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excellent spiceries. This vast region was disco His fordship lolls within al ease,
vered about the year 1726 ; and several missions Pampering his paunch with foreign rarities.
were established, which were afterwards aban-

Dryden. doned. In 1790 father Sobriela was instructed To pampered insolence devoted fall,

Prime of the flock and choicest of the stall. Pope. by the Spanish government to set out on an

Hard is the fate of the infirm and poor ; expedition, for the purpose of exploring the

Here, as I craved a morsel of their bread, course of the Guallaga ; and father Girval after

A pampered menial drove me from the door. wards, in 1794, surveyed the Ucayale. The

Voss. Spaniards have endeavoured to train the natives

PAMÄPIILET, n. s. & v.a. ?

Fr. par un here to agriculture, and to the arts of civilised

PAMPHLETEER.

fivet life; and various missionary settlements have so this word is written by Caxton, paunflet. A far succeeded that the missionaries have com- small book; properly a book sold unbound, or pletely gained the good-will of the natives, and only stitched. new communications are constantly opened with

Can’st thou with deep premeditated lines, Peru.

With written pamphlets studiously devised. PAMPELUNA, or PAMPLONA, a strong town

Shakspeare. in the north of Spain, the capital of the province I put pen to paper, and something I have done, of Navarre. It stands partly on an eminence on though in a poor pamphleting way,

Houel. the banks of the Agra, partly on a plain, and is I put forth a slight pamphlet about the elements

Wotton. sur nded by mountains. It derives its chief of architecture. defence from two castles, one in the inside, the

Since I have been reading many English pampilets other on the outside of the walls. The latter is and tractates of the Sabbath, I can hardly find any the citadel and stands on a rock, of which the the minister, and the due frequenting thereof by the

treatise wherein the use of the common service by only accessible part is covered by a morass. It

people, is once named among the duties or offices of has a deep ditch, five bastions faced with stone, sanctifying the Lord's day.

White. and in its centre an open space, of a circular

He could not, without some tax upon himself and form, communicating by five short streets, with his ministers for the not executing the laws, look five bastions. Pampeluna is said to have been upon the bold licence of some in printing pamphlets. the first town in Spain that embraced Christia

Clarendon. nity. Its bishopric is certainly one of the oldest; The squibs are those who in the common phrase for it was abolished during the Moorish invasion. are called libellers, lampooners, and pamphleteers

.

Tatler. The public edifices are a cathedral, four churches, and thirteen monasteries. In this, as in most

As when some writer, in a public cause,

His pen, to save a sinking nation, draws; towns of Spain, the education of the youth of

While all is calm his arguments prevail, both sexes is very imperfect, being confided to

Till power, discharging all her stormy bags, the monks and nuns, and the society of the Flutters the feeble pumphlet into rags. Swift. place is very monotonous. The manufactures

With great injustice I have been pelted by pan. are insignificant, but the surrounding country is phleteers.

la. fertile and well cultivated. Population 14,000. See Louvet, patriot, pamphleteer, and sage,

This town is said to have been built by Pom-' Tempering with amorous fire his virtuous rage. pey, after the defeat of Sertorius. In June 1813, Formed for all tasks, his various talents see,on the flight of the French army from Vittoria,

The luscious novel, the severe decree. Canning. Pampeluna was hastily garrisoned and provi PAMPLONA, a city of Tunga, New Granada, sioned. It was forthwith invested by the British; situated on a plain, surrounded on all sides by but the approach of marshal Soult, with an army, mountains. It has a handsome parish church, towards the close of July, promised it an early with other public edifices and squares. deliverance. In the vicinity the obstinate con miles north-east of Santa Fe, and 156 W. S.W. flicts of 27th and 29th July took place; and the of Truxillo. French being compelled to repass the Pyrenees, PAMPHILUS, a celebrated painter of Macewith great loss, Pampeluna surrendered on the donia, in the age of Philip II. He was founder 31st of October. Sixty-two miles E. S. E. of of the school for painting at Sicyon; and he Bilboa, and about 200 north-east of Madrid. made a law which was observed not only in Si

PAM'PER, v.a. Ital. pambere ; of Lat. panes cyon, but all over Greece, that none but the and bibere. To fill, or rather to glut; feed children of noble and dignified persons should luxuriously.

be permitted to learn painting. Apelles was one It was even as two physicians should take one

of his pupils. sick body in hand, of which the former would minis PANPHYLA, an ancient Grecian authoress, ter all things meet to purge and keep under the who flourished in Nero's reign, and wrote a gebody, the other to pamper and strengthen it suddenly neral history, in thirty-three books, much comagain; whereof what is to be looked for but a most mended by the ancients, but not extant. dangerous relapse ?

Spenser. PAMPHYLIA, the ancient name of a country You are more intemperate in your blood

of Natolia, in Asia, now called Caramania and Than Venus, or those pampered animals That rage in savage sensuality. Shakspeare.

Cay Bay, between Lycia and Cilicia, on the

south coast, north of the Mediterranean. Its They are contented as well with mean food, as those that with the rarities of the earth do pamper

first name was Mopsopia. their voracities.

Sandys.
PAN, n. s. ?

Sax. ponne, panna; Belg. Praise swelled thee to a proportion ready to burst;

Pancake. I panne ; Swed. panna.

A broad it brought thee to feed upon the air, and to starve shallow vessel used in kitchens: hence, perhaps, thy soul, only to pamper thy imagination.

South. the remarkable cavity of the knee; the part of a

185

gunlock which contains the priming, &c : a pan- of the poets; but among the Egyptians, as Mendes, cake is an excellent preface or addition to din- and by the earlier Greeks, he was worshipped in ners, cooked in the frying-pan.

a much higher character, as the soul of the uniThis were but to leap out of the pan into the fire. verse, the whole system of things, animated and

Spenser. eternal. A certain knight swore by his honour they were PANACE’A, n.s. Fr. panacée ; Gr. Tavarela. good pancakes, and swore by his honour the mustard A universal medicine. An herb.--Ainsworth. was naught.

Shakspeare.

PANA'DA, n. s.? From Lat. panis, bread. Our attempts to fire the gunpowder in the pan of

PANA'DO. the pistol succeeded not.

Food made by boiling
Boyle.
The pliant brass is laid

bread in water. On anvils, and of heads and limbs are made,

Their diet ought to be very sparing; gruels, panaPans, cans.

Druden.
dos, and chicken broth.,

Wiseman's Surgery. The four makes a very good pancake, mixed with PANÆTIUS, a stoic philosopher of Rhodes, a little wheat flour. Mortimer's Husbandry. who flourished about A.A.C. 140. He studied

Pan, in mythology, the god of shepherds, at Athens, and was offered citizenship, but dehunters, and all country exercises. In Egypt hé clined. He came to Rome, where he had the was named Mendes, which, according to Jab- Scipios and the Læliuses among his disciples. lonski, signifies fecundity. Hence his symbol Scipio Africanus, the younger, was so attached was a he-goat, the most salacious of all animals. to him, that he took him along with him in all His principal temple was a magnificent building his expeditions. His countrymen, the Rhodians, in a city of Lower Egypt, called after his name, were highly indebted to him for various priviwhere was kept a he-goat, to whom sacrifices of leges and immunities. He wrote a treatise on a very monstrous kind were offered. Homer the Duties of Man, which Cicero praises greatly makes him the son of Mercury, and says he was in his work on the same subject. He lived called Pan from hav, omne, all, because he about thirty years after this. charmed all the gods with his fute; others say

PANAGIOTI, a Greek nobleman of the that he was the son of Demogorgon, and first in- seventeenth century, who was chief interpreter vented the organ, of seven unequal reeds, joined to the Grand Signior; and had so great mterest together in a particular manner. Having on a with him that he procured many favors to his time fought with Cupid, that god in spite made countrymen. He wrote a book in modern him fall in love with the coy nymph Syrinx, who, Greek, entitled The Orthodox Confession of the Aying from him to the banks of Fadon, a river Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Churches. He of Arcadia, at the instant prayers of the nymphs, died in 1673. was turned into a reed, as her name in Greek PANAMA, a province of Colombia, in the signifies, which the god grasping, instead of her, late viceroyalty of New Granada, bounded on made a pipe of it, and, for his music, was adored the north by the Spanish Main, on the east by by the Arcadians. The most cominon opinion the province of Darien, on the south by the, was, that he was the son of Mercury and Pene- Pacific Ocean, and on the west by Veragua lope. He was by no means displeasing to the The name of Panama is said to have been given nymphs, who are generally drawn dancing round to this country by Tello de Guzman, in 1513, about him to hear his pipe. The goddess Luna, from his having observed the natives engaged in and the nymphs, cut the most distinguished fishing; the word denoting a place abounding in figure in the history of his amours. The usual fish. It is bounded on the north by the Caribofferings made him, were milk and honey, in bean Sea or Spanish Main, on the west by the shepherds' wooden bowls; also they sacrificed to province of Veragua, on the east by Darien, and bim a dog, the wolf's enemy; whence his usual on the south by the Pacific Ocean. Great part epithet is Aukalog; and whence also his priests of the country is still covered with thick forests; were called Luperci

. His festival brought into and the land between the two seas consists geItaly by Evander the Arcadian, and revived af- nerally of abrupt and broken chains of mounterwards by Romulus, in memory of his pre- tains, one of which, the Sierra de Canatague, on server, was celebrated by the Romans on the the borders of Panama and Veragua, divides 15th February. He was also called by them North from South America. On the tops of Inuus, ab inuendo. See Liv. I. 5, Macrob. Sat. these craggy mountains the land is sterile and I. 22, and Serv. in Virg. Æn. VI. 775. The an- uninhabited, the cities, settlements, plantations, cients

, by giving so many adjuncts and attributes and Indian villages, being mostly along the shorne to this idol, seem to have designed him for the of the two oceans. symbol of the universe: his upper parts being The river Chagre is the principal stream in human, because the upper part of the world is this province, and may be called the high-road fair, beautiful, smiling like his face ; his horns of Panama, being used as the means of comsymbolise the rays of the sun and of the moon; munication between the eastern shore and the his red face the splendor of the sky; the spotted capital. It takes its rise in the mountains near skin wherewith he is clothed, the stars which be- Cruces, which place is about five leagues from spangle the firmament; the roughness of his Panama. The Chagre has a considerable delower parts, beasts and vegetables; his goat's scent, but is nevertheless navigable for boats up feet the solidity of the earth; his pipe, compact to Cruces; its velocity is about three miles an of seven reeds, the seven planets, which they say hour; therefore the ascent from the coast is make the harmony of the spheres: his crook, rather fatiguing. The breadth of this river is bending round at the top, the years circling in about a quarter of a mile at the mouth, and 150 one another.—Serv. Interpr. Such is the Pan feet at Cruces. The distance from the estuary Vol. XVI.

2 M

to Cruces, the last navigable point in a straight 79° 19' W. long. The streets are broad and line, is not above thirty-six miles; but the river paved, both in the city and suburbs; but the winding frequently increases this length. It re- houses of the latter are mostly of wood, interquires four or five days to ascend it when the mixed with thatched huts. The cathedral is a waters are not very high. If the water passage handsome edifice of stone, as are the churches, is counted, the sinuosities make it forty-three convents, monasteries, and an excellent hospital. miles, reckoning from Fort San Lorenzo, which The people of Panama have a disagreeable defends the entrance. It is by means of this drawling method of speaking, and appear as if river that one of the communications between they were overcome by the great heat of the the two oceans has been proposed. The ascent climate: they nevertheless are really healthy, from Cruces, where the river is first navigable, and live in general to a good age. towards the summit of the mountains, is rapid Such is the spirit of trade in this place that for a short space, after which there is a gentle every person is engaged in bartering. A treadescent the whole way to the South Sea. sury, custom-house, &c., are established here,

In the river Chagre are seen numberless cay- and, when the galleons came from Lima, Panama mans or alligators; they are observed either in and Porto Bello might be said to be the the water or on the banks; but, on account of Acapulco and Vera Cruz of South America. the thorny shrubs and thick underwood, cannot The former is remarkable for its fine bay studbe pursued on shore.

ded with islands, and in the road before those of The climate of Panama is hot, as may be well Perico, Naos, and Flamingos, ships from the supposed from its situation. The greatest heat south anchor in safety two leagues and a half from is felt in the months of August, September, and the town. October, when it is almost insupportable: the PANAPA ISLAND, an island at the mouth of brisas, or trade-winds, and the continual rains, the Orinoco, separated from the shore by a shalameliorate the excessive heats during the other low channel, moderately wide. At the east and months; but at the same time render the cli- west points there are flats with very little water mate very unpleasant. The mines produce so on them. That of the west point ascends more little gold or silver, that they are supposed not than a league, and inclines always to the south. to answer the expense of working.

Between this island, which is a league and a The pearl fishery here is also at present of half long, and the north coast, is the principal little importance. It was anciently carried on channel of the Orinoco. amongst the small islands in the bay of Panama, PANAROOCAN, a town of Java, formerly and was very lucrative. An endeavour has the capital of a principality, situated on a river lately been made to re-establish it.

which enters the sea by several mouths, about The soil of Panama is prolific, abundantly twenty miles west of Cape Sandana, the northproducing the tropical fruits and plants. On the east entrance of the island. It is now subject borders of the Chagre the luxuriance is such, to the Dutch, and has a square fort, which that it is very difficult to penetrate the forests. stands about three quarters of a mile from the The barks which navigate the stream are formed of those trees which grow nearest the waters, PANATHENAEA, παναθηναια, in Grecian some of which are very large. These forests are antiquity, an ancient Athenian festival, in honor plentifully stocked with all sorts of wild animals of Athena, or Minerva, the protectress of Athens. peculiar to the torrid regions, among which are Harpocration and Suidas refer the institution of innumerable tribes of monkeys. The peacock, this festival to Erichthonius, the fourth king of the turtle dove, the heron, and various other Athens, who lived before Theseus. Theodoret sorts of beautiful birds, frequent the forests of alone says the feast was established by Orpheus. the Chagre and of Panama. The country is Be this as it will, till Theseus, it was never a also infested with reptiles, insects, &c.

particular feast of the city of Athens, and was The trade of Panama consists in its relations called simply Athenæa; but, that prince uniting with Veragua, and the ports of Peru and New all the people of Attica into one republic, they Granada. From these it is supplied with cattle, afterwards assisted at the feast; whence the name maize, wheat, and poultry. Its exports are of Panathenæa, i.e. the feast of all Attica. In effect no great importance or value. From Carthagena, all Attica was present; and each people sent European goods are received, for which maho- a bullock for the sacrifices, and for the entergany, cedar, and other woods, with gums and tainment of the vast multitudes of people asbalsams, are exchanged.-Part of the European sembled. There were two festivals under this trade of the western shore of South America is denomination, the greater and the less. The carried on by way of Panama and Porto Bello; greater panathenæa were exhibited every five but, since the galleons were disallowed, the trade years; the less every three, or, according to of these two cities has been comparatively some writers, annually. Though the celebration trifling. The province contains three cities, of neither, at first, employed more than one day, twelve villages, and numerous settlements of yet, in after times, they were protracted for converted Indians.

many days, and solemnised with greater preparaPanama, the capital of the above province, a tions and magnificence than at their first insticity and sea-port, built near the bottom of a tution. The ceremonies were the same in the large bay of the Pacific which bears the same great and the little panathenæa; excepting a

From this city the Isthmus of Darien banner whereon the actions of the goddess were has frequently taken its appellation ; at present represented in embroidery, performed by maids, it is indifferently styled the Isthmus of Panama with the names of those who had distinguished or of Darien. It stands in 9° 0' 30' N. lat., and themselves in the service of the republic which

sea.

name.

was only borne at the greater. Prizes were es Tartarian species; and its roots are now regutablished for three different kinds of combat; larly purchased by the Chinese, who consider the first consisted of foot and horse races; the them to be the same as those of eastern growth, second of athletic exercises; and the third of which are known to undergo a certain prepoetical and musical contests. These last are said paration, whereby they assume an appearance to have been instituted by Pericles. Singers of somewhat different. For it is said that in China the first class, accompanied by performers on the roots are washed and soaked in a decoction the flute and cithara, exercised their talents here, of rice or millet-seed, and afterwards exposed upon subjects prescribed by the directors of to the steam of the liquor, by which they acquire these exhibitions. A particular account of the a greater firmness and clearness than in their order observed in this festival, with the various natural state. The plant was first introduced contests, races, prizes, &c., may be found in into England in 1740, by that industrious naBarthelemi's Travels of Anacharsis, vol. ii. p. 434. turalist, Peter Collinson. They thrive in those

PANAX, ginseng, a genus of the diæcia places where it has a light soil and shady situaorder, belonging to the polygamia class of plants. tion, and will produce flowers and seeds; but There are five species.

the latter, though in appearance ripe and per1. P. arborea.

fect, will not produce any new plants, as Mr. 2. P. fruticosum. Of these two species and Miller says he has repeatedly made the experithe spinosa, there is nothing that merits particu- ment, and waited for them three years without lar notice.

disturbing the ground. There are many good 3. P. quinquefolium, the five-leaved ginseng, specimens in the royal botanic garden at Kew: is a native of North America, and is generally The dried root of ginseng, as imported here, is believed to be the same with the Tartarian gin- scarcely the thickness of the little finger, about seng; the figures and descriptions of that plant three or four inches long, frequently forked, which have been sent to Europe by the mission- transversely wrinkled, of a horny texture, and aries agreeing perfectly with the American plant. both internally and externally of a yellowish This has a jointed, fleshy, and taper root, as white color. On the top are commonly one or large as a man's finger, frequently divided into more little knots, which are the remains of the two smaller fibres downwards. The stalk rises stalks of the preceding years, and from the nearly a foot and a half high, and is naked at number of which the age of the root is judged the top, where it generally divides into three of. To the taste it discovers a mucilaginous smaller foot-stalks, each sustaining a leaf com- sweetness, approaching to that of liquorice, acposed of five spear-shaped lobes, sawed on their companied with some degree of bitterness, and edges; they are of a pale green, and a little a slight aromatic warmth, with little or no smell. hairy. The flowers grow on a slender foot-stalk It is far sweeter and of a more grateful smell just at the division of the foot-stalks which sus- than the roots of fennel, to which it has by some tain the leaves, and are formed into a small been supposed similar; and differs likewise umbel at the top; they are of an herbaceous remarkably from those roots in the nature and yellow color, composed of small yellow petals, pharmaceutic properties of its active principles, which are recurved. Woodville says they are the sweet matter of the ginseng being preserved white, that they are produced in a roundish ter- entire in the watery as well as the spirituous minal umbel, and are hermaphrodite and male extract, whereas that of fennel roots is deon separate plants. The former stand in close stroyed or dissipated in the inspissation of a simple umbels; the involucrum consists of se- watery tincture. The slight aromatic impregnaveral small, tapering, pointed, permanent leaves; tion of the ginseng is likewise in good measure the proper calyx is tubular, and divided at the retained in the watery extract, and perfectly in rim into five small teeth; the corolla consists of the spirituous.' Lewis, Mat. Med. p. 325. The five petals, which are small, oval, equal, and re- Chinese ascribe extraordinary virtues to the root flexed; the filaments are five, short, and fur- of ginseng; and have long considered it as a nished with simple antheræ; the germen is sovereign remedy in almost all diseases to which roundish, placed below the corolla, and supports they are liable, having no confidence in any two short erect styles, crowned by simple stig. medicine unless in combination with it. Jartoux, mata; the fruit is an umbilicated two-celled when in China, boasted of its effects upon himberry, each containing a single irregularly heart- self. But we know of no proofs of the efficacy shaped seed. The flowers appear in the begin- of ginseng in Europe ; and from its sensible ning of June ; and are succeeded by compressed, qualities we judge it to possess very

little

power heart-shaped berries, which are first green, but as a medicine. A drachm of the ginseng root afterwards turn red; enclosing two hard, com- may be sliced and boiled in a quarter of a pint pressed, heart-shaped seeds, which ripen in the of water to about two ounces; then, a little beginning of August

. Ginseng was formerly sugar being added, it may be drank as soon as supposed to grow only in Chinese Tartary, af- it is cool enough. The dose must be repeated fecting mountainous situations, shaded by close morning and evening; but the second dose may woods; but it has now been long known that be prepared from the same portion of root which this plant is also a native of North America, was used at first; for it may always be twice whence M. Sarrasin transmitted specimens of it boiled. to Paris in the year 1704; and the ginseng since 4. P. spinosa. See No. 1. discovered in Canada, Pennsylvania, and Vir 5. P. trifolium, the three-leaved ginseng, ginia, by Lasiteau, Kalm, Bartram, and others, grows naturally in North America ; but Mr. has been found to correspond exactly with the Miller never saw more than one plant, which

was sent to him from Maryland, and did not PANCRATIUM, from hav, all, and xparew, live beyond the first year; being planted in a l overcome, among the ancients, a kind of interdry soil, in a very dry season.

The stalk was

inixed exercise, consisting of the lucta or wrestsingle, and did not rise more than five inches in ling, and the pugilate or boxing; but it differs height, dividing into three foot-stalks, each sus in this, that, as the athletæ were not to seize the taining a trifoliate leaf, whose lobes were longer, body, their hands were not armed with gauntlets, narrower, and deeper indented on their edges and gave less dangerous blows. It was the third than the former. The flower-stalk rose from gymnastic exercise, and not introduced till long the divisions of the foot-stalk of the leaves; but, after the others. Those who engaged in these before the flowers opened, the plant decayed. exercises were called pancratiastæ, as well as

PANCHBERARAH, a town and small dis- those who did not confine themselves to one trict of Hindostan, in the province of Cashmere. exercise, but succeeded in several different ones. It was formerly esteemed one of the holy places PANCRA'TICAL, adj. Gr. nav all, and of the Hindoos; but, since the province came kpatos, strength. Excelling in all the gymnasinto possession of the Mahometans, it has been tic exercises. neglected. Long. 75o E., lat. 34° 32' N.

He was the most pancratical man of Greece, and, PANCARPUS, Gr. from mav, all, and as Galen reporteth, able to persist erect upon an Kapto, fruit, in Roman antiquity, a kind of oily plank, and not be removed by the force of three

Browne. show, which the Roman emperors frequently men, exhibited to the people. The name was also

PANCREAS, n. s.? Gr. πανκρεας.

The given by the Athenians to a sacrifice wherein all Pancreatic, adj. S sweet-bread, a gland of kinds of fruits were offered. In this spectacle, the conglomerate sort, situated between the botthe circus, being all set over with large trees, tom of the stomach and the vertebræ of the loins: represented a forest, into which the beasts being pancreatic is, contained in the pancreas. lei from the dens under ground, the people, at a

In man and viviparous quadrupeds, the food sign given by the emperor, pursued, shot, and moistened with the saliva is first chewed, then swalkilled all they could lay hold of, which they intestines, where, being 'mixed with the choler and

lowed into the stomach, and so evacuated into the afterwards carried away, to regale upon at home.

pancreatick juice, it is further subtilised, and easily The beasts usually given on these occasions finds its way in at the straight orifices of the lacteous were boars, deers, oxen, and sheep. Casaubon, veins.

Ray on the Creation. Cujas, Pithou, &c., make the pancarpus and The bile is so acrid, that nature has furnished the sylva the same thing; Salmasius will have them pancreatick juice to temper its bitterness. Arbuthnot. different. The sylva, according to him, was PANCREAS. See Anatomy, Index. such a diversion as that above described; but

PANCSOVA, a town of Hungary, pleasantly the pancarpus, a combat, wherein robust people, situated at the conluence of the Temes and the hired for that purpose, fought with wild beasts; Danube. It has a good trade with Turkey; which opinion he confirms from Cassian, Justi- and having been burned down so lately as 1789, nian, Claudian, Firmicius, Manilius, and Cassi- to prevent its falling into the hands of the Turks, odorus.

has recovered very rapidly. Inhabitants 7000. PANCHES, a province of New Granada, They are a mixed race of Walachians, Rascians, fifteen leagues in length from east to west, and Germans, and Greeks. Eight miles north-east twelve wide from north to south, of a hot tem

of Belgrade. perature, and rough and craggy territory, full of

PANʼCY, or ? Fr. pensée ; Lat. panar. A mountains and ravines. It is well watered by several large

Pan'sy, n. s. S kind of violet. vers, and is fertile in maize and vines. Here are also many sugar engines for For violets pale, and cropped the poppy's head;

The daughters of the flood have searched the mead the manufactory of sugar. The capital is To. Pancies to please the sight, and cassia sweet to smell

. caima.

Dryden. PANCIROLLUS (Guy), a famous lawyer of The real essence of gold is as impossible for us to Rhegium, was educated at the principal univer- know, as for a blind man to tell in what flower the sities of Italy; and became professor of law at color of a pansy is, or is not to be found, whilst he Padua. Philibert Emanuel, duke of Savoy, in- has no idea of the color of a pansy. Locke. vited him to his university in 1571, where he From the brute beasts humanity I learned, composed his ingenious treatise De rebus in- And in the pansy's life God's providence discerned. ventis et deperditis. But, the air of Turin not

Harte. agreeing with him, he there lost an eye, and, for Pansy. See Viola. fear of losing the other, returned to Padua, where PANDA, in mythology, a goddess who was he died in 1591.

invoked as the protectress of travellers and naPANCO, Point, a remarkable cape of the vigators. The goddess of peace was also called north-eastern extremity of the island of Java, at Panda, because she opened the gates which were the mouth of the western entrance of the straits shut in time of war. According to Varro, of Madura. Here Java and European pilots Panda is also a surname of Ceres, derived a are stationed, who, as soon as vessels are dis- pane dando, because she gave bread to mankind. covered standing for the channel, pilot them to PANDANUS, in botany, a genus of the Gressee and Sourabaya. Long. 112° 44' E., lat. monandria order, belonging to the diæcia class 6° 48' S.

of plants. PANCRAS Week, a hamlet of England, in PANDARUS, in fabulous history, a son of Devonshire, four miles W. N. W. from Holswor- Lycaon, who assisted the Trojans in their war thy. Population 403.

with the Greeks. He wounded Menelaus and

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