The Mace and the Gavel: Symbols of Government in America
American Philosophical Society, 1997 - 84페이지
One of the urgent priorities of the first Federal Congress was the formation of its organization, formulation of rules for its conduct, & the selection of appropriate officials & devices to represent their authority. Following British tradition, the newly organized House of Representatives & the Senate each appointed a Sergeant-at-Arms. For its symbol of the commonality of the American people, the House adopted the mace in the tradition of its mother country, while the Senate utilized a gavel or knocker. First used during meetings in New York of the House of Representatives, the mace was destroyed by the British when they burned Washington, & it was not until 1841 that another was acquired. Over the years the mace has been used primarily to quell quarrels between Congressmen on the floor, & to bring absent House members to meetings so that a quorum could be formed. The mace has been invariably effective in bringing order among turbulent House members. Although a Sergeant at Arms served the same function in the United States Senate, he was not provided with a mace. Order was maintained by an ivory knocker or form of gavel that has been used for the purpose for almost two centuries.
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27th Congress 2nd session 31st Congress adjourn American Revolution appointed attendance authority Bank of Commerce bearing the mace Boyd British Colonies Capitol century ceremony Colonies in North committee Congressional Row Corporation of Norfolk December desk Duer elected emblem engraved February FIGURE floor Frank Leslie's Illustrated gavel gentleman George Governor Gown Grow knocked hall Henry Lee House Journals House mace House of Burgesses House of Commons House of Delegates House of Representatives July Keitt King late Julian Lecompton Constitution Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper London Lord Mace Bearer mace was carried Museum National Bank Norfolk's Historic Mace Odo of Bayeux Office Philadelphia presented quorum records relic reported restored Richmond rods Roger Griswold seat Senate chamber Senate's Sergeant at Arms Silver Mace silversmith South Carolina Speaker John White symbol Thomas Jefferson tion United States Senate Virginia House Virginia State Archives Virginia State Library Washington William Adams William Tatham William Thornton Williamsburg York
49 페이지 - MADISON. In order to judge of the form to be given to this institution, it will be proper to take a view of the ends to be served by it. These were, — first, to protect the people against their rulers, secondly, to protect the people against the transient impressions into which they themselves might be led.
21 페이지 - ... and the silent arts of corruption; and if the constitution be destined ever to perish by the sacrilegious hands of the demagogue or the usurper, which God avert, its expiring agonies will be witnessed on this floor.
21 페이지 - House during its sittings ; to execute the commands of the House from time to time, together with all such process, issued by authority thereof, as shall be directed to him by the Speaker.
50 페이지 - ... Journal of the first session of the Senate of the United States of America, begun and held at the City of New- York, March 4th, 1789, and in the thirteenth year of the Independence of the said states.
ix 페이지 - The ancient use of the mace introduces us to a remarkable instance of ecclesiastical casuistry. The clergy was forbidden to shed blood, and, as thus the sword was inhibited, this might have been thought suflicient to keep them from the battle-field.
34 페이지 - I want to know what you mean by such an answer as that." Mr. Grow replied: "I mean just what I say; this is a free hall, and a man has the right to be where he pleases.
54 페이지 - Whenever upon such roll call it shall be ascertained that a quorum is not present, a majority of the Senators present may direct the Sergeant-at- Arms to request, and, when necessary, to compel th-e attendance of the absent Senators, which order shall be determined without debate; and pending its execution, and until a quorum shall be present, no debate nor motion, except to adjourn, shall be in order.
52 페이지 - Senate during all its sittings, to execute the commands of the Senate, from time to time, together with all such process issued by authority thereof as shall be directed to him by the President. The actual expenses of the Sergeant-at-Arms, for every arrest, for each day's custody and releasement.