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designer of the political plan. The evidence has now appeared in a volume which demonstrates that Locke's brain and hand produced not only the Constitutions as they were first drawn, but also the amendments of the original proposals. Besides the first sketch of the Fundamental Constitutions, the "Shaftesbury Papers" contain also some highly interesting memoranda and documents in Locke's handwriting, concerning the settlement of Carolina, of which enterprise the philosopher, whilst acting as the Earl of Shaftesbury's secretary, appears to have been the chief mover. Amongst the several pamphlets in Locke's writing are "Collections out of the History of England," and " Reflections upon the Roman Commonwealth," written probably for the educational advancement of the third Earl of Shaftesbury, and the manuscript of the "Essay on Toleration," in two parts, dated 1667—a very noteworthy date—as Locke has been hitherto believed to have written the "Essay on Toleration" at a time subsequent to his departure from England, in 1683, and during his residence in Holland. This interesting collection affords matter of especial interest to the medical faculty in certain records of medical opinions and notes respecting consultations on Lord Ashley's case, in the writing of Locke.
Ruskin.—In the preface to his last book Ruskin thus settles the reciprocal rights of author, publisher, and public :—" Now, it has cost me twenty years of thought and of hard reading to learn what I have to tell you in these pamphlets; and you will find, if you choose to find, it is true, and may prove, if you choose to prove, that it is useful: and I am not in the least minded to compete for your audience with the 'opinions' in your damp journals, morning and evening, the black of them coming off on your fingers, and, beyond all washing, into your brains. It is no affair of mine whether you attend to me or not, but yours wholly; my hand is weary of pen-holding —my heart is sick of thinking; for my own part, I would not write you these pamphlets though you would give me a barrel of beer, instead of two pints, for them; I write them wholly for your sake; I choose that you shall have them decently printed on cream-colored paper, and with a margin underneath, which you can write on, if you like. That is also for your sake; it is a proper form of book for any man to have who can keep his books clean; and if he cannot, he has no business with books at all; it costs me ten pounds to print a thousand copies, and five more to give you a picture; and a penny off my sevenpence to send you the book—a thousand sixpences are twenty-five pounds; when you have bought a thousand Fors of me, I shall therefore have five pounds for my trouble—and my single shopman, Mr. Allen, five pounds for his; we won't work for less, either of us; not that we would not, were it good for you; but it would be by no means good."
George EliotsLast Poem.—The dramatic fragment by George Eliot, published in Macmillan's Magaztne for July, fills nearly thirty pages of the number, and has for subject a crisis in the career of a musical genius. The opening scene sets forth the debut of the heroine Armgart; her lame cousin Walpurga and high-born lover Graf Domberg discuss her gifts and future until she comes in,
elated from a triumphant operatic success in Gluck's Orpheus, with her singing-master Leo. The next day Domberg presses his suit; and we have a dialogue on what is the true career for a woman: Armgart scorning her lover's ideal of mere womanly perfection in favor of the ideal of artistic greatness to which her own nature and instincts passionately urge her; he for love of Armgart ready to waive his theory and let her follow her profession as his wife. But she refuses, foreseeing that a husband's cold toleration of her pursuits will hinder them not less than his prohibition would; and they part. A year elapses, and we find that Armgart, just recovering by the help of severe remedies from a dangerous affection of the throat, has gone off without leave to a rehearsal— her first occasion of singing since her illness. She comes back, desperate at finding the beauty of voice gone forever, and at first determined upon suicide; until a sudden revulsion is wrought in her by the appeal of Walpurga, who touches the right chord in Armgart by charging her with selfishness in letting herself be overwhelmed by her personal calamity; as if she more than others amid the struggle of the world—more than Walpurga herself, her faithful and obscure companion—had had a born right to such fruition of art and glory as that to which she had aspired. Meanwhile Dornberg, warned by a true instinct that any advance of his would now be regarded as compassion, and rejected as insult, has written a letter at once of sympathy and farewell. And Armgart, in a humbled temper, and with a new sense of gratitude to Walpurga, determines to go with her old master and her cousin, and become a teacher of music in the town where Walpurga was bom, and where it will make her happiest to live. The above are the bald outlines of a piece of which the excellence is rather psychological than poetical. It recalls previous work of the author's in several points, as especially in its selection of a character possessed, like Maggie Tulliver and Fedalma, with the overmastering passion and rapture of music, and in its ethical conception of an intense personal agony made bearable by the absorption of the sense of self under the wider sympathy with mankind. Its fragmentary form exempts it from 100 close criticism as a work of art; but one might, according to certain standards, demur to the incident on which the action hinges, and ask whether a bronchial affection should be dignified into a tragic predicament. There are many lines and passages admirable both by vehemence and concentration, as where Armgart declines to be
"The millionth woman of superfluous herds,"
and many strokes of that epigrammatic form— epigram charged with emotion—,which belongs peculiarly to this writer, as where the heroine again talks of
"That chant of convolution wherewith ease
The pregnant and close-packed character of the thought a little suggests Browning, and the piece will be found to require some re-reading before its dramatic sequence and evolution come out, or the full subtlety of motive is apprehended in passages so good as that where Armgart declines Dornbeig's final offer, or that where she suddenly gives way before the reproaches of Walpurga
New Process of Cutting Glass and Stone.—A process of grinding and cutting glass, and of piercing glass and other hard substances, has been brought into use by Mr. Tilghman, of Philadelphia. It consists in driving a jet of sand with great velocity by air or steam against the plate which is to be ground or figured. Dwellers by the sea-shore know that the glass of their windows, in some places, loses its polish through the constant action of drifting sands on the panes; and this same action, in a concentrated form, is now to serve the arts, and put money into inventors' pockets. The mode of operation, briefly described, appears to be as follows:—" A stream of sand is driven by a fan into a large tube; the mouth of this tube is one inch wide, and two feet long, and through this the stream of sand rushes against plates of glass, and, in from ten to fifteen seconds, completely grinds as much of the surface as corresponds with the dimensions of the mouth of the tube. The plates of glass are moved by machinery until the whole surface is deadened, or ground ; and a pattern may be produced at pleasure by covering the plate with tough paper cut to any device, or with a coat of oil-paint; the covered portions will then remain transparent, while the other parts of the surface will be dead. Sometimes white glass, coated on one side with a thin film of red glass, is manufactured for ornamental purposes; any pattern can, in like manner, be cut through the red glass by the sand-jet. If a plate of glass is covered with lace, and then exposed to the jet, the pattern of the lace will appear; and by properly regulating the blast, delicate fernleaves may be used as the covering, and the plate will present the effect of an engraving of ferns. More examples might be enumerated, but these will suffice to indicate that there are many ways in which, with tul«s of different sizes, glass may be cut or ornamented by a jet of sand. There are also other applications in which it has been advantageously employed. The jet will cut granite or any other kind of stone with great facility, if driven by high-pressure steam. It is found in practice that the rate of cutting is, in granite, 1J cubic inches a minute, marble 3, and soft brown sandstone 10 cubic inches ; hence, grooves, mouldings and geometrical patterns may be cut in stone at the pleasure of the artificer. It seems hardly credible, but a jet of quartz sand, impelled by a steam-jet of 300 pounds' pressure, pierced an inchand-a-half hole through a slab of corundum i$ inches thick in 25 minutes. Between the hardness of corundum and of diamond there is but little difference. After this, there seems nothing remarkable in the fact, that a plate of glass covered with wire-gauze was pierced and converted into glassgauze by the action of the jet. Moreover, it is found that the jet can be used for dressing the surface of stone. Some kinds of granite cannot be dressed by the chisel without presenting what masons call a 'stunned' appearance: this is entirely avoided by using the jet. The inside of cast-iron hollow ware can be better cleaned and prepared for tinning by the sand-jet than by any other way; and the suggestion has been made, that the Egyptians smoothed and carved their blocks of porphyry and sunk their hieroglyphics by means of the sand which lay around them in such abundance."
From later particulars which have come to hand concerning this ingenious process, we learn that it has been successfully applied to the reproduction* of photographic images on the glass. In the delicate operation with ferns above mentioned, the sand makes its impression through the thin parts of the frond, but is stopped by the thickest parts and the stems ; and thus a fern properly shaded is, so to speak, engraved on the glass. In the same way, a photographic portrait on a collodion film may be engraved on the glass by a shower of sand.
A Type-setting Machine.—Among the machinery in the International Exhibition may be seen a machine for doing the work which is done by compositors in printing-offices. A good compositor will pick up and arrange about fifteen hundred types in an hour; this machine will pick up and arrange twelve thousand in the same time. The mechanism by which this is accomplished is singularly ingenious; but to descrilie it intelligibly would require much more space than we can afford. The visitor sees a circular iron table with a number of small upright boxes fixed at regular intervals round the rim. These boxes are filled with groups of types, and are so constructed that any one or more than one of the types can be picked out and laid in order by a metallic flap which passes under it. There are as many flaps—or "pickpockets," as the inventor calls them—as there are pockets, and these, rotating with the table-top, bring their type one alter the other to a channel, into which they are pushed by a "pusher," that moves to and fro as steadily as a pendulum. From this channel the types descend a curved incline, which delivers them in a continuous, line, with all the words properly spelled, punctuated, and spaced. The picking of the pockets is effected by studs or pins, which rise at the right moment through holes in the flaps, and take out the letter or letters required. These pins are set in operation by a somewhat complex system of levers, and these are inspired, so to speak, by a strip of perforated paper, which is to the type-setting machine what "copy" is to the compositor. Each perforation in the strip of paper indicates a. letter; and so the paragraph, or leading article,. or chapter of a book must first be pierced in the paper at a separate machine. If for a book, the strips may be kept fur subsequent editions, or may be sent abroad to enterprising publishers, who use the same machine in other countries.
Mr. Mackie, of Warrington, who has bestowed years of thought and labor in bringing his machine to its present remarkable state of efficiency, regards it as likely to supersede hand-labor in typesetting. But in the preparation of a book or newspaper something beyond mere fingers is required: there must be intellect to give emphasis, to denote shades of meaning, and to bring out the point by variety of type; and in the printing of chemical or mathematical works it is not easy to see how the setting of the multiplex formulae could be done by the machine. Mackie's machine, fed with perforated strips, will deliver as rapidly as could be desired a continuous line of type; but this has to be broken up into lines, and must be "leaded," and formed into columns or pages by hand; whereas the compositor sets his types in. columns or pages as he picks them up. To "justify" or prepare a page or column of type n_-ces«sarily takes time; and this fact must be taken into account while estimating the advantage likely to accrue from a machine which, driven by steam at a moderate rate, will "compose" twelve thousand types in an hour. So far from detracting from the merits of the machine, we believe that these will be best appreciated where due consideration is given to the preliminary process of perforation, to the work of justification, and to the fact that the machine does not furnish the intellect which, indispensable in type-setting, is furnished by "a hand at case."—Chambers's Journal.
Mac/line for Testing Metals.—An extremely interesting machine for testing metals on a new method has been invented by Mr. G. BischofT, of Bonn, and was described in a paper read before the British Association. It has since been exhibited at the Institute of Naval Architects, and illustrated in engineering. Mr. BischofT first prepares small test strips of the metal whose quality is to be ascertained. These are 7 mm. and and 65 mm. long, and are prepared specially by methods which need not here be described. The test strips are then placed in a machine called a met.illometer, in which the test strips are bent backwards and forwards through a definite angle, by preference an angle of 67^". These bendings are effected by a clock-work arrangement, and indicating dials are provided to register the number of oscillations to which each strip is subjected. Ten strips can, if necessary, be tested at one time. The number of bendings which each strip sustains is, on Mr. Bischoft's system, the measure of the quality of the metal, and, according to his experiments, would seem to be an exceedingly delicate test. In order to have some fixed standard to which to refer the tests of other specimens, Mr. BischofT selects strips of chemically pure zinc. The resistance of such strips is remarkably uniform. Knowing the average test of say 50 strips of zinc, in any given machine at any given angle of bending, we have a standard with which to compare the results of tests on other materials in the same or other machines. So delicate does Mr. BischofT believe his method of testing to be, that he asserts he can by its aid detect the deteriorating effect of .00,001 per cent, of tin when alloyed with pure zinc. The objection to Mr. Bischoffs system is that at all events, in certain cases, the preparation of the test strips involves processes which alter the mechanical properties of the material.
Attraction Caused by Vibrations of the Air.— In the "Philosophical Magazine" is a paper by Professor Challis, in which the author maintains that the condensation in waves propagated from a centre will vary inversely as the distance, and that the rate of diminution of the condensation or rarefaction with distance from the centre will be continually changed from the law of the inverse square of the distance to that of the simple inverse of the distance, provided there be alternate condensations and rarefactions, as seems to be inevitable; for it ■is contrary to known hydrodynamical laws to suppose the possibility of a solitary wave of condensation. The above-mentioned velocity gives rise to a continual flow from the rarefied into the condensed parts, and just in the proportion required for altering the law of diminution with the distance from the inverse square to the simple inverse.
Professor Challis believes that the attraction of magnetism is caused by vibration, to which he might have added the attraction of gravity—a doctrine long since propounded by Roliert Hooke, and of which an account is given in his posthumous works. In the revolving grate erected by Boulton and Watt beneath a steam-boiler at the Bank of England, the coal was fed by a scoop moved by a cam, which advanced the scoop gradually over an orifice, carrying coal with it, and then suddenly drew back the scoop, when the coal, by its inertia, remaining behind it, fell into the fire. In this case we have a backward and forward motion causing bodies subjected to it to travel in a certain direction; and if we suppose a similar motion to exist in the particles of bodies, an attraction like that of gravity will be the result.—Society of Arts Journal.
Advantages of Infusorial Silica.—The Scientific American recently had an article on this subject. It says, that by mixing three to sis parts of infusorial silica to one part of freshly burnt lime, and stamping the whole, after slightly moistening it, into a suitable mould, artificial stone of any desired form can be made. Such stones become extremely hard, are impervious to water, are finer grained than cements of b 'ton, can be used for gas or water pipes, and will take any color. As there are large deposits of diatomaceous earth in various parts of America, this application for artificial stone and cement is well worthy of consideration. By combining infusorial earth with native magnesite and chloride of magnesium, a cement is produced which is known in Germany under the name of albolith cement. The chloride of magnesium, obtained as an incidental product in salt manufacture, is very cheap in some parts of Germany, and the occurrence of large deposits of magnesite renders this variety of cement available in Europe for many purposes. A fine glaze for earthenware is obtained by fusing infusorial earth withcrude borate of lime, or boronatrocak ite. A variety of porcelain can be made by fusing infusorial silica with the borate of magnesia of the Stassford mines. This kind of porcelain can be cast, pressed, and, if sufficiently thin, can be blown as easily as glass. It is capable of extensive use in the arts.
The Cinchona in Jamaica and the United States.—In the monthly report of the United States Department of Agriculture for March and April is a valuable paper on the cultivation of the cinchona in Jamaica, by Dr. C. C. Parry. As the general result of his inquiries in regard to the cultivation of this plant, and the possibility of introducing it into any portion of the United States, he states—first, that the peculiar conditions of soil and climate suitable for the growth of the best varieties of cinchona plants cannot be found in the United States, where no suitable elevations possessing an equable, moist, cool climate, free from frost, can be met with; second, that the Island of San Domingo, located within the tropics, and traversed by extensive mountain ranges attaining an elevation of over 6,000 feet, presents a largeT scope of country especially adapted to the growth of cinchonas than any other insular region in the western hemisphere; third, that the existence o successful cinchona plantations in Jamaica, wit bin two days' sail from San Domingo, would afford the material for stocking new plantations in the latter island at the least possible expense of time and labor.
The Men of the Stone Age.—Where are the bones of the men who made the unpolished flint implements? Mr. W. Pengelly, in an article in the Quarterly fournal of Science for July, discusses this question. He points out that it is ordinarily assumed that the bones of man are as conservable as the bones of any other mammal, that no human remains have been found with the extinct cave animals, that until they have been so found the doctrine of man among I he mammoths remains unproven. Mr. Pengelly first shows that the preservation of human remains mainly depends upon the conditions of their interment. He cites numerous authorites in proof of human remains having been found in caves both in England and France associated with many extinct animals. He concludes, however, that it would have been as illogical had Robinson Crusoe doubted that a human being had made the footprint on the sand because he had never seen the individual, as that any one should doubt the presence of man associated with the extinct mammalia, because his presence is only indicated by his implements and not by his osseous remains.
A Climbing Fern This plant (Lygodium
palmatum) exists and flourishes in its wild state within the borders of "old Essex," U. S. The writer in the American Naturmiist discovered this rare and attractive plant in 1869, while exploring "Lynn Woods," in the vicinity of the famous "Penny Bridge.!' The locality of its haunt is within the limits of Saugus, and not far from that romantic spot known as the Pirates' Glen. Specimens have been obtained having a stalk or "vine" nearly four feet in length. "As the climbing fern is one of the most rare, graceful, and attractive plants found in this country, it is a matter of satisfaction to know that we have it growing in our woodland valleys." This fern has been found, though rarely, in Florida, Kentucky, and Massachusetts. In Virginia it is often seen, and it has been found in several other localities.
Tunnelling.—ft seems as if the world will in time become as familiar with tunnels through mountains as it now is with under-sea telegraph cables; and we may be sure that what is done in Europe will be outdone in America. A beginning is now in progress on a line of railway which is to connect Boston with Troy, on the Hudson River. Between these two places rises a range of hills, the Hoosacs, about 2,600 feet in height, through which a tunnel 25,000 feet in length is to be pierced. When finished, the width will be twenty-four feet, the height twenty feet. About 15,000 feet are already excavated, and the work is carried on at the rate of fifteen feet a day through quartzite rock and mica schist, the machinery employed being drills driven by compressed air.
Temperature of the Earth.—Professor Ansted has made a series of experiments on the temperature of the earth by boring into the rock in different parts of the tunnel through the Alps. Contrary to expectation, he finds that the temperature increases largely in descending below the surface
of a mountain, as it does in descending below the general average surface or below a plain. He is to repeat his experiments this summer, with a view to detect error. By the way, Professor Ansted says it is a mistake to call the tunnel the Mont Cenis Tunnel, and that its proper name would be Mont Frejus Tunnel.
The fapanese and their Art.—We find the following from the pen of Mr. Jarves in the last number oiArt:—" Industrial or social science is no impediment to Art in Japan. It gets at its results in its own way. As a people they contrive to live pleasantly without being in bondage to any system of superfluous wants. They have no furniture to speak of. But their most common articles in some fashion must be stamped with beauty. This is the feature which first strikes the senses. Convenience is secondary. They heap up tasteful treasure in which beauty is paramount to beguile the mind from dwelling on physical ills. Wonderful to relate, in their enjoyment of its objects, they actually forget our numberless necessaries of life. No people can grow up with this disposition without having some of the suggestive loveliness, grace, delicacy, refinement, and atmosphere of natural truth permeate their minds and manners, even if it do no higher spiritual service to the intellect.
"As regards the Industrial Arts, the principle of making ornament subordinate to use is sound. The constructive form of the object should be carefully adapted to its final purpose. If grace of form and lovely color are superadded, these should be as accessories to commend it to the taste. But a mischievous confounding of the fundamental purpose of Industrial with the Fine Arts is common in Europe and universal in America. We have in consequence a vast number of things incongruous in constructive principle, vulgar in ornamentation, garish in colors, and at the same time of small value for any practical purpose, while those intended only to please the taste are tortured out of their legitimate forms by the vain desire to make them subserve a domestic need. Our homes are crowded with inappropriate objects. Money is worse than wasted on heaps of uncomfortable trash, frivolous in motive, inane in make, and annoying to the artistic sense. Paris sets this foolish fashion. The greater part of her productionsare not only wrongly conceived structurally, but false as to the grammar of ornament, and very often extremely ugly. Each fresh departure from classical forms constructed on principles of harmonious curves, related to one another by subtlest graduations of lines, displays a pitiable poverty of aesthetic invention. There is no surer method of demonstrating the radical defects of the average Eurojiean ornamentation than by placing il beside the common examples of Japan. Even since the Chinese followed the European track, its Art has lost those genuine qualities which, while distinguishing it from the ornament of their rivals, gave to it a peculiar value only second to theirs."
The Temple of Diana at Ephesus.—Some interesting intelligence has reached us respecting the excavations of Ephesus, carried on under the direction of Mr. J. T. Wood, with the object of illustrating the site of the Temple of Diana. Two years ago, Mr. Wood came on the peribolus wall built by Augustus. This had four inscriptions built into it near an angle, showing that it enclosed the Temple of Diana and the Augusteum. This wall was traced for many hundred feet, and numerous trial holes were sunk in the area defined by it, as being within the sacred precinct. By these means the pavement of the Temple was discovered, together with frusta of columns of white marble, and two capitals, all of colossal dimensions. More recently, the remains of one of the external columns, measuring 6 ft. I in. in diameter, have been found in situ. These remains consist of the entire base and a portion of the lowest drum. The base shows signs of having been colored red. The works are suspended during the hot season, but will be continued in the ensuing autumn; and Mr. Wood has but little doubt that the result will set at rest the long-mooted questions asto whether the Temple was octastyle or decastyle, &c. We understand that Mr. Wood is preparing for the press an account ot his discoveries at Ephesus, which will be published as soon as the excavations are completed.— Athentmm.
Art Exhibition at Constantinople.—The Levant Herald contains a remarkable announcement of a projected Art Exhibition in Constantinople. In the last few years professional Art has been spread among the Osmanlees, and the present plan is supported by three artists: Aali EfTendi, a Parisian student, is director of the Lithographic and Photographic Departments of the Minister of War; Ahmed EfTendi, another Parisian student, and pupil of MM. Boulanger and GerOnie, is noted as the first Ottoman artist whoscworks have been admitted to a Western exhibition: he practises water-color and landscape. Limonji EfTendi, an Armenian, is draughtsman to the Museum. With the help of Armenian and Greek votaries, it is expected a good collection will be obtained; and it is hoped a restoration may be effected of the old schools of color in glass-painting, mosquedecoration, and art-manufactures.
The British Museum /nix just effected an important purchase of twelve vases found recently at Capua These are all of them finely preserved examples of a rare and beautiful class, generally assigned to an epoch little lower than that of Alexander, and distinguished by large size and supreme and subtly varied elegance of form. They are principally amphora? and crateres, without figure-designs, but with their bodies painted black, and fluted in the manner which indicates an intention of imitating the forms of metal vases. The neck is generally adorned with a wreath of leaf-sprays picked out in gold.
Dr. D. Eisenmann, at present engaged in cataloguing the contents of the thirteen galleries accessible to the public in Rome, avers that in an unnoticed picture of the Palazzo Spada he has discovered an original portrait of Albert Diirer by Titian.
A committee has been formed in Russia, under the patronage of the Emperor Alexander, for the pur))ose of erecting a national monument to the poet Pouschkine.
Lady ! very fair are you!
And your brow is like the snow;
And the rose-flush on your cheek,
And that loving lustrous eye
You have pouting, piquant lips;
But for your cerulean hue,
If, by an arrangement dual,
I a wooer perhaps might come,
Religious Change in Rome.—In the mean time the Bible Society has opened its store in the Corso, near the very spot where, a few years ago, the priests made a bonfire of " bad books," and destroyed as such every copy of the.Scriptures they could lay their hands on. A colporteur may be seen freely selling in the streets the two Testaments, Old and New, or single copies of the Gospels, as tracts, for a soldo or two each. Your servant, if she can read, which is by no means generally the case, will be found reading the New Testament in her untidy kitchen, leaving the dinner-things unwashed, because, '' Oh, signora, it is so interesting and beautiful in that book!" The driver of your carriage, too, whilst he waits for you at a shop, brings from his pocket the halfpenny copy of St. Matthew or St. Luke, and is so absorbed, perhaps by the new and divine doctrine of the Sermon on the Mount, or history of the birth of the Saviour —whom he pleasantly recognizes as the blessed Bambino of the Ara Cceli, the delight of his boyhood—that you have to rouse him as out of another world when you are ready to proceed. Everywhere, sometimes in almost ludicrous ways, you see how the imagery of the Bible is taking hold of the public mind ; thus, the other day, when one of those halfpenny newspapers, now so eagerly read by the lower class, was speaking of the gallant apperance which the mayor of the city made when riding along the Corso, it described him as mounted on a horse, splendid as one of those in the Apocalypse—no longer is the comparison drawn from the familiar steeds of Phidias and Praxiteles on Monte Cavallo, but from those seen by St. John in his vision on the Lord's day in the island of Patmos; so, again, at the merry artists' festival, when Pharaoh was represented in all his Egyptian grandeur, one of the attendants was heard explaining to his fellows the subject of the comic show,