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abutment ACTION IN CLASS amount angle applied bolts braced arch BRACED FORMS braced structure braces require BROUGHT INTO ACTION centre CHAPTER completely braced compressive strains considerable constructed crown curve depth diminish direction DOUBLE ACTING effect employed equal EXTERNAL BRACING extrados featherings figure 38 figure 49 flexible arch form of bracing formula girder given horizontal bracing horizontal thrust increase joints length line of pressures loaded arch longi longitudinal beams longitudinal member lower beam maxima maximum compression maximum strains mid-span number of systems pair of braces parabola parallel pier Q planks plate plate-bracing points of support portion produced represent require bracing resolved resultant roadway shewn by Figures side span spandril stiffened strength strut sufficient TABLE take place tension tensive strain tion transverse trenails triangle Triangular Method trussing tube tubular tudinal member uneven loading upper beam vertical bracings vertical element voussoirs wrought iron
3 페이지 - Fig. 894 a diagonal must extend, in order that any change of form may take place. Consequently, all these forms are completely braced, as each does not permit of an effect taking place, which would necessarily result from a change of figure. Hence, also, any system composed of these forms, properly connected, breaking joint as it were into each other, must be braced to resist the action of forces in any direction ; but as in general all...