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in the abstract, or when nothing but the number same not only in kind but number: numerist, of things is considered, will not be true when the one who deals in or reckons numbers: numeroquestion is limited to particular things: for in- sity, the state of being numerous : numerous, stance, the number two is less than three; yet many; containing many; containing musical two yards is a greater quantity than three inches; numbers; harmonious ; melodious : numerousbecause regard must be had to their different na ness, the quality of being numerous; harmony. tures as well as number, whenever things of a

Many of our schisms in the West were never different species are considered; for, though we

heard of by the numerous Christian churches in the can compare the number of such things ab- east of Asia.

Lesley. stractedly, yet we cannot compare them in any Queen Elizabeth was not so much observed for applicate sense. And this difference is necessary having a numerous, as a wise counsel. Bacon. *o be considered, because upon it the true sense, The blasts and undulary breaths thereof maintain and the possibility or impossibility, of some no certainty in their course ; nor are they numerally questions depend. Number is unlimited in feared by navigators.

Broune. respect of increase; because we can never con

In the legs or organs of progression, in animals, ceive a number so great but still there is a

we may observe an equality of length, and parity of numeration.

id. greater. However, in respect of decrease, it is limited; unity being the first and least number, which is concordant unto the doctrine of the nume

We cannot assign a respective fatality unto each below which therefore it cannot descend, except rists. by subdivision into decimal or other parts, which

Of assertion if numerosity of assertors were a suffi. may also be extended infinitely, at least in idea, cient demonstration, we might sit down herein as an if not in fact; for we cannot conceive any particle unquestionable truth.

Id. of matter so small, but that it may be supposed Thy heart, no ruder than the rugged stone, capable of being rendered still smaller, by divi- I might, like Orpheus, with my numerous moan, sion and subdivision.

Melt to compassion.

Waller. Number, Golden. See CHRONOLOGY, Index. I must think it improbable that the sulphur of Numbers, ANCIENT. Numbers were by the antimony would be but numerically different from the

distilled butter or oil of roses.

Boyle. Jews, as well as the ancient Greeks and Romans,

His verses are so numerous, so various, and so expressed by letters of the alphabet: hence we harmonious, that only Virgil, whom he professedly may conceive how imperfect and limited their imitated, has surpassed him.

Dryden. arithmetic was, because the letters could not be

That which will distinguish his style is, the numearranged in a series, or in different columns, con

Tousness of his verse. There is so delicately venient for ready calculation. The invention of turned in all the Roman language.

Id. the arithmetical figures which we now make use

Numeration is but still the adding of one unit of, and particularly the cypher, has given us a

more, and giving to the whole a new name or sign, vast advantage over the ancients in this respect. whereby to know it from those before and after. (See Arithmetic, Index.) The Jewish cabba

Locke. lists, the Grecian conjurors, and the Roman au Some who cannot retain the several combinations gurs, had a great veneration for particular num- of numbers in their distinct orders, and the depend. bers, and the result of particular combinations of ance of so long a train of numeral progressions, are them.

not able all their lifetime regularly to go over any

Id. Numbers, Book of, the fourth book of the moderate series of numbers. Pentateuch, taking its denomination from its The numerical characters are helps to the memory, numbering the families of Israel. A great part to record and retain the several ideas about which the

Id. of this book is historical, relating to several re- demonstration is made. markable passages in the Israelites' march through Contemplate upon his astonishing works, particuthe wilderness. It contains a distinct relation of larly in the resurrection and reparation of the same their several movements from one place to another, numerical body, by a re-union of all the scattered

South. or their forty-two stages through the wilderness. parts.

A But the greatest part of this book is spent in supernumerary canon, when he obtains a preenumerating those laws and ordinances, whether bend, becomes a numerary canon.

Ayliffe's Parergon. civil or ceremonial, which were given by God,

Put thy little state in good order; govern wisely but not mentioned before in the preceding books. and holițy those numerous people which are conNUMERAL, adj.

Fr. numeral, nume tained in so little a kingdom; that is to say, that NU'MERABLE,

rateur, numeration ; multitude of affections, thoughts, opinions, and pasNU'MERALLY,

Lat. numerus, nume- sions, which are in thine heart.

Mason. NU'MERARY, adj. ratio, numerator, nu Words none, things numerous it contains : Numera'tion, n. s. merosus. Relating to And, things with words compared, NUMERA'TOR, n. s. numbers : numerable

Who needs be told, that has his brains, NUMER'ICAL, adj. sis capable of being

Which merit most regard ?

Couper. NUMER'ICALLY, adv. numbered : numerary,

To the wall, with Hate and Hunger,
NUʻMERIST, n. s.

Numerous as wolves and stronger,
any thing pertaining
On they sweep.

Byron. NUMEROS'ITY, to a certain number:

In Time's pursuits men ran till out of breath: NU'MEROUS, adj. numeration, the act or

The astronomer soared up, and counted stars, NU'MEROUSNESS, n. s. ) art of numbering ; And gazed upon the heaven's bright face, number contained ; a rule of arithmetic: a nu

Till he dropped down dim-eyed into the grave : merator is a person who numbers; or a given The numerist, in calculations deep, number, the measure of others : numerical, de- Grew gray.

Polloh. noting or pertaining to numbers; identical ; the

NUMERAL CHARACTERS OF THE ARabs are inverted ; and that I was used for one, because those figures which are now used in all the oper- it is the first letter of initium, the beginning. ations of arithmetic in every nation of Europe. But all these are fanciful derivations; and the A writer in the Gentleman's Magazine thus en- following are perhaps equally so, though some deavours to prove that the Arabs derived their think they afford the most natural account of the Dotations from the Greeks:-'I maintain,' says matter. The Romans probably put down a he, “that the Indians received their numeral cha- single stroke, I, for one; this I they doubled, racters from the Arabians, and the Arabians from trebled, and quadrupled, to express two, three, the Greeks, as from them they derived all their and four; thus II. IÎI. IIII. So far they could learning, which in some things they improved, easily number the strokes with a glance of the but for the most part have altered. The numeri- eye. But they found that, if more were added, it cal figures which they received from the Greeks would be necessary to tell the strokes one by are proofs of this alteration; which is so great, one; they therefore expressed five by joining that without particular attention one can scarcely two strokes together in an acute angle, thus, V, diseover in them the vestiges of their origin. which is the more probable, as the progression But when we compare them carefully, and with- of the Roman numbers is from five to five, i. e. out prejudice, we find in them manifest traces of from the fingers on one hand to the fingers on the the Greek figures. The Greek numerical figures other. After they had made this acute angle V, were no other than the letters of their alphabet. for five, they added the single strokes to it A small stroke was the mark of unity. The B, to the number of four, thus, VI. VII. VIII. being abridged of its two extremities, produced VIIII., and then, to prevent confusion, they the 2. If you incline the y a little on its left doubled their acute angle by prolonging the two side, and cut off its foot, and make the left horn lines beyond their intersection, thus, X to denote found towards the left side, you will produce a two fives, or ten. After this they doubled, 3. The A makes the 4, by raising the right leg trebled, and quadrupled, this double acute angle perpendicularly, and lengthening it a little below thus, XX. XXX. XXXX. They then joined two the base, and lengthening the base on the left single strokes in another form, and, instead of an side. The e forms the 5, by turning the lowest acute angle, made a right angle L to denote fifty. semicircle towards the right, which before was When this fifty was doubled, they then doubled tomed towards the left side. The number 5 the right angle thus, L, to denote 100; and havforms the 6 by having its head taken off, and its ing numbered this double right angle four times, body rounded. 2, by taking away the base, thus, LL. CCC. LECC. when they came to the makes the 7. If we make the top and bottom of fifth number as before, they reversed it, and put I round, we shall form an 8. The O is the 9 a single stroke before it, thus, 11, to denote 500; with very little alteration. The cypher 0 was and, when this 500 was doubled, then they also only a point, to which one of the figures was doubled their double right angle, setting two added to make it stand for ten times as much. double right angles opposite to each other, with It was necessary to mark this point very strongly: a single stroke between them, thus, CIT, to deand, in order to form it better, a circle was made, note 1000: when this note for 1000 had been which was filled up in the middle; but that cir- four times repeated, then they put down Icy for cumstance was afterwards neglected. Theo- 5000, CCIII for 10,000, and III for 50,000, phanes, an historian of Constantinople, who ECEITIT for 100,000, 11111 for 500,000, bred in the ninth century, says expressly, that and CELCITIIJ for 1,000,000. That the the Arabians retained the Greek figures, having Romans did not originally write M for 1000, do characters in their language to represent all and C for 100, but square characters, as they the numbers. The Greeks observed in their are written above, we are expressly informed by numbers the decuple progression, which the Paulus Manutius; but the corners of the angles Arabians have retained. That this reasoning is being cut off by the transcribers for despatch, plausible will hardly be questioned ; but whe- these figures were gradually brought into what ther it be conclusive our readers must deter- are now numeral letters. When the corners of mine.

LIT were made round, it stood thus, CIƆ, NUMERAL LETTERS, or Numerals, those let- which is so near the Gothic m, that it soon deviters of the alphabet which are generally used for ated into that letter: so it having the corner fizures; as 1, one; V, five; X, ten; L, fifty; C, made round, it stood thus, lɔ, and then easily 100; D, 500); M, 1000, &c. It is not agreed deviated into D. C also became a plain C by how the Roman numera originally received the same means; the single rectangle which detheir value.. It has been supposed that the Ro- noted fifty was, without alteration, a capital L mans used M to denote 1000, because it is the the double acute angle was an X; the single first letter of unille, the Latin for 1000; C to acute angle a V consonant; and a plain single denote 100, because it the first letter of cen- stroke the letter I; and thus these seven letters, tum, the Latin for 100; that D, being formed by M, D, C, L, X, V, I, became numerals.—See dividing the old M in the middle, was therefore ARITHMETIC. appointed to stand for 500, or half as much as NUMIDA, in ornithology, a genus belonging the M s ood for when it was whole; or, more to the order gallinæ. On each side of the head probably, that D stands for dimidium mille, the there is a kind of colored fleshy horn; and the half of 1000: and that L, being half a C, was, for beak is serrated near the nostrils

. the same reason, used for fifty; that V stood for N. cristata, the crested guinea-hen, a species five, because it is the fifth vowel; that X stood mentioned by Latham, inhabiting Africa." Perfor ten, because it contains V twice, one of them haps it may have some relation to the crested

sort which Marcgrave mentions to have seen, upwards of 100. This country included two and which came from Sierra Leone. This had a districts, one inhabited by the Massyli, and the kind of membranous collar about the neck, was other by the Masæsyli; the latter being also of a bluish-ash color, and had a large roundish called in after times Mauritania Cæsariensis, black crest. Buffon, who describes it at great and the former Numidia Propria. The country length, calls it la peintade. Linnæus and Gmelin of the Massyli, or, as some call it, Terra Metacall it numida meleagris, &c. Ray and Willoughby gonitis, was separated from the proper territory call it gallus and gallina Guineensis, &c. Mr. Pen- of Carthage by its eastern boundary, the river nant contends, and seems to prove that the pin- Tusca, and from the kingdom of the Masæsyli

, or tadoes had been early introduced into Britain, at Mauritania Cæsariensis, by the river Ampsaga. least prior to the year 1277. But they seem to It seems to correspond with that part of the prohave been much neglected, on account of the vince of Constantina, lying between the Zaine difficulty of rearing them; for they occur not in and the Wed al Kibeer, which is above 130 our ancient bills of fare. They have a double miles long, and more than 100 broad. The seacaruncle at the chaps, and no fold at the throat. coast of this province is for the most part men

N. meleagris, the Guinea hen, is a native tioned as rocky, answering to the appellation of Africa. It is larger than a common hen. Its given to it by Abulfeda, viz. El Edwaa, the high body is sloped like that of a partridge, and its or lofty. It is far from being equal in extent color is all over a dark gray, very beautifully to the ancient country of the Masæsyli, which spotted with small white specks; there is a Strabo informs us was yet inferior to the country black ring round the neck; its head is reddish, of the Massyli

. Its capital was Cirta, a place and it is blue under the eyes. They naturally of very considerable note among the ancients. herd together in large numbers, and breed up The most celebrated antiquarians think that the their young in common; the females taking care tract extending from the isthmus of Suez to the of the broods of others, as well as of their own. lake Tritonis was chiefly peopled by the deBarbut informs us, that in Guinea they go in scendants of Mizraim, and that the posterity of flocks of 200 or 300, perch on trees, and feed on his brother Phut spread themselves all over the worms and grasshoppers ; that they are run country between that lake and the Atlantic Ocean. down and taken by dogs; and that their flesh is Herodotus countenances this; for he tells us, that tender and sweet, generally white, though some- the Libyan Nomades, whose territories on the times black. They breed very well with us. Mr. west were bounded by the Triton, agreed in Latham observes that the native place of this their customs and manners with the Egyptians; bird is without doubt Africa, and that it is the but that the Africans, from that river to the Atmeleagris of old authors. It is supposed origin- lantic Ocean, differed in almost all points from ally to have come from Nubia, and was esteemed them. Ptolemy mentions a city called Putea, in the Roman banquets. It has been met with near Adrametum; and Pliny, a river of Mauriwild, in flocks of 200 or 300, by various travel- tania Tingitana, known by the name of Fut, or lers. Dampier found them in numbers in the Phut; and the district adjacent to this river was island of Mayo; and Forster speaks of them as called Regio Phutensis, which plainly alludes to numerous at St. Jago; but they have been the name of Phut. transported into the West Indies and America, The history of Numidia, during many of the and are now in a wild state in those places as early ages, is buried in oblivion. It is probable, well as domesticated.' The white-breasted one however, that, as the Phænicians were masters of is a mere variety, of which there are many: it is a great part of the country, these transactions had mostly found in Jamaica.

been recorded, and generally known to the CarN. mitrata, is a different and not a common thaginians. Jarbas, or Hiarbas, probably reigned species: it inhabits Madagascar and Guinea. here as well as in Africa Proper, if not in MauPallas seems to think that it may be the bird ritania, and other parts of Libya, when Dido mentioned by Columella as differing from the began to build Byrsa. Justin says that, about common one; and will account for Pliny's hav- the age of Herodotus, the people of this country ing thought the numida and meleagris to be were called both Africans or Libyans, and Nudifferent birds.

midians. He likewise intimates that about this NUMIDIA, an ancient kingdom of Africa, time the Carthaginians vanquished both the bounded on the north by the Mediterranean Sea; Moors or Mauritanians, and Numidians; in on the south by Gætulia, or part of Libya Inte- consequence of which they were excused from rior; on the west by the Mulucha, a river which paying the tribute which had hitherto been deseparated it from Mauritania ; and on the east manded of them. After the conclusion of the by the Tusca, another river that bounded it in first Punic war the African troops carried on a common with Africa Propria. Dr. Shaw has bloody contest against their masters the Cartharendered it probable that the river formerly ginians; and the most active in this rebellion, named Malva, Malvana, Mulucha, or Molochath, according to Diodorus Siculus, were a part of is the same with that now called Mullooiah by the Numidian nation named Micatanians. This the Algerines; in which case the kingdom of so incensed the Carthaginians, that, after HamilNumidia must have extended upwards of 500 car had either killed or taken prisoners all the miles in length; its breadth, however, cannot be mercenaries, he sent a large detachment to so well ascertained; but, supposing it to have ravage the country of those Numidians. Thåt beeu the same with that of the present kingdom detachment executed his orders with the utmost of Algiers, in the narrowest part it must have cruelty, plundering the district, and crucifying been at least forty miles broad, and in the widest all the prisoners without distinction. This filled

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the rest with such indignation and resentment, numerous army to offer Masinissa battle; which that both they and their posterity ever afterwards that prince, though much inferior in oumbers bore an implacable hatred to the Carthaginians. did not decline. Hereupon an engagement In the time of the second Punic war, Syphax, ensued; which, notwithstanding the inequality king of the Masæsyli, entered into an alliance of numbers, ended in the defeat of Lacumaces. with the Romans, and attacked the Carthaginians. The immediate consequence of this victory of This induced Gala, king of the Massyli, to con- Masinissa was a quiet and peaceable possession clude a treaty with the Carthaginians, in conse- of his kingdom; Mezetulus and Lacumaces, quence of which his son Masinissa marched at · with the few that attended them, flying into the the head of a powerful army to give Syphax territories of Carthage. battle. The contest ended in favor of Masinissa; Notwithstanding this success, Masinissa being 30,000 Masæsyli were put to the sword, and apprehensive that he should be obliged to susSyphax driven into Mauritania ; and similar tain a war against Syphax, he offered to treat misfortunes attended Syphax in another engage- Lacumaces with as many marks of distinction ment, where his troops were entirely defeated as his father Gala had Desalces, provided that and dispersed.

prince would put himself under his protection. Gala dying, whilst his son Masinissa was act- He also promised Mezetulus pardon, and a resing at the head of the Numidian troops sent to titution of all the effects forfeited by his treasonthe assistance of the Carthaginians in Spain, his able conduct, if he would make his submission brother Desalces, according to the rules of suc to him. Both of them readily complied with cession in Numidia, took possession of the Mas- the proposal, and immediately returned home; sylian throne. That prince dying soon after, so that the tranquillity and repose of Numidia Capusa his eldest son succeeded him. But he would have been settled upon a solid and lastdid not long enjoy his high dignity; for one ing foundation, had not this been prevented by Mezetulus a person of the royal blood, but an Asdrubal, who was then at Syphax's court. He enemy to the family of Gala, excited a great insinuated to that prince, that he was greatly part of his subjects to revolt. A battle soon mistaken, if he imagined Masinissa would be took place between him and Capusa, in which satisfied with his hereditary dominions : that he the latter was slain, with many of the nobility, was a prince of much greater capacity and amand his army entirely defeated. But, though bition than either his father Gala, his uncle DeMezetulus thus became possessed of the sove- salces, or any of his family. And that, in fine, reignty, he did not think proper to assume the unless this rising flame was extinguished before title of king, but styled himself guardian to La- it came to too great a head, both the Masæsylian cumaces, the surviving son of Desalces, whom and Carthaginian states would be infallibly conhe graced with the royal title. To support him- sumed by it. Syphax, alarmed by these suggesself in his usurpation he married the dowager tions, advanced with a numerous body of forces of Desalces, who was Hannibal's niece, and into a district then in possession of Masinissa. consequently of the most powerful family in This brought on a general action between these Carthage. To attain the same end, he sent am two princes; wherein the latter was totally debassadors to Syphax, to conclude a treaty of feated, his army dispersed, and he himself obliged alliance with him. In the mean time Masinissa, to fly to the top of mount Balbus, attended only receiving advice of his uncle's death, and his by a few of his horse. Such a decisive battle cousin's slaughter, and of Mezetulus's usurpation, at this juncture, before Masinissa was fixed on immediately passed over to Africa, and went to the throne, could not but put Syphax into posthe court of Bocchar, king of Mauritina, to so session of the kingdom of the Massyli

. Malicit succours. Bocchar, sensible of the great sinissa in the mean time made nocturnal incurinjustice done Masinissa, gave him a body of sions from his post upon mount Balbus, and 4000 Moors to escort him to his dominion. His plundered all the adjacent country, particularly subjects, having been apprised of his approach, that part of the Carthaginian territory contiguous joined him upon the frontiers with a party of to Numidia. This district he not only thoroughly 500 men. The Moors, in pursuance of their pillaged, but likewise laid waste with fire and orders, returned home as soon as Masinissa sword, carrying off an immense booty, which reached the confines of his kingdom. Notwith- was bought by some merchants, who had put standing which, and the small body that declared into one of the Carthaginian ports for that purfor him, having accidentally met Lacumaces at pose. In fine, he did the Carthaginians more Thapsus with an escort going to implore Sy- damage, not only by committing such dreadful phai's assistance, he drove him into the town, devastations, but by massacring and carrying which he carried by assault, after a faint resis- into captivity vast numbers of their subjects on tance. However, Lacumaces, with many of his this occasion, than they could have sustained in men, escaped to Syphax. The fame of this ex a pitched battle, or one campaign of a regular ploit gained Masinissa so great credit that the war. Syphax, at the pressing and reiterated Numidians flocked to him from all parts, and, instances of the Carthaginians, sent Bocchar, amongst the rest, many of his father" Gala's vea one of his most active commanders, with a deterans, who pressed him to make a speedy and tachment of 4000 foot, and 2000 horse, to revigorous push for his hereditary dominions. La- duce this pestilent gang of robbers, promising cumaces having joined Mezetulus with a rein- him a great reward if he could bring Masinissa forcement of Masæsylians, which he had pre- either alive or dead. Bocchar, watching an opvailed upon Syphax to send to the assistance of portunity, surprised the Massylians, as they his ally, the usurper advanced at the head of a were straggling about the country without any Vol. XVI.


order or discipline; so that he took many pri- sinissa and Scipio, before the memorable batboners, dispersed the rest, and pursued Ma- tle of Zama, deprived Hannibal by stratagem sinissa himself, with a few of his men, to the top of some advantageous posts; which greatly of the mountain where he had before taken post. contributed to the victory the Romans obConsidering the expedition as ended, he not tained. At the conclusion, therefore, of the only sent many head of cattle, and the other second Punic war, he was amply rewarded by booty that had fallen into his hands, to Syphax, the Romans for the important services he had but likewise all the forces, except 500 foot and done them. As for Syphax, after the loss of his 200 horse. With this detachment he drove Ma- · dominions, he was kept in confinement for some sinissa from the summit of the hill, and pursued time at Alba; whence being removed to grace him through several narrow passes and defiles, Scipio's triumph, he died at Tibur in his way to as far as the plains of Clupea. Here he so sur- Rome. Zonoras adds, that his corpse was derounded him, that all the Massylians except cently interred; that all the Numidian prisoners four, were put to the sword, and Masinissa him- were released ; and that Vermina, by the assisself, after having received a dangerous wound, tance of the Romans, took peaceable possession escaped with the utmost difficulty. As this was of his father's throne. However, part of the effected by crossing a rapid river, in which at. Masæsylian kingdom had been before annexed tempt two of his four attendants perished in the to Masinissa's dominions, to reward that prince sight of the detachment that pursued him, it was for his singular fidelity and attachment to the rumored all over Africa that Masinissa also Romans. A short time before the beginning of was drowned. For some time he lived undis- the third Punic war again attacked the Carcovered in a cave, where he was supported by thaginians, and by drawing a line of circumvalthe two horsemen that had made their escape lation around their army, posted upon an with him. But having cured his wound, by the eminence, under the command of Asdrubal, application of some medicinal herbs, he boldly Massinissa cut off all manner of supplies from began to advance towards his own frontiers. In them; which introduced both the plague and his march he was joined by about forty horse, famine into their camp. As the body of Nuand, soon after his arrival among the Massyli, so midian troops employed in this blockade was many people flocked to him from all parts that not near so numerous as the Carthaginian forces, out of them he formed an army of 6000 foot the line here mentioned must have been exand 4000 horse. With these forces he not only tremely strong, and the effect of great labor and reinstated himself in the possession of his do- art. The Carthaginians, finding themselves reminions, but likewise laid waste the borders of duced to the last extremity, concluded a peace the Masæsyli. This so irritated Syphax that he upon the following terms; which Masinissa dicimmediately assembled a body of troops, and tated :- 1. That they should deliver up all encamped very commodiously upon a ridge of deserters. 2. That they should recal their exiles, mountains between Cirta and Hippo. His army who had taken refuge in his dominions. 3. That he commanded in person; and detached his son they should pay him 5000 talents of silver within Vermina, with a considerable force, to take a fifty years. 4. That their soldiers should pass compass, and attack the enemy in the rear. In under the yoke, each carrying off only a single pursuance of his orders, Vermina set out in the garment. As Masinissa himself, though between beginning of the night, and took post in the eighty and ninety years of age, conducted the place appointed him, without being discovered whole enterprise, he must have been extremely by the enemy. In the mean time Syphax de- well versed in fortification, and other branches camped, and advanced towards the Massyli

, to of the military art. Soon after, the consuls give them battle. When he had possessed him- landed an army in Africa, in order to lay siege self of a rising ground that led to their camp, to Carthage, without imparting to Masinissa and concluded that his son Vermina must have their design. This not a little chagrined him, formed the ambuscade behind them, he began as it was contrary to the former practice of the the fight.

Masinissa being advantageously Romans; who, in the preceding war, had composted, and his soldiers distinguishing them- municated their intentions to him, and consulted selves in an extraordinary manner, the dispute him on all occasions. When, therefore, the was long and bloody. But Vermina unexpectedly consuls applied to him for a body of his troops falling upon their rear, and thus obliging them to act in concert with their forces, he answered, to divide their forces, which were scarcely able that they should have a reinforcement when before to oppose the main body under Syphax, they stood in need of it.' It could not but be they were soon thrown into confusion, and forced provoking to him, that after he had extremely to betake themselves to a precipitate flight. All weakened the Carthaginians, and even brought the avenues being blocked up, partly by Syphax them to the brink of ruin, his pretended imperiand partly by his son, such a dreadful slaughter ous friends should come to reap the fruits of his was made of the unhappy Massyli, that only victory, without giving him the least intelligence Masinissa himself, with sixty horse, escaped to of it. However, his mind soon returned to its the Lesser Syrtis. Here, he remained betwixt natural bias in favor of the Romans. Finding the confines of the Carthaginians and Gara- his end approaching, he sent to Æmilianus, mantes, till the arrival of Lælius and the then a tribune in the Roman army, to desire a Roman fleet on the coast of Africa, when he visit from him. What he proposed by this visit, joined with the Romans; and by the assis was to invest him with full powers to dispose of tance of Lælius, at last reduced Syphax's king- his kingdom and estate as he should think.prodom See Rome. According to Zonoras, Ma- per, for the benefit of his children. The high

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