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feathers of the penguins, particularly those of till the cares of incubation and educating the the wings, consist chiefly of thin flat shafts, and young brood is past. Birds that lose their mates more resemble scaies than feathers; those of the early, associate with others; and birds that lose tail like split whale-bone.

their first eggs will pair and lay again. The Sect. II.-OF THE FLIGHT OF Birds. male as well as the female, of several, join The flight of birds is various; for, had all the alternately in the act of incubation, and always same, none could elude that of rapacious birds in that of nutrition; when the young are hatchThose which are much on wing, or Ait from ed, both are busied in looking out for and bringplace to place, often owe their preservation to ing food to the nestỊings; and at that period the

mates of the melodious tribes, who before were that cause; those in the water to diving. Kites, and many of the falcon tribe, glide alleviated the care of the females confined to the

perched on some sprig, and by their warbling smoothly through the air, with scarcely any apparent motion of the wings. Most of the order nest, now join in the common duty. of pies fly quick, with a frequent repetition of

Of the gallinaceous tribe, the greatest part are the motion of the wings. The bird of Paradise polygamous, at least in a tame state; the pheafloats on the air. Wood-peckers Aly aukwardly, bustards are monogamous.

sants, many of the grouse, the partridges, and and by jerks, and have a propensity to sink in their progress.

The males of polygamous birds neglect their The gallinaceous tribe, in general, fly very if they met with them. The economy of the

young; and, in some cases, would destroy them strong and swiftly; but their course is seldom long, by reason of the weight of their bodies.

struthious order, in this respect, is obscure. It The columbine race is of singular swiftness; is probable that the birds which compose it are witness the flight of the carrier pigeon. The polygamous, like the common poultry, for they passerine fly with a quick repetition of strokes; ay many eggs; the dodo, however, is said to lay their flight, except in migration, is seldom dis

All waders or cloven-footed fowls are monotant. Among them, the swallow tribe is remarkably agile, their evolutions sudden, and gamous; and all with pinnated feet are also their continuance on wing long.

monogamous, except the ruffs. The swimmers, The struthious race cannot fly; but still, in

or web-footed fowls, observe the same order.

The affection of birds to their young is very running, their short wings are of use when erect, to collect the wind, and accelerate their motion strong during the whole time of nutrition, or as

Many of the greater cloven-footed water-fowls, long as they continue in a helpless state ; but, as or waders, have a slow and flagging flight; but

soon as the brood can fly and shift for itself, the most of the less fly swiftly, and most of them parents neglect, and even drive it from their with extended legs, to compensate the shortness haunts; the affection ceasing with the necessity

for it. of their tails. Rails and gallinules fly with their legs hanging down. Coots and grebes with

The nest of a bird is one of those daily wondifficulty are forced from the water; but, when ders that, from its familiarity, is passed over they rise, fly swiftly.

without regard. Each bird, after nuptials, preĠrebes and also divers fly with their hind pares a place suited to its species, for depositing parts downwards, by reason of the forwardness

its eggs and sheltering its little brood; different of their wings. Web-footed fowls are various genera, and different species, set about the task in their fight. Several have a sailing or flagging

in a manner suitable to their several natures; wing, such as gulls. Penguins, and a species of yet every individual of the same species collects auk, are denied the power of flight. Wild

the same kind of materials, puts them together geese, in their migrations, fly off in a regular in the same form, and chooses the same sort of figure, in order to cut the air with greater ease;

situation for placing this temporary habitation.

The for example, in long lines, in the figure of a >,

young bird of the last year, which never which the ancients report that the cranes as

saw the building of a nest, pursues the same sumed in their annual migrations, till their order plan in the structure of it, and selects the same was broken by storms.

materials, as its parents did before. Birds of the The flight of birds is much assisted by their

same species, of different and remote countries,

do the same. being endowed with the peculiar faculty of

The swallows of Britain, and of enlarging their bulk will; and from this cir- the remoter parts of Germany, observe the same cumstance the animal is enabled to buoy itself order of architecture; and in many instances up the easier in the air, its specific gravity being have been known to return to the same places in lessened in proportion as the bulk is increased.

which they had reared their young the year

before. This arises from certain air-vessels communicating with the lungs, and dispersed over va

The nests of the larger rapacious birds are rious parts of the body, whereby the bird, by rude, made of sticks, and bents, but often lined filling or emptying these vessels, has the power

with something soft; they generally build in of contracting or dilating itself according to the

high rocks, ruined towers, and in desolate occasion it may have for the change. See Zoo places; enemies to the whole feathered creation, TOMY.

they seek solitude. A few build upon the

ground. Shrikes, allied to the rapacious birds, Sect. III.-Of the NUPTIALS, NIDIFICATION, build their nests in bushes, with moss, wool, &c. AND EGGS OF BIRDS.

The order of pies is very irregular in the strucMost birds are monogamous, or pair;' in ture of their nests. Parrots, and in fact all spring fixing on a mate, and keeping constant birds with two toes forward and two backward,

lay their eggs in the hollows of trees. And The nuthatch lays often inthe year, eight at a most of this order creep along the bodies of trees, time, white, spotted with brown. The hoopoe and lodge their eggs also within them. Crows lays but two cinereous eggs. The creeper lays a build in trees: among them, the nest of the great number of eggs. The honeysucker, the magpie, composed of rude materials, is made least and most defenceless of birds, lays but two; with much art, quite covered with thorns, and but the extinction of the genus is prevented by only a hole left for admittance.

a swiftness of fight that eludes every pursuit. The nests of the orioles are contrived with The gallinaceous order, the most useful of any wonderful sagacity, and are hung at the end of to mankind, lay the most eggs, from eight to. some bough, or between the forks of extreme twenty. 'Benigna circa hoc natura, innocua, et branches. In Europe only three birds have esculenta animalia fæcunda generavit,' is a fine pensile nests; the common oriole, the parus observation of Pliny; with exception of the buspendulinus or hang-nest titmouse, and one more. tard, a bird that hangs between the gallinaceous But in the torrid zone, where the birds fear the and the waders, which lays only two. The cosearch of the gliding serpent and inquisitive lumbine order lay but two white eggs; but the monkey, the instances are very frequent; a mar- domestic kind, breeding almost every month, vellous instinct implanted in them for the preser- supports the remark of the Roman naturalist. vation of their young. See ORIOLUS.

All of the passerine order lay from four to six All of the gallinaceous and struthious orders eggs, except the titmouse and the wren, which lay their eggs on the ground. The ostrich is lay fifteen or eighteen, and the goatsucker, which the only exception, among birds, of the want of lays only, two. The struthious order disagree natural affection ; - which leaveth her eggs in much in the number of eggs; the ostrich laying the earth, and warmeth them in the dust, and many, as far as fifty, the dodo but one. forgetteth that the foot may crush them, or the The cloven-footed water fowls, or waders, lay, wild beast may break them.'

in general, four eggs; the crane and the Norfolk The columbine race make a most artless nest, plover seldom more than two. All of the snipe a few sticks laid across may suffice. Most of and plover genus are of a dirty white, or olive the passerine order build their nests in shrubs or spotted with black, and scarcely to be distinguishbushes, and some in holes of walls or banks. ed in the holes they lay in. The land rails (an Several in the torrid zone are pensile from the ambiguous species) lay from fifteen to twenty. boughs of high trees; that of the tailor bird is Of birds with pinnated feet, the coot lays seven a wondrous instance. Some of this order, such or eight eggs and sometimes more. Grebes as larks, and the goatsucker, on the ground. from four to eight, and those white. Some swallows make a curious plaster nest be The web-footed, or swimmers, differ in the neath the roofs of houses ; and an Indian spe- number of their eggs. Those which border on cies, nests of a certain glutinous matter, which the order of waders lay few eggs; the avoset are collected as delicate ingredients for soups of two; the flamingo three; the albatross, the auks, Chinese epicures.

and guillemots, lay only one egg a piece: the Most of the cloven-footed water fowls, or eggs of the two last are of a size strangely large in waders, lay upon the ground. Spoonbills and proportion to the bulk of the birds. They are the common herons build in trees, and make commonly of a pale green color, spotted and large nests with sticks, &c. Storks build on striped so variously, that not two are alike; churches, or the tops of houses. Coots make a which gives every individual the means of distingreat nest near the water side. Grebes, in the guishing its own on the naked rock where such water, a floating nest, adhering generally to some multitudes assemble. Divers lay only two. neighbouring reeds.

Teins and gulls lay about three eggs, of a dirty Web-footed fowls breed on the ground, as olive, spotted with black. Ducks lay from eight the avosets, terns, some of the gulls, mergansers, to twenty eggs; the eggs of all the genus are of and ducks; the last pull the down from their a pale green, or white, and unspotted. Penbreasts to make a softer and warmer bed for their guins probably lay but one egg. young. Auks and guillemots lay their eggs on Of the pelican genus, the gannet lays but one the naked shelves of high rocks; penguins, in egg; the shags or cormorants six or seven, all holes under ground: among the pelicans, that white; the last the most oblong of eggs. which gives name to the genus makes its nest in A minute account of the eggs of birds might the desert, on the ground. Shags sometimes occupy a treatise of itself. This is only meant on trees; cormorants and gannets on high rocks, to show the great conformity in the shape and with sticks, dried algæ, and other coarse materials. colors of congenerous birds; and that the same

Rapacious birds, in general, lay few eggs; uniformity of color is in the eggs as in the plueagles and the larger kinds fewer than the lesser. mage of the birds they belong to. The eggs of falcons and owls are rounder than Zinanni published at Venice, in 1737, A Treathose of most other birds; they lay more than tise on Eggs, illustrated with accurate figures of

Mr. Reyger of Dantzic published, in The order of pies vary greatly in the number 1766, a posthumous work by Klein, with twentyof their eggs. Parrots lay only two or three one plates, elegantly colored. white eggs. Crows lay six eggs, greenish, mottled with dusky. Cuckoos, as far as we can

Sect IV.-OF SYSTEMS OF ORNITHOLOGY. learn, two. Woodpeckers, wryneck, and kings Of the many systems that have been offered to fisher, lay eggs of a clear white and seini-trans- the public of late years, Pennant gives the preparent color. The woodpeckers lay six, theference to that composed by Ray, in 1667, and others more.

afterwards published in 1678; but observes, at

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See Ornithology (Page 345)

PLATE 1.

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Tetrao Alchata. Pin Tailed Grouse.

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