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third. He also received six hundred on Chivalry, the Drama, and Romance, pounds for Births, Marriages, and Deaths, in the Encyclopædia Britannica, one hunand four hundred pounds a year as editor dred pounds each. But what a mine of of Colburn's New Monthly. Charles wealth he discovered when he first thought Mathews paid James Smith one thousand of embodying the thoughts and feelings of pounds for Country Cousins, A Trip to Par- the olden time in works of fiction ! For is, Air Ballooning, and A Trip to Amer- ley was an anonymous novel put forth at ica, written for his entertainments. The the dead season. Constable refused to sums of money Sir Walter Scott received give one thousand pounds for the cock for his works are unparalleled. His share right; but 1,000 copies were sold in fre of the first work, Minstrelsy of the Scottish weeks, and on his share, Constable reited Border, was but £87 Ids., or half the one thousand pounds in the first year. clear profits ; but he sold the copyright Constable agreed in 1821 to give for the afterwards for five hundred pounds. His remaining copyright of the four noves share in the Lay of the Last Minstrel was published between December, 1819, and £769 6s. Longman gave him one hun- January, 1821—namely, Ivanhoe, the Ver dred pounds for Lyrical Pieces, suggested astery, the Abbot, and Kenilworth-thesur: by the popularity of the last. Constable of five thousand guineas. By these fom offered one thousand guineas for Marmion novels, the fruits of not more than a year's very shortly after it was begun, and with- labor, Scott cleared ten thousand pounds out having seen one line of it ; and the before the bargain was completed. Bu price was paid long before the poem was all this (and much more) was of no arz. published. It was first printed in quarto, when Sir Walter, at the age of fifty-bre, price one guinea and a half. In less than found hirmself involved in the failure e a month, the 2,000 copies were sold, then Constable & Co. to an enormous extesi 3,000 octavo copies followed. By 1825, The debts exceeded one hundred and 31,000 copies of this poem had been sold. twenty thousand pounds. This was : For the Lady of the Lake, Sir Walter had 1825; and in a year and a half, this inde two thousand guineas ; and by 1836, fatigable author had reduced the amour 50,000 copies had been sold. Constable by twenty-eight thousand pounds. The gave fifteen hundred guineas for one-half Life of Napoleon produced eighteen tiot the copyright of the Lord of the Isles. Of sand pounds, which was at the rate of birt Rokeby, more than 3,000 were sold at two than thirty-six pounds a day for his time guineas by the second day of publication. Woodstock realized eight thousand six heo For his edition of Dryden's works, in eigh- dred pounds. By the republication des teen volunies, he had seven hundred and novels, etc., he reduced the debt by fit fifty-six pounds; fifteen hundred pounds four thousand pounds. for an edition of Swift ; and for the articles
BY THE EDITOR. Few of the eminent names in modern substance of an excellent sketch which English literature are more familiar to the appeared in one of the early numbers of readers of the ECLECTIC than that of John Appleton's Journal. Tyndall, F.R.S., and there is no scientific Professor John Tyndall, the success man perhaps whose work is better known of Faraday in the chair of natural philusta to them. Every one of our recent vol phy in the Royal Institution of Grea umes has contained one or more articles Britain, was born in the village of Leigali from his pen, and in our literary depart- Bridge, Ireland, in 1820. He is descended ment we have kept our readers advised of from the old English family of Tyndales what he has been doing from time to time some members of which emigrated, abou in the field of general literature.
the middle of the seventeenth century, to • His life has been an uneventful one, as Ireland, on the eastern or Saxon fringed is generally the case with a student, and which a few of their descendants are so the details which are accessible to the scattered. public are few; but we give below the The father of Professor Tyndall vasa
nan in lowly circumstances, but of mark- was, however, dissuaded from this, and, d character, in which intellectual power turning his attention to railway engineerind personal courage, combined with deli- ing, he was engaged by a firm in Manacy of mind and feeling, were distinguish- chester. In 1845—the period of the “raild traits. From his forefathers he inher- way mania"-in the Yorkshire office of ted a taste for religious controversy, as the company, he first met Mr. T. A. Hirst, ar as related to the Churches of Rome an articled pupil, who became one of his und England ; and thus the earliest intel- most intimate friends, and is now profesectual discipline of his son consisted in sor of mathematics in University College, xercises on the doctrines of infallibility, London. purgatory, and transubstantiation, while Thus five years were spent on the Ord
is early text-books were the theological nance Survey, and three on railroads. His vorks of Tyndale, Chillingworth, and Tils character, at this period, is thus described otson. By the silent operation of his by one who knew him well :haracter-by example as well as by pre- “Extreme caution and accuracy, toept-this remarkable man inspired the gether with dauntless perseverance under ntellect of his boy, and taught him to difficulties, characterized then, as now, the ove, above all things, a life of manly in- performance of every piece of work he lependence. He died in May, 1847, took in hand. Habitually, indeed, he juoting to his son a little before his death pushed verification beyond the limits of he words of Wolsey to Cromwell,—"Be all ordinary prudence, and, on returning ust, and fear nothing."
from a hard day's work, he has been Of his early education, received at a known to retrace his steps for miles, in chool in his native village, nothing is order to assure himself of the security of loteworthy, except that he there cultivated some bench-mark,' upon whose permand acquired a taste for mathematics, and nence the accuracy of his levels depended. specially pure geometry. In 1839, Mr. Previous to one of those unpostponable C'yndall quitted school to join the branch thirtieths of November, when all railway of the Ordnance Survey which was sta- plans and sections had to be deposited at ioned in his native town, in the capacity the Board of Works, a series of levels had of “civil assistant." He quickly acquired to be completed near Keithley, in York
practical knowledge of the business, be- shire, and Manchester reached before midoming in turn draughtsman, computer, night. The day was stormy beyond descripurveyor, and trigonometrical observer. tion; levelling-staves snapped in twain be
A simple circumstance, which occurred fore the violent gusts of wind; and level o Mr. Tyndall in 1841, formed a turning and leveller were in constant peril of being voint in his career. While stationed at overturned by the force of the hurricane. Cork, he worked at mapping in the same Assistants grumbled 'in possible,' and oom with an intelligent gentleman, Mr. were only shamed into submissive persistawrence Ivers, who became interested ence by that stern resolution which, before n his companion's work. One day he night-fall, triumphed over all obstacles.” sked Tyndall how his leisure hours were In 1847, he accepted an appointment mployed, and the answer not being quite as teacher at Queenwood College, in atisfactory, he rejoined: -“You have five Hampshire, a new institution, devoted jours a day at your disposal, and this time partly to junior instruction, and partly to ught to be devoted to systematic study. the preliminary technical education of Iad I," he continued, “ when I was your agriculturists and engineers. It was surge, had a friend to advise me as I now rounded by eight hundred acres of land, dvise you, instead of being in my present upon which, besides farming, surveying, ubordinate position, I should be the levelling, and other engineering operations qual of Colby” (Director of the Survey). were to be practically taught. Professor Next morning, Tyndall was at his books Tyndall here developed remarkable tact efore five o'clock, and for twelve years and resources in the management of inlever swerved from the practice.
subordinate students, declining all harsh In 1844, seeing no definite prospect be- expedients, and depending for influence ore him, Mr. Tyndall resolved to come to upon pure force of character. In the labImerica, some members of his father's oratory of this institution he found Mr. amily having emigrated to this country in Frankland, now the distinguished profeshe early part of the present century. He sor in the Royal School of Chemistry, in London. Desirous of pursuing their sci- As a thinker, Professor Tyndall's posientific studies under more favorable cir- tion is a unique and commanding one cumstances, the two friends left England He is not only thoroughly disciplixed together in 1848, and repaired to the Uni- the methods of science, a consummate and versity of Marburg, to study under the indefatigable experimenter, full of nei celebrated chemist and physicist Bunsen. devices, both for the exploration and the Professor Tyndall attended his lectures, illustration of phenomena, but he is also: and worked in his laboratory. He also man of enlarged and independent ven. attended the physical lectures of Profes- to which his high scientific position gie sors Gerling and Knoblauch, and the weight and force with the public. As it is mathematical lectures of Stegmann. His more and more perceived that the mind in first scientific paper was prepared here, all its modes of movement is one, and that and was a mathematical essay on “Screw its scientific action is its most perfect Surfaces." But the investigation which tion, the opinions of men of thorough sofirst made him known to the scientific entific culture upon all questions invorworld was one “On the Magneto-optic ing truth and error, will meet with comProperties of Crystals, and the Relation of stantly increasing consideration. This Magnetism and Diamagnetism to Molecu- shown in the general interest that is take lar Arrangement."
in whatever Professor Tyndall has to s In 1851, Professor Tyndall went to to the public, and whatever the subjec Berlin, and continued his researches on upon which he speaks. Of his charace the newly-discovered force of diamagnet- as a writer, it is perhaps superfluous : ism, and on the magnetic properties of speak; but it may be remarked that I crystals, in the laboratory of Professor same extraordinary power of vivid imis Magnus. After making the acquaintance nation which he carries into his experimci and securing the friendship of many emi. tal researches, and which is tasked to 3 nent men in Berlin, he returned to Lon- highest in grasping the conception of Coc don, where, during the same year, he first plex molecular phenomena, is equally mas became personally known to Professor ifested in those bold and striking images Faraday. He became a member of the with which he enriches his descriptions Royal Society in 1852, lectured first before and narrations. Professor Tyndall is aße the Royal Institution in February, 1853, a man of quick and ardent feeling, which and was elected professor of natural phi- constantly kinches his intellect into poeta losophy to that establishment in June of action. His is the rare gift to give us tik the same year.
poetry of science without impairing the The first three years of Mr. Tyndall's quality of science itself. As a lechira residence in London were devoted to an Professor Tyndall is vigorous, racy. 20€ exhaustive investigation of diamagnetic impressive. Although neither fluent my polarity, and the general phenomena of eloquent in the current rhetorical sens the diamagnetic force-magne-crystallic he carries his audience completely rc action included. In the Philosophical him by the clearness and freshness of the Transactions and Philosophical Magazine expositions and the brilliancy and bolts he published various memoirs on these ness of his illustrations. Of a highly-vsubjects, all of which were received with talized and restless temperament, and i favor by the scientific world.
wiry, elastic physique, which is superbir The scientific researches for which Pro- adapted to Alpine climbing, his mort fessor Tyndall is chiefly distinguished re- ments upon the platform are rapid om late to the molecular constitution of mat- decisive, and hardly conform to those iter ter. Beginning with his magneto-optical curves of grace which are so prized and diamagnetic investigations, he has declamatory art. But of his characters pursued this train of inquiry into the field tics in this respect we need not speak, as of the radiant forces with the most inter- he has pledged himself to come to this esting results. His researches on the country and lecture, when the public . relations of radiant heat to the constitution be able to judge for themselves. Socialit. of vapors are embodied in his able work Professor Tyndall is free, genial, and 1 entitled “Heat as a Mode of Motion," pub- teresting-a man of the world, at home n lished in 1863, and have subsequently been all relations, and, although a favorite o still further and very brilliantly pursued. the ladies, is still a bachelor.
FOREIGN LITERARY NOTES. Swinburne is in poor health, and has gone to Française, ou Morale de l'Invasion Prussienne," Scotland to recuperate.
founded on his observations during the campaign It is announced that a second volume of poems of 1870 in the Army of the Rhine. by Dante Gabriel Rossetti may be looked for this Foseph Skipsey, a heaver of coal, a genuine winter.
pitman of thirty-seven, who has been at work in Mr. Darwin has a new work nearly ready, in the pit since he was five years old, and who taught which he discusses - The Facial Expression of himself to read, has just published a small volume Animals.”
of poems at Blyth, - printed by William Alder," Mr. Froude has relinquished the editorship of
which contains a few touching pieces on the acci. Fraser's Magazine, and his place will be filled by
dents that a pitman is liable to--Athenaum. Dr. Dasent.
According to a Report on the libraries of A volume of ghostly stories and speculation, by
Switzerland, read at the recent Congress of the Mr. R. Dale Owen,' entitled “The Debatable
Swiss Statistical Society at Basle, Switzerland pos. Land between the Two Worlds," will be published
sesses 25 public libraries, with 920,520 volumes; immediately.
and no less than 1,629 popular and educational
libraries, with 687,939 volumes. The largest According to the Canada Bookseller, Prof.
libraries are those of Zurich, with 100,000 volGoldwin Smith has undertaken the editorship of umes; Basle, with 94,000 ; Lucerne, with 80,000. a new magazine that will, before long, be started
Rights of Editor. --In an action lately brought in the Dominion.
against the Editor of the “ Echo," for the value Mr. Swinburne is about to send to the press of an article sent unsolicited, the judge decided the “ Prelude" 'to his unfinished poem,“ Tristram that articles so sent were at the disposal of the and Iseult,” itself a poem of considerable length editor, who had the liberty of accepting or refus. and importance, being several hundred lines long. ing; and that, if he gave notice to that effect, he
The death is announced of Mr. Thomas Roscoe, had the right to destroy those which he did not the editor of Lanzi's “ History of Italian Painting," accept. and the son of the author of the “Life of Leo
The first and fifth volumes of Mr. Ruskin's the Tenth."
“Modern Painters” are out of print, and the M. Romek, of Prague, has just brought out the other volumes nearly so. In the first volume of second volume of his history of that city, which is the uniform octavo edition of his works now in brought down to the fifteenth century. The first preparation, Mr. Ruskin has declared his intenvolume appeared as far back as 1856. Both are tion to reprint very little of his “ Modern Paintin Czech.
ers," as his opinions have changed so much since Mr. R. Somers, who made a six months tour in the days in which he wrote that book. the southern portion of the United States last win Herr Berthold Auerbach has published a Gerter and spring, will soon publish a volume contain- man translation of Spinoza's collected works in ing the results of his travels, under the title of two volumes, under the title of “B. de Spinoza's "The Southern States since the War.”
Sämmtliche Werke.” Some thirty years ago, The Rev. Dr. Richard Morris's “ Historical Herr Auerbach published his first translation of Outlines of English Accidence,” which gives in Spinoza's works. The present work contains the a condensed form, for the use of schools, the re- later discovered works of Spinoza and a new biog. sults of his many years' study of Early English raphy, and Anglo-Saxon, will be published shortly.
We understand that the new volume of Mr. T'he-long expected novel by George Eliot is to Freeman's “ History of the Norman Conquest " be published by the Blackwoods in December. is entirely taken up with the reign of William the Like most of her previous efforts in this field, it Conqueror. The fifth and last volume will carry is a story of provincial life in England. It will be on the narrative in the form of a sketch to the presented first to the American public through period to which Mr. Freeman originally designed the pages of Every Saturday.
that his history should extend the reign of Ed. The Rev. A. B. Grosart is compiling a volume
ward the First. of contemporary judgments on great poets, like A new edition of Low's “ Handbook to the those of Gower, Occleve, and Lydgate, on Chau. Charities of London” is in preparation, under the cer; Raleigh, etc., on Spenser; Ben Jonson, editorship of Mr. Charles Mackeson, who will be Milton, etc., on Shakspeare ; Marvel, etc., on glad to receive additions and corrections at the Milton.
publishers'. It is intended to show, as far as The Academy states that a new translation of possible, the working expenses of each charity, in
on is announced from Prague. Professor Dur addition to the usual information as to the work dik, of that city, to whom literature is already done during the year, the income, and the names indebted for a valuable essay on that poet, is about of the officials. to translate his complete works into the Bohemian
The revision of Luther's Bible, undertaken by language.
delegates from Prussia, Würtemberg, and Saxony, M. Bedarrides, a French artillery officer who is proceeding much more rapidly than might have served in the Crimean War, and wrote an interest. been expected from the incorrectness of the transing work on that war, has written a very able lation. The New Testament has been ready for brochure, entitled “Réorganization de l'Armée some time, and has been introduced by authority
in the churches of Prussia. The alterations are There were no speeches. Many of the da neither very numerous nor important, as far as can looked like country clergymen fresh from their res be judged from a cursory exainination of the part tories, and it was curious to imagine which part already published.
of the Review was in their charge. The first volume of the unpublished memoirs of Darwinism.-In a reprint of an article in the the celebrated Polish poet Jean Ursin Niemcewicz last number of the North American Reic in has just been published at Posen (Zupanski). Mr. Chauncey Wright, the author ably defea's Niemcewicz was the friend and fellow-laborer of Mr. Darwin from some of Mr. St. George Vivat's Kosciuszko, and took part in the revolution of attacks; and clearly points out the nature anda. 1831. After this he lived successively in Italy, tent of the variations suitable for the efficient France, Germany, and America. He was mem- action of natural selection-a point on which Mr. ber of the Diet of Poland, and one of the most Mivart, like so many other critics, has misamic brilliant writers of the period preceding Mickie. stood, and to some extent misrepresented, the the. wicz. The memoirs are full of interest, both in a ory. Several of Mr. Mivart's special diffcultie r literary and political point of view.
very ingeniously overcome, but otbers of equalit An English Orarterly is about to be published greater weight are left unnoticed. The disewa in Berlin, to be called the German Quarterly of the theological bearings of the subject is some Magazine. It is proposed to translate those lec
what obscure; and though the article must be contures by Virchow, Haeckel, Gneist, and other
sidered to be a criticism os, rather than an anska to celebrities of Berlin, which have appeared and are
Mr. Mivart's book, it exhibits much originality of in the course of publication in a series edited by thought and a very accurate conception of the esc Virchow and Holtzendorff. . on science, history. tial features of the theory of natural selection, and and art, which may be interesting to English read. is therefore a real contribution to the literature of ers. One-half of them are on scientific subjects, the subject. - The Academy. treated in a popular style ; the other half relate to A work by Mr. George Smith, of the British history and art, and each quarterly part will con- Museum, is announced in our list of publications tain essays only of a similar character.
containing the History of Assurbanipal, king of The Catalogue of all French publications during Assyria, B.C. 668 to 626. The cuneiform texts e the twenty-five years 1840 to 1865, compiled by given of all the historical inscriptions of the reis the German bookseller Lorenz, settled in Paris, is Assurbanipal, the most important in Assyrian be at last completed, having been interrupted by the tory. Each text is accompanied by an interlinea involuntary flight of the editor from Paris, about translation in English), and the wbole bock a year ago. In the absence of any comprehen- divided into sections, according to the various can sive catalogue since Quérard, which reaches only paigns of the king. The long inscription on the det to 1839, this is a great boon to librarians, book. ágon cylinder of Assurbanipal, now in the British sellers, and persons who desire to refer to the Museum, is taken as the standard text. This publications of French authors. The arrangement document alone contains 1,200 lines of cuncilor is alphabetical, under the name of the author ; in writing. The annals of Assurbanipal mention the anonymous works, under the first substantive of conquest of Egypt by the Assyrians under Esz. the title. Each author's list is preceded by a haddon and Assurbanipal; in this part we Last short biographical notice.
the Assyrian account of Tirhakah, Necho I., and An extensive work on the History of Mary
Psammitichus I. In the affairs of Asia Minx, Stuart of Scotland, by Prof. Petit, of Beauvais,
Gyges and Ardys, kings of Lydia, come in ; and is, we understand, nearly ready for publication.
there are numerous wars and other events, inda The Professor has been engaged upon it for the
ding the conquests of Babylonia, 'Susiana, an! last ten years, and has spared neither money nor
Arabia. labor in order to lay before the world such an Public Libraries in Italy. - From a retanc accumulation of evidence relative to the unfortu.
the statistics of public libraries in Italy for 1870 nate Queen of Scots as has never yet been made
presented to the Minister of Public Instruction, i public. The work is intended by the author to
appears that Italy possesses 28 of these instructions, prove a complete justification of the Queen from which were resorted to last year by 723, 359 rea.. the charges brought against her. It will be in ers. Naples, the most populous of Italian citia, two large quarto volumes, an English translation with five public libraries, has also the largest nunof which will be published before the original in ber of readers, being 192,992. Turin, with one French. M. Charles de Flandre, of Edinburgh, is public library, has 115,000 readers; Florence, the translator.
with three, 92,000. The library most frequented The Saturday Review.- The editorial writers in proportion to the population was that of Cataof the London Saturday Review have no reason nia, with 18,641 readers. Nine only of the titra for fault-finding with the proprietors, so far as ries are open in the evening ; the number of visits hospitality is concerned. It is the agreeable cus made at that time was 104,000. Works in general tom of the owners of that journal to give an an- literature and philology were most largely in te nual dinner to the writers; and at the one given quest; after these, treatises on jurisprudence an! three or four weeks ago nearly fifty gentlemen legislation ; and in the third place, works on phy. were present. The editor, Mr. Harwood, was in sical science. The proportion of novels issued as the chair, Mr. Beresford Hope being on one side, very small, which may perhaps be owing to works and Mr. Venables on the other. Among the of this description being but sparingly admitted company were Sir R. Maine, Mr. Saunders, Mr. into the libraries. The total number of vorts Leslie Stephen, Mr. E. Pigott, Mr. C. II. Fyffe, added to all these institutions during the year was Mr. Oxenford, and others eminent as writers. 11,706.