30 and equipment of our mail and stage years. Intellect in Liverpool has not coaches, the spectacle would fill them followed, but led the march to imwith amazement.

provement. In the records of 1761, we find no Thus we have contrasted Liverpool mention of packets, although there in 1821 with Liverpool in 1761.. At were, no doubt, one or two to Ireland the latter period we found her in her and the Isle of Man. In 1821, we infancy, but abounding in all the elehave five steam packets to Dublin; ments of commercial greatness. She three to the Isle of Man, Port Patrick, has since expanded in bulk, and swell

ed in population. In her rapid pro* Since unaccountably suffered to fall gress to inaturity, she has outstripped into disuse.

her rival on the banks of the Severn,

and

204 Ancient and Modern Liverpool.--Recent Baronetages. [March, and has herself become' a formidable Mr. URBAN,

April 99. rival to the Metropolis. She now

THE

THE Manor of Everton, in the grasps in her arms one-third of the parish of Walton, is situated on commerce of the united kingdom, a high ridge of land, running from and takes her indisputed rank as the North to South, about one mile and second sea-port of the empire. The a half abutting on the Eastern bouncontrast is one at which we may well dary of the great commercial seaport feel an honest pride ; and Liverpool of Liverpool, from which boundary, may be held up to the world as an il- to its Eastern limits, is one mile one lustrions example of what talent, per- furlong. At time of the Survey it was severance, and enterprise have achieved one of the six hamlets belonging to the in the reign of a single Monarch. regal manor of Derby, held by King Yours, &c.

S. R. Edward the Confessor ; the tenants

of which, at this day, owe suit and serAdditions to Account of Liverpool. vice at the Halmote Court held at P. 105.

Col. 1, 1.31, for open, West Derby by the Lord of that Maread arched; I. 32, for joints, read nor. joists.-Col. 2, l. 16, add M.P. for Li By the charter roll, 36 Henry III. verpool, 1713; 1. 17, add Liverpool is we find William de Ferrars, Earl of a Mediety with two Rectors (like Mal- Derby, obtained liberty of free warpas). By the Act of 1699, two Cura- ren over this Manor. He was succies were made into Rectories. The ceeded by his son Robert de Ferrars, Rev. Samuel Renshaw, M. A. was ap- who taking part with Simon de Montpointed Rector in 1794 ; and the Rev. fort Earl of Leicester, in rebellion Robert Hankinson Roughsedge, M.A. against King Henry III. he was atin 1796, both now living, and able and tainted, and his possessions forfeited worthy pastors. The two Rectors serve to the Crown. King Henry afterand do duty, and at the end of every wards bestowed them on his son Edsix months, regularly change churches. mund Crouchback, with the titles of (See Gregson's Fragments, p. 173.) Earl of Lancaster, Derby, &c. In

the Inquisition post mortem taken on Mr. URBAN,

Dec. 4. his demise, 25 Edward I. this manor SOME VOME of the observations on Rank occurs “Everton 24 bovat. ter." 33

and Honours, by “H. P.” in your Edward III. his grandson Henry, Magazine for Oct. p. 304, are partly the first Duke of Lancaster, gave the just: but they require a little qualifi- “villam de Everton, cum Tuber, &c. cation or explanation. Since 1790 p'tinen." to his servant John Barret some of the most unquestionably an- and his heirs; in failure of issue to cient Commoners' families in the King- return to the said Earl, or his sucdom have been elevated to the Baro

The above grant was connetage : such as Corbet, Kyneson, firmed by King Edward III. in the Tyrell, Malet, Knightley, Welby, 33d year of his reign, as appears Broke, Brograve, &c. Besides these, by the Calendarium Rotuloruin Pamany younger branches of noble fa- tentium, p. 170. milies have also been elevated to the Blanch, one of the daughters and same honour-such as (Manners,) coheirs of the above Duke Henry, Chetuynd, Onslow, (Lennard), (Coote), brought the whole of the possessions Cholmely, (Hastings,) (Nugent,) Stan- in this county in marriage to John of hope ; Hood, (Bertie,) Macdonald, Gaunt, who in 1362 obtained a con(Beresford,) Grey, Clifford, Brydges, firmation of them, with the title of Dalrymple, Humilton, Ogle, Mait- Duke of Lancaster. His only surland, Hervey, Lechmere, Hamilton, viving son, Henry of Bolingbroke, sucChichester, Dundas. Among the new ceeded him in his title and estates, and creations of this period are upwards afterwards usurped the throne by the of 30 Generals, and 20 Admirals. title of Henry IV. on which event he

The number of Citizens created is vested the whole of the vast possesabout 43, exclusive of East Indians. sions belonging to the Duchy in the The Medical and Surgical List is Crown, under which this manor relarge. To these add Official Men, mained till the time of King Charles Commissioners, Commissariat, &c. 1. who sold it, and several of the surYours, &c. C. rounding manors, to Edward Ditch

cessors.

1823)
Beacon at Everton, near Liverpool.

205 field, John Highland, Humphrey The oldest remnant of antiquity conClark, and Francis Mosse, citizens of nected with this township was an anLondon, in the year 1629; they after- cient Beacon, an engraving of which wards resold it to James Lord Stanley is here given by perinission of Mr. and Strange, his heirs and successors, Gregson from his “Fragments of Lanin 1639.

cashire * "

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This Beacon was probably erected well chosen, communicating, N.E. in the reign of Henry III.' It con- with those at Rivington, Pike, and sisted of a square Tower of three Ashurst. When the Clergy of Liverstories, the lower of which was ap- pool were driven thence in times of the propriated to the uses of a kitch- Civil War, they solemnized several en ; the upper rooms

were large, marriages within its walls. During the and well adapted for the reception siege of that town, it was occupied by of a small garrison. On one of the Prince Rupert as an important post; angles of the building a stone recep- his Head Quarters were fixed in the viltacle rose above the roof, wherein were lage, at a cottage still in existence f. placed combustible materials, pre- Among its walls several small shots pared to light in any case of alarm or have been found, some of which invasion, for which its situation was are in the possession of M. Gregson,

* This Engraving was first printed with Ink manufactured, under the direction of Mr. Gregson, from burnt corn (taken from the great fire of the Goree, which occurred at Liverpool in September 1812,) in vol. XXII. of the “Transactions of the Society of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce.” For this and other useful applications of burnt materials, the Society awarded the Gold Medal to that Gentleman. + Engraved in vol. xcu. i. 585.-Edit.

Esq.

was

206 Everton Church, near Liverpool.-St. Olave, Hart-street. [March, Esq. of Liverpool. The Beacon was clear weather, equalled only by their blown down by a storm in 1803, in indistinctness when the parting sun consequence of the walls having been is sinking, below the horizon, enyes, undermined for materials.

loping their tops in shadow, and imIts site is occupied by a Church, pressing emotions of interest and plea. , (built in the Gothic style, by John

sure in the beholder. The prospect; Cragg, Esq. of the Klersey Iron to the S. E. exhibits a pleasing and Foundry), dedicated to St. George, diversified landscape, bounded by the and consecrated in 1814; on which distant mountains of Cumberland and occasion an excellent serinon Westmorland. W.I. ROBERTS.. preached by the minister, the Rev. R.P. Buddicorm, M.A.F.S.A. from 2 Chron.

Mr. URBAN,

March 1. Chap. vi . Verse 18, «. But

will God in THE Hart-street, is one of those very deed dwell with men earth; behold heaven, and the hea- which were not consumed in the great ven of heavens cannot contain thee, Fire of London ; and with the excephow much less this house that I have tion of the upper parts of the tower built.” The whole of the frame-work (with its turret), and the vestry-room, of the windows, doors, pillars, groins, which are brick-built, productions of roof, and pulpit, with the beautiful late years, most of the other principal enrichments, are of cast iron, the exe- parts of this edifice are interesting to cution of which does infinite credit ihe Antiquary. to the above gentleman. Its length Like Churches in general, it confrom East to West is 119 feet, the sists of a nave, with side ailes : the breadth 47. The East end is light- arches and corresponding columns beed by a large splendid window of tween which are bold and handsome, stained glass. In front of the organ and would be much more so if the gallery is placed the royal arms, an

columns were more lofty. At the ancient piece of carving, wrought out

East end of the South front is the of a solid piece of elm. The basement vestry-room. The nave is longer than story of the tower is appropriated as a the ailes; as the Western part of the baptistry, in the centre of which is former is bounded Northward by a placed a font of variegated marble, portion of the rectory - house, and inscribed “The gift of Thomas Go- Southward by the tower. The latter lightly, Esq. of Liverpool.” On the has two handsome arches of commuNorth wall is affixed à monument of nication with the nave and South white marble in the Gothic style, de- aile; and to the South-west angle is signed by T. Rickman, architect, in- attached a smaller tower, within scribed in old English characters :

which is a stone staircase leading to

the belfry. “ In memory of John Rackham, esq. of

Mention is made of this Church Liverpool, merchant, who died Feb. xvjj, early in the Fourteenth Century;, for MDCCCXV. aged lxjj years."

Newcourt, in his “Repertorium," reAscending the tower, which is 96 cords William de Samford to have feet high, or 345 feet above the high been Rector of it in 1319: and from water mark, there is a

the gracefully pointed arches of four manding and beautiful view of rural of the window apertures, and of the and marine scenery in all its pictu- lower arches of the nave and tower, resque varieties. Liverpool, the seat I am induced to suppose, that the of busy commerce and industry, on parts containing them are the most the West, embosomed in an exten- ancient portions of the Edifice. The sive valley, presents a congregated four apertures which I thus allude scene of multiplied spires, domes, to, are, the window on the West &c. seated on the Estuary of the side of the tower; those at the East Mersey, on whose spacious bosom ma- and West ends of the nave, and that jestic vessels sail along to greet the at the East end of the North aile. circling main. On the North the Of what forms the tracery of them country presents a level surface as far

may have been originally, is unceras the eye can trace the prospect. tain; the said West window of the The West is closed by the distant tower has, at present, three lights or mountains of Wales, whose craggy divisions with cingue-foil heads; and tops exhibit a sombre grandeur in small upright mullions, with corres

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