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cave.

able height, unconnected and abrupt, particularly annum; a moiety of which is supposed to be to the northward and westward, where it is derived from his share of the plunder of his almost perpendicular. When Tippoo besieged a neighbours. Long, 71° 45° E., lat. 24° 15' N. rebel Hindoo chief here in 1793 he was so en OORT (Adam Van), the son of Lambert Van raged at the garrison holding out for three Oort, a painter of considerable reputation for months that on its capitulating he ordered all perspective and architecture, was born at Antthe boys to be made eunuchs : very few, it is said, werp in 1557. He was instructed in the art by survived.

his father, and soon rose into esteem, not only as OOJAIN, OUJEIN, or UGEEN, a large district a painter of history, but of landscape and porand city of Hindostan, in the province of Mal- traits. But the greatest honor of Van Oort is, wah, situated between 23° and 24° N. lat., and that he was the first instructor of Rubens, whose between 7,5o and 77o E. long. The soil is in works have eternised his master's memory, general a soft black mould, and the roads are along with his own. He painted a great number nearly impassable in the wet season. It contains, of designs for the altars churches in Flanders, besides the city, 175 villages ; but most of the which have much merit, and are still beheld with lands are let on a feudal tenure, and it only pleasure by good judges. He was a mannerist. yields a revenue of about £60,000 per annum. OOSCAT, a town of Anatolia, in Asia Minor. It was formerly the private estate of the Mahratta It has been almost entirely rebuilt in modern Dowlut Row Sindia. The capital is situated on times. It is situated in a hollow, surrounded on the banks of the Sipperah, in lat. 23° 12 N., all sides by barren hills, but is said to contain long. 75° 50' E., and is one of the most ancient 16,000 inhabitants, of which the greater proporcities of Hindostan. It was known to the tion are Turks; the remainder are Greeks, ArmeGreeks as Ozene; and its Sanscrit name is nians, and Jews. The houses, though small, are Ujayini. It is stated to have been the capital neat and painted in the manner of those at Conof rajah Bickermajit, a short time after the com- stantinople. The palace is an extensive buildmencement of the Christian era. The ancient ing of brick and wood, two stories high, in the city stood about a' mile north of the present; and centre of the town. A handsome mosque has perhaps was much larger ; for, on digging to the lately been erected of hewn stone, in imitation of depth of fifteen feet, brick walls, pillars of stone, St. Sophia. The defences consist of a slight and other ruins, are frequently discovered here. wall, built of sun-dried brick and mud; and in Adjoining to these ruins, near the bank of the certain open spots large wooden granaries have river, is the remarkable cavern rajah Bhirtery's been erected. '110 miles east of Angora. Lat.

It consists of a long gallery, supported 39° 42' N. by pillars, with chambers on each side contain OOSCOTTA, a small fortress of the south of ing a number of figures carved on the granite India, province of Mysore. We first read of walls. At some distance, and in an island of this place in 1688, when it was in possession of the river, there is a subterranean palace, built the Mahrattas. In 1757 it was taken from them about the year 1500, by sultan Nasir Addeen by the nabob of Cuddapah, but retaken by the Khilije, king of Malebah, who, having contracted Mahrattas. In 1761 it was besieged and taken an intolerable heat of constitution by the use of by Hyder Aly and the brother of the Nizam. mercury, used to spend the hot season of the Seven years after this the British got possession year in this place, around every apartment of of it; but in 1773 it was recovered by Hyder. which the water flowed in various channels. The events of the war of 1799 again threw it The fine state of these works, now above 300 into our hands, by whom it was made over, years old, is surprising.

along with the province, to the young rajah of The modern Oojain is of an oblong form, Mysore. It is a place of considerable strength, about six miles in circumference, surrounded by and stands fifteen miles north-east of Bangalore. a stone wall with towers. The principal bazaar OOST (James Van), a painter of history, is a spacious and regular street, paved with landscape, and architecture, born at Bruges stone, and having houses of two stories in height about 1600. He learned the art in his native on each side. The houses are generally built of city, but travelled to Italy to study the works of brick, and tiled. The whole of the lower story the great masters. Among these he attached is laid out in shops ; the upper ones are dwel- himself particularly to the style of Annibal Calings. The principal buildings in the town are racci, and imitated him in such a manner as to the mosques and temples. The palace makes surprise the most able connoisseurs at Rome. but a poor figure. The southern quarter, called He died in 1671. Jeysingpoor, contains an observatory erected by OOZE', n. s. & v. n. 2 Saxon pæs, wetness. rajah Jyesing of Jyenagur. See our article Ob Oo'zy, adj. Mud or mire in a soft SERVATORY. Two miles from the city the late state; slime: hence, soft flow; to flow softly; Mahdajee Sindia laid the foundation of an ex- drain away. tensive fort, citadel, and palace; but his death My son i' the' ooze bedded. Shakspeare. put a stop to the works.

Some carried up into their grounds the oose of OON, a town of Hindostan, in the province of salt water mud, and found good profit thereby. Gujerat, noted for the thievish disposition of its

Carew. inhabitants, who are mostly of the lowest classes Old father Thames raised up his reverend head, of Hindoos. It contains about 2000 tolerable Deep in his opse he sought his sedgy bed, houses, and the palace of the rajah. The chief And shrunk his waters back into his urn. Dryden. is a Hindoo of the low tribe of Coolee: his in

When the contracted limbs were cramped, even

then come is said to amount to 12,000 rupees per A waterish humour swelled and oozed agen.

Id.

From his first fountain and beginning ooze, OPAL, in mineralogy, a sub-species of the Down to the sea each brook and torrent flows. indivisible quartz of Mohs. See MINERALOGY.

Prior. Of this stone there are six different kinds, as

From his oozy bed, follows: Old father Thames raised up his reverend head.

1. Precious opal. Color milk-white, inclin

Pope.
The lily drinks

ing to blue. It exhibits a beautiful play of The latent rill, scarce oosing thro' the grass.

many colors. Massive, disseminated, in plates Thomson.

and veins. Lustre splendent. Fracture perfect At once he darts along

conchoidal. Translucent, or semitransparent. Deep struck, and runs out all the lengthened line, Semi-hard in a high degree. Brittle. UncomThen seeks the furthest ooze and sheltering weed, monly easily frangible. Specific gravity 2.1. The caverned bank, his old secure abode. Id. Before the blow-pipe it whitens and becomes Laughs the glad Thames, and clasps each fair opaque, but does not fuse. Its constituents are, one's charms,

silica 90, water 10. It occurs small veins in They scream and scramble in bis oozy arms. clay porphyry, with semi-opal, at Czscherwenitza,

Canning. in Upper Hungary; and in trap rocks at Sandy OPACATE, v. a. Lat. opaco. To shade; Brae, in the north of Ireland. Some of them Opac'ity, n. s. cloud; obscure: opacity become transparent by immersion in water; and Opa'cous, adj. is, cloudiness; darkness; are called oculus mundi, hydrophane, or changeOPAQUE'.

want of transparency: and able opal. opacous, opaque, the corresponding adjectives. 2. Common opal. Color milk-white. Mas

When he perceives that opacous bodies do not sive, disseminated, and in angular pieces. Lushinder the eye from judging light to have an equal tre splendent. Fracture perfect conchoidal. diffusion through the whole place that it irradiates, Semitransparent. Scratches glass. Brittle. he can have no difficulty to allow air, that is dia- Adheres to the tongue. Infusible. Its constituphanous, and more subtile far than they, and conse ents are, according to Klaproth, silica 93.5, oxide quently divisible into lesser atoms; and having of iron 1, water 5. It occurs in veins along lesser pores, gives less scope to our eyes to miss light. with precious opal in clay porphyry, and in me

Digby. talliferous veins in Cornwall, Iceland, and the Upon the firm opacous globe

north of Ireland Of this round world, whose first convex divides

3. Fire opal. Color hyacinth-red. Lustre The luminous inferior orbs, inclosed From chaos, and the inroad of darkness old,

splendent. In distinct concretions. Fracture Satan alighted. Milton's Paradise Lost, perfect conchoidal. Completely transparent.

Hard. Uncommonly easily frangible. Specific They Shot upward still direct, whence no way round gravity 2:12. Heat changes the color to pale Shadow from body opaque can fall. Milton. flesh-red. Its constituents are, silica 92, water

Can any thing escape eyes in whose opticks there 7.75, iron 0-25. It has been found only at is no opacity ?

Browne. Zimapan in Mexico, in a particular variety of Had there not been any night, shadow, or opacity, hornstone porphyry. we should never have had any determinate conceit

4. Semi-opal. Colors white, gray, and brown; of darkness.

Glanville. How much any body hath of colour, so much hath neations. Massive, disseminated, and in imita

sometimes in spotted, striped, or clouded deliit of opacity, and by so much the more unfit is it to transmit the species.

Ray.

tive shapes. Lustre glistening. Fracture con

choidal. Translucent. Semi-hard. Rather The least parts of almost all bodies are in some measure transparent; and the opacity of those bodies easily frangible. Specific gravity 2.0. Infusiariseth from the multitude of reflexions caused in ble. Its constituents are, silica 85, alumina 3, their internal parts.

Newton. oxide of iron 1.75, carbon 5, ammoniacal water These disappearing fixt stars were actually extin. 8, bituminous oil 0-33.-Klaproth. It occurs guished and turned into more opaque and gross pla- in porphyry and amygdaloid, in Greenland, Det-like bodies.

Cheyne. Iceland, and Scotland, in the Isle of Rume, &c. In a great work there is a vicissitude of luminous

5. Jasper opal, or Ferruginous opal. Color and opaque parts, as there is in the world a succes

scarlet-red, and gray. Massive. Lustre shining. sion of day and night.

Johnson.

Fracture perfect conchoidal. Opaque. Between The whole of the choroides is opaque, by which hard and semi-hard. Easily frangible. Specific means no light is allowed to enter into the eye, but gravity 2.0. Infusible. Its constituents are, what passes through the pupil. To render this silica 43-5, oxide of iron 47.0, water 7-5.opacity more perfect, and the chamber of the eye still Klaproth.' It is found in porphyry at Tokay in darker, the posterior surface of this membrane is covered all over with a black mucus, called the pigmen

Hungary. tam nigrum.

Imison. 6. Wood opal. Colors very various. In OʻPAL, 1. s.

Lustre shining Lat. opalus. A kind of gem. Fracture conchoidal. Translucent. Semihard

branched pieces and stems. See below.

in a high degree. Easily frangible. Specific Thy mind is a very opal.

gravity 2.1. It is found in alluvial land at Shakspeare. Twelfth Night.

Zastravia in Hungary. Opals are generally disThe' empyreal heaven, extended wide In circuit, undetermined square or round;

covered in detached pieces, in an envelop of a With opal towers, and battlements adorned

different kind of stone, from the size of a pin's Of living saphir. Milton's Paradise Lost.

head to that of a walnut. Beautiful opals of We have this stune from Germany, and it is the this last size are extremely rare : so that it is same with the opal of the ancients, Woodward. difficult to find an opal suficiently perfect and

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large to be completely possessed of all its beau as well for the working of opal as for that of ties. This renders it so precious, and makes it mercury. At the present day there are not more. indeed almost impossible to determine its value. than thirty, but the working begins to be conIt has, however, we believe, been agreed to ducted with regularity. estimate a beautiful oriental opal at double the The varieties which are most abundant are, price of a sapphire of the same dimensions. the opaque opal, of a yellowish or reddish white,

The Russian general, Prince Potemkin, pur- and the milky opal, which is more or less transchased, for the sum of 1000 ducats, a stone of lucent. The latter becomes sometimes more or this kind, said to have been taken by the famous less dull, and assumes the characters of certain Nadir Shah from the head of a Gentoo idol, of whitish menilite of the neighbourhood of Paris. which it formed one of the eyes. By what cir- The fire-opal, of a beautiful topaz yellow-color, cuitous road it found its way to the Russian with great lustre, and equally beautiful with that prince does not appear: but it is said to have which M. De Humboldt discovered at Mexico, disappeared, together with many other gems, is still pretty common; but the small masses in from the tent of the Persian conqueror, when which it occurs are very much cracked, and it he was assassinated. It is related that Non- becomes almost impossible to cut them: it nius, a Roman senator, seemed willing rather would, however, be a very beautiful stone, were to forfeit his life than to cede an opal to Marc it possible to procure pieces of tolerable size Antony.

free of fissures. It appears that the yellow Opal, says Mr. Jameson, which is a hydrate color is owing to iron; for this stone blackens of silica, and eminently distinguished by the quickly before the blowpipe. It is probable beauty of its range of external characters, that the metal is here in the state of a hydrate, occurs in small veins and imbedded portions, in for it is thus that it occurs in the fissures of the various primitive rocks. But its principal dis- rock where it is deposited by itself. Limpid tribution is in rocks of the secondary class, par- opal, without color, occurs pretty frequently in .icularly in traps and porphyries. In these it the interior of small geodes, the mass of which is arranged in veins, drusy cavities, and im- consists of opaque or milky opal; it forms an bedded masses, and assumes the various forms undulated crust of greater or less thickness, of precious opal, common opal, semi-opal, wood- which passes gradually into the preceding layer. opal, and menilite. The menilite and wood- Sometimes it occurs by itself in minute fissures; opal are the most modern of these,—the first and at other times it is interposed in small layers occurring imbedded in the adhesive slate of the in the substance of various kinds of opal. StaParis formation, the other in tuffaceous rocks, lactitic opal (l'opal concretionnée), transparent

, of the nature of trachyte. The opals are found translucid, or opaque, is still found in certain sometimes so soft that they can be flattened fissures of which it lines the walls, or in geodes; between the fingers. The alluvial rocks are not these are composed of small stalactites, which without opal, for it is daily forming by deposi- adhere more or less firmly to one another, and tion from the waters of various springs, parti- which, when limpid, differ in no respect from cularly hot springs, as those of Iceland. From hyalite. They also assume a pearly lustre; the magnitude and abundance of these springs, when slightly heated, lose their coherence; and in many regions of the earth, and the quantity break into small scales when exposed to a red of siliceous matter they deposit, we can form a heat Their aggregation gives rise to masses general estimate of the great quantity of opaline which have the appearance of being homogenematter formed in this way. Opal indeed is one ous, and present the aspect of opals similar to of those minerals which have an extensive geog some one of the varieties already mentioned, nostical range, and which are still forming in the and even to the iridescent opal. Sometimes the mineral kingdom; but one of the most interest- stalactites are extremely minute, and completely ing features in its natural history remains to be fill up the irregular cavities; the small fissures noticed, viz. its formation by the organic powers by which the siliceous matter has penetrated of plants. It is well known to botanists that into the rock being equally filled. silica occurs in considerable abundance in se In some instances, the opaline matter has veral tribes of plants, and that it communicates formed on the walls of the fissures only a very to the parts of the plants containing it a con- thin layer, which presents the appearance of siderable degree of hardness. The bamboo is minute tortuous canals, having their surface one of the most remarkable in this respect, as covered with very minute stalactitiform points the earth it contains occurs not only in the vege- lying lengthwise. These surfaces often present table structure itself, but is secreted from it, and the aspect of certain earthy pumices, with elonappears in the joints of the plant, in solid gated and tortuous vesicular cavities. Iridescent masses, named Tabasheer, and which bear a opal (l'opale irisée), which is the principal object strong resemblance to opal.

of research, is also plentifully disseminated in The most celebrated locality for opals is the the rocks, but almost always in extremely minute village named Cservenicza by the Sclavonians, nests; it is very rarely that it occurs in large about two miles from Kaschau, in the trachytic pieces, like the other varieties. The working range, which extends from Tokoj to Epériés. It sometimes goes on for years before a piece ocappears that these mines have been wrought for curs of the size of a twenty sous piece. The many ages; for Fichtel asserts that, in the largest which has ever been found is that of the archives of Kaschau, there exist papers which imperial cabinet of Vienna; it is of the size of mention that, in the year 1400, there were 300 one's fist, and weighs seventeen ounces This workmen employed in the country of Cservenitza, magnificent specimen has been known at Vienna

for more than two centuries, and it is neither from extraneous matter as by a filter. The known at what period, nor how it was obtained. greater part also of the opalised wood which has It is polished irregularly to avoid diminishing been collected has a more or less determinate its size. There are many fissures in it, and it translucidity; the matter is commonly harder, is not completely disengaged from the matrix. and, whatever the color may be, the powder does The colors presented by this kind of cpal are · not stain the fingers like that of the ferruginous extremely various; all the tints of blue, violet, opal-jaspers. Sometimes perfectly transparent red, yellow, green, &c., are blended in a thou- opal is observed in the cavities of wood, in small sand different ways, and present the most bril- undulated nests, or in stalactites. liant and agreeable reflections. This beautiful The colors which these opalised woods prestone is also in great request, and always main- sent are extremely numerous; sometimes they' tains a high price; the smallest, when beautiful, are absolutely white, and sometimes they assume do not sell for less than four to five guineas; very deep colors, yellow, red, brown, green, as and, when the dimensions are large, the value well as all the intermediate tints, resulting from augments altogether beyond proportion. There the mixture of these principal colors. The is a very beautiful specimen at Kaschaa, of the same piece of wood, if it be of considerable size of a small crown piece, for which 30,000 size, as sometimes happens, presents colors altoforins (or 79,000 francs) were offered.

gether different in their different parts, as well as The iridescent colors presented by opal are more or less translucidity or opacity. In many not assuredly owing to cracks or fissures, as has cases the texture of the wood is completely presometimes been said; for there is not the least served; and, when the color is also retained in an appearance of fissure to be seen in the most equal degree, it is impossible to distinguish by beautiful specimens; the smallest fragments mere inspection the petrified specimens from into which a piece may be broken present ex- those which are in their original unaltered state. actly the same play of light as the largest. This OPARO, a mountainous island in the Pacific play of light is explained, in a less forced man- Ocean, discovered by Vancouver in December ner, by the unequal distribution of vacuities, of 1791. Its high craggy mountains form most different sizes, in which water is found enclosed; romantic pinnacles, with perpendicular cliffs, it is easy, from the colors observed, to estimate and the vacancies between may more properly bé the size, or rather the degree of minuteness, of termed chasms than valleys, as they have no apthese vacuities, proceeding upon the Newtonian pearance of cultivation or fertility; and are chiefly theory of colored rings.

clothed with shrubs and dwarf trees. On all of Ferruginous opal also occurs pretty frequently them people were observed, as if on duty, conm the same veins as the other varieties: it is stantly moving about. Captain Vancouver saw impregnated with a greater or less quantity of about thirty double and single canoes, which hydrate of iron, which has probably been si- were mostly built after the model of those in the multaneously deposited, or into which the sili- Society Islands. The natives he estimated at ceous matter may have been subsequently 1500, who appeared to be extremely well fed. infiltrated. Sometimes the appearance is that Long 215° 58' E., lat. 27° 36' S. of a dull opaque opal, slightly colored with OPE, or

Sax. obe, open; yellow; but we find, in the same nests, the O'pen, v.a., 0. n., & adj. Gothic and Belgic quantity of iron augmenting by little and little, OʻPENER, N, s.

open ;
Swed.

oppen. and often we find nothing but an opal-jasper. OPENEYED', adv. To unclose; uncoSometimes the iron becomes so abundant that the OPENHAND'ED, adj.

ver; divide; opaline matter discovers itself only by the re OPENHEART'ED, adj. lock; show; exsinous lustre which it communicates to the OʻPENHEARTEDNESS, n. s. plain; disclose: to

OʻPENING, n. s.

unclose itself; not Opaque opal, more or less colored, and opal

O'PENLY, adj.

to remain close or jasper, by impregnating wood buried in the OPENMOUTHED', adj. concealed ; to bark midst of pumicose debris, have given rise to OʻPENNESS, n. s.

(a hunting term): opalised wood (Holzopal, Wern.), which, as we as an adjective, unclosed; plain ; apparent; know, presents a great variety of colors, and de- public; clear: the compounds and derivatives grees of lustre. It is evident that the wood, in follow these senses. this case, has merely served as the receptacle of the siliceous matter which has been successively an ox fall therein, the owner of the pit shall make it

If a man shall open a pit and not cover it, and infiltrated, and in the same manner as it has good.

Exodus xxi. 33. formed in kidneys in the same conglomerates, or been deposited in the fissures of rocks. The his ears are open unto their cry.

The eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous, and

Psalm xxxiv. organic nature of the bodies for which the

If Demetrius and the craftsmen have a matter silica has been substituted, in this case, has against any man, the law is open, and there are dehad no sort of influence on the modification puties ; let them implead one another.

Acts xix. which reduces it to the state of opal, since it presents itself with the same characters, in nests or that to no creature he ever spake of it.

He was so secret therein, as not daring to be open,

Sidney. in veins, in the neighbouring parts where no organic debris is found to receive it. A single of Scripture, some things by the glorious works of

Some things wisdom openeth by the sacred books difference that is observed here, and which still

Hooker. proves that the petrifaction is owing to the infil Prayers are faulty, not whensoever they be openly tration of siliceous matter, is, that this is in made, but when hypocrisv is the cause of open praysome measure pure, and is found disengaged ing

Ia. Vol. XVI.

N

un

mass.

nature.

The world's mine oyster,

They meet the chiefs returning from the fight, Which I with sword will open. Shakspeare. And each with open arms embraced her chosen If I cry out thus upon no trail, never trust me knight.

Id. when I open again. İd. Merry Wives of Windsor. I know him well; he's free and openhearted. Id. The gates are ope ; now prove good seconds;

L'p comes a lion openmouthed towards the ass. 'Tis for the followers fortune widens them,

L'Estrange. Not for the fliers.

Id. Coriolanus. Moral principles require reasoning and discourse The service that I truly did his life,

to discover the certainty of their truths ; they lie not Hath left me open to all injuries. Shakspeure. open as natural characters engraven on the mind. Deliver with more openness your answers

Locke. To my demands.

Id. Cymbeline. God has been pleased to dissipate this confusion Why should you have put me to deny and chaos, and to give us some openings, some dawnThis claim which now you wear so openly? ings of liberty and settlement. South's Sermons.

Shakspeare. In that little spot of ground, that lies between To us, the' imagined voice of heaven itself; those two great oceans of eternity, we are to exercise The very opener and intelligencer

our thoughts, and lay open the treasures of the divine Between the grace, the sanctities of heaven, wisdom and goodness hid in this part of nature and And our dull workings. Id. Henry IV. providence.

Burnet. While you here do snoring lie,

Good heaven, who renders mercy back for mercy, Openeyed conspiracy

With openhanded bounty shall repay you.

Rowe. His time doth take.

Id. Tempest. The French are always open, familiar, and talkaAn open and warm winter portendeth a hot and tive; the Italians stiff, ceremonious, and reserved. dry summer. Bacon's Natural History.

Addison. Lord Cordes, the hotter he was against the English The wall of the cathedral church was opened by an in time of war, had the more credit in a negotiation earthquake, and shut again by a second. Id. of peace; and besides was held a man open and or A friend who relates his success talks himself good faith.

Bacon. into a new pleasure; and, by opening his misfortunes, After the earl of Lincoln was slain, the king opened leaves part of them behind him.

Collier. himself to some of his council, that he was sorry for The fire thus up, makes its way through the cracks the earl's death, because by him he might have known and openings of the earth.

Woodward. the bottom of his danger.

Id, We express our thanks by openly owning our He irefully enraged would needs to open arms. parentage, and paying our common devotions to Dragton. God on this day's solemnity.

Atterbury. Gramont, governor of Bayonne, took an exquisite When the matter is made, the side must be opened notice of their persons and behaviour, and opened to let it out.

Arbuthnot on Aliments. himself to some of his train, that he thought them to Of an openhearted generous minister you are not to be gentlemen of much more worth than their habits say that he was in an intrigue to betray his country; bewrayed. Wotton. but in an intrigue with a lady.

Arbuthnot. The English did adventure far for to open the. Unnumbered treasures ope at once, north parts of America.

From each she nicely culls with curious toil, Abbot's Description of the World. And decks the goddess. The under-work, transparent, shews too plain :

Pope's Rape of the Lock. Where open acts accuse, the excuse is vain. Daniel. These letters, all written in the openness of friend

Adam, now ope thine eyes; and first behold ship, will prove what were my real sentiments. The effects which thy original crime hath wrought

Id. Letters. In some to spring from thee. Milton's Paradise Lost. This reserved mysterious way of acting towards True opener of mine eyes,

persons, who in right of their posts expected a more Much better seems this vision, and more hope open treatment, was imputed to some hidden design. Of peaceful days portends, than those two past.

Swift.
Milton. Hark! the dog opens, take thy certain aim;
I knew the time,

The woodcock flutters. Gay's Rural Sports. Now full, that I no more should live obscure,

Give opening Hemus to my searching eye, But openly begin, as best becomes

And high Olympus pouring many a stream. The authority which I derived from heaven. Id.

Thomson. The draw-bridges at Amsterdam part in the middle, This adroitness in breaking through fences was and a vessel, though under sail, may pass them with- termed getting her (the cow's) own living.' What out the help of any one on shore ; for the mast-head, is scarcely credible, this character is openly given of or breakwater of the ship, bearing against the bridge a cow, to enhance her value at a fair [in Ireland), by in the middle, opens it.

Browne.
one poor person to another.

Edgeworth. There may be such openers of compound bodies, Look again at the same boy in the company of because there wanted not some experiments in which those who inspire no terror : his countenance is open ; it appeared.

Boyle. his altitude erect; his voice firm; his language free How grossly and openly do many of us contradict and Auent; his thoughts are upon his lips ; he speaks the precepts of the gospel, by our ungodliness and truth without effort, without fear.

Id. worldly lusts !

Tillotson. Wise to promote whatever end he means, The night restores our actions done by day; God opens fruitful nature's various scenes : As hounds in sleep will open for their prey. Each climate needs what other climes produce,

Dryden. And offers something to the general use; You retained him only for the opening of your No land but listens to the common call, cause,

and

your main lawyer is yet behind. Id. And in return receives supply from all. Cowper. With dry eyes, and with an open look, And thus ends the first part or beginning, which She met his glance midway.

Id. Boccace. is simple and unembellished, and opens the subject Darah in a natural and easy manner.

Canning. Too openly does love and hatred show :

Though, by the respect of those at whose expense A bounteous master, but a deadly foe. Dryden. it pleases them to be merry, they may be secured

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