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spirited expostulation with the magistrates ; their also, during this imprisonment, his Epistles to journey through Amphipolis and Apollonia, 10 Philemon and the Colossians. lle travelled oves Thessalonica and Berea ; the tumults raised by Italy; and, according to some of the fathers, the Jews against them in these cities; Paul's passed into Spain ; then into Judea ; went to voyage to Athens, A. D. 52; his disputes there Ephesus, and there left Timothy (Heb. xiii. 24, with the philosophers; his defence before the and 1 Tim. i. 3); preached in Crete, and there Areopagus; the conversion of Dionysius and fixed Titus, to cultivate the church in that place. Damaris; his Journey to Corinth, where he con- Probably he might also visit the Philippians tinued eight months, and whence, or from (Phil. i. 23, 26, and ii. 24); and it is believed Athens, he wrote his two epistles to the Thessa- that it was from Macedonia that he wrote the lonians; his accusation before Gallio, and ac- First Epistle to Timothy. Some time after he quittal ; his voyage to Ephesus, Cæsarea, and wrote to Titus, whom he had left at Crete; deJerusalem ; his journey through Antioch, Galatia, siring him to come to Nicopolis, whence proPhrygia, and the higher provinces of Asia; his bably he sent this letter. The year following, return to Ephesus, where he continued three that is, A. D. 65, he went into Asia, and came to years, from A. D. 54 to 57, wrote his epistle Troas (2 Tim. iv. 13). Thence he went to visit to the Galatians, and performed many miracles; Timothy at Ephesus, and from that to Miletus. and where he says, he also fought with beasts, (2 Tim. iv. 20.) Lastly, he went to Rome; and but whether literally in the amphitheatre, in con- St. Chrysostom says that it was reported, that sequence of a sentence of the heathen magis- having converted a cup-bearer and a concubine trates, or whether the expression is only a me- of Nero, this so provoked the emperor that he taphorical allusion to the trouble he had with caused St. Paul to be apprehended and put in Demetrius and the silver-smiths, commentators are prison. It was in this last place of confinement not agreed ; his journey after this to Philippi in that he wrote his Second Epistle to Timothy, Macedonia, along with Timothy, whence he which Chrysostom looks upon as the apostle's wrote his two epistles to the Corinthians; thence last testament. This great apostle is said to have to Achaia, Corinth, Assos, Mitylene, Miletus, at last consummated his martyrdom, the 29th Coos, Rhodes, Patara, Tyre, Ptolemais, and Ca- of June, A. D. 66, by having his head cut off, sarea, where he met with Philip the evangelist, at a place called the Salvian Waters.

He was and the prophet Agabus, who foretold his future buried on the Via Ostia. sufferings ; his journey thence to Jerusalem, Paul, first bishop of Narbonne, or Sergius where, by the advice of St. James, he took the Paulus the proconsul, converted and made bishop vow of a Nazarite; the riot raised in the tem- by St. Paul, was descended from one of the best ple against him by the Jews; his rescue from families of Rome. The Spaniards venerate hiin their fury by Lysias ; his unjust treatment by as their apostle; and say that he died a martyr Ananias the high priest; the division between at Narbonne. the Pharisees and Sadducees respecting him; the Paul III. (Pope), whose original name was bloody vow of the Jewish assassins to murder Alexander Farnese, was born in 1467, and electhim; his transmission to Felix by Lysias; his ac- ed pope in 1534. He established the inquisition, cusation by Tertullus, and his animated defence; approved of the society of the Jesuits, and acted the injustice of Felix; Paul's spirited oration be with great violence against Henry VIII. of Engfore Festus and Agrippa ; . its effect upon the land. The famous council of Trent was held in latter ; Paul's appeal to Cæsar, and consequent his reign. He died in 1549, aged eighty-two. voyage from Adramyttium over the seas of Cili Paul IV. (Pope), whose original name was cia and Pamphylia, to Myra, and thence to John Peter Caraffa, was born in 1475. He was Crete; the storm of fourteen days; the ship- a learned man, and wrote on the Creed, and wreck on the coast of Malta; the cure of Pub- other subjects; but was very violent against the lius, &c.; Paul's re-embarkation and voyage to reformers. Ile was elected pope in 1555, when Syracuse, Rhegium, and Puteoli, with his final he was eighty, and died in 1559. arrival at Rome, and reception there by his Paul V. (Pope), was born in 1552, in Rome; countrymen, are all fully recorded by St. Luke, was first clerk of the chamber, and afterwards in the Acts of the Apostles, from chap. ix. to nuncio to Clement VIII. in Spain, who made xxviii. Paul dwelt for two whole years at Rome, him a cardinal. He was elected pope on the 16th from A.D. 61 to 63, in a hired lodging; where May, 1605, after Leo. XI. The ancient quarrel he received all that came to him, preaching the between the secular and ecclesiastical jurisdicreligion of Jesus Christ without intermission. His tions, which formerly had occasioned much captivity contributed greatly to the advancement bloodshed, revived in his reign. The senate of of religion: for he converted several persons Venice had condemned by two decrees, The new even of the emperor's court.-Philip. i. 12–18, foundations of monasteries made without their and iv. 22. The Christians of Philippi, hearing concurrence; and, The alienation of the estates that St. Paul was a prisoner at Rome, sent Epa- botn ecclesiastical and secular. The first decree phroditus to him, with money, to assist him in passed in 1603, and the second in 1605. About Cheir name.- Phil. ij. 25. Epaphroditus fell this time a canon and abbot, accused of rapine sick at Rome; and when he went back to Ma- and murder, were arrested by order of the senate, cedonia the apostle sent by him his Epistle to and delivered over to the secular court; which the Philippians. It is not known by what means gave great offence to the court of Rome. CleSt. Paul was delivered from prison, but it is ment VIII. took no notice of the atrair; but certain that he was set at liberty, after having Paul V., who had managed the Genoese upo beca two years a prisoner at Rome. Ile wrote similar occasion, hoped that the Venetians would Vol. XVI.

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be equally pliant. But the senate maintained der him, but he escaped with severe wounds. that they held their power to make laws of God This, and other attempts upon his life, obliged only; and therefore refused to revoke their de.. him to confine himself to his convent, where he crees, and deliver up the ecclesiastical prisoners engaged in writing the History of the Council to the nuncio. Paul, provoked at this behaviour, of Trent, on which, and other works of less conexcommunicated the doge and senate ; and sequence, he spent the remaining part of his life. threatened to put the whole state under an inter- He died on the 14th of January, 1623. He was dict if satisfaction was not given him within buried with great pomp at the public expense; twenty-four hours. The senate protested against and a magnificent monument was erected to his this menace, and forbad the publication of it in memory. their dominions. A number of pamphlets were Paul, in naval affairs, is a short bar of wood published on both sides. The Capuchins, The- or iron, fixed close to the capstern or windlass of atins, and Jesuits, were the only religious orders a ship, to prevent those engines from rolling back who observed the interdict. The senate shipped or giving way, when they are employed to heave them all off for Rome, and banished the Jesuits in the cable, or otherwise charged with any great for ever. Meantime Paul was preparing to make effort. the refractory republic submit to his tyranny PAUL'S (St.), a town and district of Brasil, by force of arms. He levied troops against the about twelve leagues from the sea, and 190 miles Venetians ; but at length had recourse to Henry west of Rio Janeiro. The town stands on an IV. to settle the differences; who soon brought eminence of about two miles in extent, surabout a reconciliation, His ambassadors at rounded on three sides by meadow land, and Rome and Venice began the negociation, and washed at the base by rivulets, which in rainy cardinal de Joyeuse finished it in 1607. Paul weather insulate it, except on the narrow ridge by was strongly solicited to make the immaculate which it is connected with the high land. The rivuconception of the holy virgin an article of faith, lets flow into'a large stream called the Tieti, which but he only prohibited the contrary doctrine to runs within a mile of the town, and are crossed be publicly taught. He afterwards embellished south-west by several bridges of stone and wood. Rome, and collected the works of the most emi- The streets are in general remarkably clean, and nent painters and engravers. He brought water the material with which they are paved is said into the city by an aqueduct thirty-five miles literally to contain particles of gold, that are long. He completed the frontispiece of St. Peter, found in the chinks and hollows after heary and the magnificent palace of Mount Cavallo. rains. Here are several squares, two convents, He also restored and repaired several ancient three monasteries, and eight churches, the greater

His pontificate was honored with part of which, as well as of the whole town, is several illustrious embassies. The kings of Ja- built of clay beaten into a frame-work of wood. pan, and other Indian princes, sent ambassadors The principal houses are two or three stories to him; and he sent missionaries, and founded high, and stuccoed in various colors. Mr. Maxe bishoprics in their countries. He showed the mentions that he saw some of these clay houses same attention to the Maronites and other eastern that had lasted 200 years. He speaks highly of Christians. He also sent legates to different or- this capital and its inhabitants. thodox princes. He died 28th January 1621, A little coarse cotton is spun by the band, aged sixty-nine ; after having confirmed the and woven into cloth for wearing apparel, French oratory, the Ursulines, the Order of sheets, &c.; but here are few manufactures of Charity, and some other institutions. He en- consequence. They also make a beautiful netjoined all the religious in the prosecution of work for hammocks, which are fringed with lace, their studies to have regular professors for Latin, and form, being slung low, an elegant piece of Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic.

furniture: the making of lace is a general emPaul (Father), whose name, before he entered ployment for females. Here are many apotheinto the monastic life, was Peter Sarpi, was born caries and small dealers who make large sums of at Vienna, August 14th, 1552. His father was money ; silver-smiths, whose articles are equally a merchant, who died leaving his family unpro- indifferent both in metal and workmanship; vided for, but the son's abilities rendered him, tailors and shoemakers in great numbers; and under the tuition of a maternal uncle, master of joiners, who manufacture very beautiful wood at languages and science at a very early age. At high prices. In the outskirts live a number of fourteen he took the habit of the order of the Creoles, who manufacture earthenware for culiServites, and twenty-two was made a priest. nary purposes, large jars, &c. The greatest proAfter passing successively through the dignities portion of the inhabitants, however, consist of of his order, he was chosen provincial for Venice agriculturalists, who cultivate small portions of at twenty-six years of age; and discharged this land, on which they breed large stocks of pigs and post with such honor, that in 1579 he was ap- poultry. The markets are also well supplied with pointed, with two others, to draw up new regula- fruit

, and a profusion of esculen. plants. The tions and statutes. This he executed with great gardens in the vicinity are laid out with great success; and, when his office of provincial was taste and elegance. The jasmine is every where expired, he retired to the study of experimental a favorite tree, and in this fine climate bears philosophy and anatomy, in which he is said to flowers perennially: carnations, pinks, passionhave made some useful discoveries. In the dis- flowers, cocks-combs, &c., are also in great plenty. pute between the


and the senate of Venice, The town is said to have been founded in the his controversial writings irritated the papal year 1570, by some malefactors who were transcourt so highly, that they hired assassins to mur- ported from Portugal. This, however, is not the


case. It was founded by a colony of Jesuits, possessions. The inhabitants of St. Paul took and chosen more from the gold which abounded advantage of this route at an early period, for in the neighbourhood, than from the salubrity the purpose of comınitting depredations on the of the air and climate. The country around, numerous Indian tribes settled on that river. however, has for more than a century been ex The climate is probably the most pleasant hausted of this metal. The inhabitants, accord- in Brasil. Though nearer the equator than ing to Mr. Mawe, amount to 20,000; the clergy, the provinces of La Plata, the disadvantage is including all religious orders, to 500. They are more than counterbalanced by its height; the in general free from bigotry; so that no stranger commencement of the slope is 6000 feet above would be molested here on account of his reli- the sea, and 2000 feet above the inferior limit for gious opinions: the climate is also mild and the cultivation of European grain. The thertemperate, the thermometer ranging from 50° to mometer descends as low as 40°, though it 80°. In the morning it may be observed at 48°; rarely rises above 80°. In the evenings it is and it is lower in the winter months. Mr. Mawe sometimes so cold as to render necessary a was obliged to exhibit his license twice in the change of clothes, and to make use of brazeros course of his journey to this place; the city (a kind of pan filled with embers, used by Spabeing seldom visited by foreigners, and the niards and Portuguese, instead of fire-places and passes being guarded with soldiers, who have chimneys). In the vicinity of the capital the authority to stop and search all passengers, in tropical fruits are not in as great perfection as order to prevent them from carrying off gold or they are on the sea coast, but, in lieu of these, all diamonds. His appearance excited considerable the European fruits, apples, grapes, peaches, are ' curiosity among all classes : but he was well re- uncommonly fine. This delightful country may be ceived and hospitably entertained. 190 miles considered as still in a state of wilderness, and west of Rio Janeiro.

inhabited by a number of savage tribes towards The province of St. Paul stretches along the the Parana, who are continually at war with the coast about 400 miles, and is about 500 in depth. Portuguese, and retain the same ferocity as when It is connected, as well as the above city, with the country was first settled. They must finally the history of the singular republic of this name; disappear before the march of civilisation. The and is bounded to the west by the great river principal port of Santo is said to be safe and Parana, which separates it from the Spanish pro- commodious ; but being merely the entrepot to vince of Paraguay, on the south by the Iguazu, St. Paul, as Laguira is to Caraccas, the town is and a line drawn from this river to the small inconsiderable. river St. Francisco, and down to its mouth. It The history of the inhabitants of St. Paul ocis one of the most fertile and delightful provinces cupies one of the most conspicuous pages in of South America. The great range of moun- American annals; their character has been vatains which here runs along the coast on the riously represented, and generally little to their western side, is a vast inclined plain, down advantage. Charlevoix, and all the Jesuits, rewhich some of the largest branches of the Parana present them in the most unfavorable light, and flow into that immense river. The western slope they have been spoken of by most writers as is so gentle as scarcely to be perceptible, and, barbarians, possessing enough of civilisation to although not level, it can hardly be considered render them formidable, as well as mischievous. hilly or mountainous. On the eastern side the They have been also represented as forming a ascent is very steep; the road from Santos to St. kind of military republic, like that of early Paul ascends a mountain 6000 feet high, and is Romne, composed of outcasts and adventurers perhaps the most considerable work of this de- from all countries, under a dominal subjection scription in Brasil. From this point, however, to the Portuguese, in virtue of which they paid in following the mountains to the southward, a small tribute of gold and diamonds. A Porthey gradually retire from the coast, leaving a tuguese writer has undertaken to vindicate their broken country between them and the sea, character from these imputations. Mr. Mawe through which the Paraiba of the south takes its places them above all the people he saw in course. Between these mountains and the coast Brasil, for their highly polished manners, and an extraordinary number of cataracts and cas- manly frankness of character, traits by which cades are formed, by the waters which are pre- they are every where distinguished ; but he does cipitated down the eastern side. The navigation not reflect, that a century, or even half a century, of the rivers on the western side is also impeded might produce a very material change in their by a great number of falls and rapids; but the character. The accounts given of these people, intervals between the portages are navigated by as well as of their enemies the Jesuits, by Dr. large perogues, such as are used on our western Southey, is certainly the most fair and satisfacwaters, made out of the single trunks of trees, of tory. We abstract the substance of it. which there is an abundance on their banks, of The celebrated republic of St. Paul, as it is a prodigious size. The river Tiete, which rises usually denominated, had its rise about the year near the city of St. Paul, is generally used as 1531, from a very inconsiderable beginning. A the channel of communication to the mines of mariner of the name of Ramalho, having been Matto Grosso. After descending to the Parana, shipwrecked on this part of the coast, was rethey continue down its stream to the mouth of ceived among a small Indian tribe called the the Pardo, which enters from the west, and up Piratininga, after the name of their chief. Here this river to the foot of a chain of mountains, he was found by De Sousa, some years afterwhich they cross to the river Taquari, which wards, and, contrary to the established policy, flows into ihe river Paraguay, above the Spanish of permitting no settlement excepting immedi

a'ely on the sea coast, he allowed this man to years, had been at last established. As they had remain, on account of his having intermarried fixed themselves east of the Parana, ihe Paulistas and having a family. The advantages of this laid hold of this as a pretext. They carried away establishment were such that permission was upwards of 2000 of their Indians into captivity, soon after given to others to settle here, and, as the greater part of whom were sold and disthe adventurers intermarried with the natives, tributed as slaves. The Jesuits complained to their numbers increased rapidly. Romalho also the king of Spain and to the pope; the latter allied himself with one of the chief of the Goay- fulminated his excommunication. The Paulistas nazes by marrying his daughter; for it seems he attacked the Jesuits in their college, and put had conformed to the Indian custom of poly- their principal to death, expelled the remainder, gamy. A mixed race was formed, possessing a and set up a religion of their own; at least no compound of civilised and uncivilised manners longer acknowledged the supremacy of the pope. and customs. The Jesuits soon after established in consequence of the interruption of the African themselves with a number of Indians they had trade during the Dutch war, the demand for reclaimed, and exerted a salutary influence, in Indian slaves was very much increased. The softening and humanising the growing colony. Paulistas redoubled their exertions, and traversed In 1581 the seat of government was removed every part of the Brasils in armed troops, to the from St. Vincent on the coast to St. Paul's; but great terror of the Indians; who were on some its subjection to Portugal was little more than of the principal rivers numerous, and established nominal; cut off from all communication, and in villages. The foundation was laid of enmity almost inaccessible, but little notice was taken to the Portuguese, which continues to this day, of it. The mixture produced an improved race; although a complete stop was put to the infa

the European spirit of enterprise,' says Soutliey, mous practice in the year 1756. developed itself in constitutions adapted to This little republic, like all others, was continuthe country.' But it is much more likely that ally distracted by internal factions. Two families, the free and popular government which they en the Piratiningo and the Thaubatenos, were conjoyed produced the same fruits here as in every tinually struggling for a monopoly of power, and other country; a restless spirit of enterprise and at one time actually engaged in a civil war; but a emulation among each other; the mother of reconciliation was brought about by the interpogreat qualities, but, without a well ordered go- sition of some ecclesiastics, who proposed that vernment, the good was not likely to outweigh the governor should be alternately elected from the bad. They soon quarrelled with the Jesuits, the members of the rival families. This conon account of the Indians whom they had re tinued for nearly a century. When the house of duced to slavery. The Jesuits declaimed against Braganza, in 1640, ascended the throne, the Pauthe practice; but as there were now many listas, instead of acknowledging him, conceived wealihy families among the Paulistas, the greater the idea of electing a king for themselves. They part of whose fortunes consisted in their Indians, actually elected a distinguished citizen of the it was not heard with patience. The Paulistas name of Bueno, who persisted in refusing to acfirst engaged in war against the enemies of their cept, upon which, they were induced to acknow. allies, and afterwards on their own account, on ledge Joam IV. It was not until long afterfinding it advantageous. They established a re- wards, that they came under the Portuguese gular trade with the other provinces whom they government. supplied with Indian slaves. They by this time Paul's, Bay of St., on the northern shore of acquired the name of Mamelukes, from the pe- the St. Lawrence, runs about three miles inland, culiar military discipline they adopted, bearing and is thirty-five miles below the island of Orsome resemblance to the Mamelukes of Egypt. leans. From the capes Corbeau and LaBaire, which The revolution in Portugal, when Philip II. of form the exterior points of the bay, the ridges of Spain placed himself on its throne, cast the Pau. high lands describe a circuit before they close listas in a state of independence, as they were upon the river. Their lofty and craggy summits the only settlement of Brasil, which did not ac- form a grand back ground, in the form of an amknowledge the new dynasty. From the year phitheatre, where is situated the St. Paul's Bay 1580, until the middle of the following century, settlement. they may be regarded as a republic, and it was Paul's ISLAND (St.), an island in the strait during this period they displayed that active and between Newfoundland and Cape Breton. It enterprising character for which they were so is about fifteen iniles north-east of North Cape, much celebrated. They discovered and worked in Cape Breton. Long. 60° 2' W., lat. 47° 13' N. the gold mines of Jaragua near St. Paul's; they PAULA, a learned Roman lady, who flouestablished colonies in the interior at the nume- rished in the fourth century. She was descended rous mines which they discovered; and their from the Scipios and the Gracchi, and added to exploring parties were sometimes absent for the brightest qualities of the mind the virtues of years, engaged in wandering over this vast Christianity. She was well versed in the Hebrew country. While a Spanish king occupied the Scriptures, and was the intimate friend of St. throne of Portugal, they attacked the Spanish Jerome. She died A. D. 407. settlements on the Paraguay, alleging that the PAULEE, a town of the province of Ajmeer, Spaniards were encroaching on their territory, one of the greatest commercial marts in Hindosand destroyed the Spanish towns of Villa Rica, tan. Here the merchants exchange the commoCiudad Real, and Villa de Xerez, besides a dities of Europe, Persia, and the Dekkan, for qumber of small settlements. They attacked the those of the Cashmere and the eastern and jesuit missions, which by the inost extraordinary northern parts of Hindostan. f'erseverance, after repeated trials during 100 PAULIT, PALLTIGER, or Surgesgur, a fortress

and town of Hindostan, in the province of Au- conclusion of this century, spread abroad their rungabad, situated on the south-east side of the doctrines among the Bulgarians: many of them, Nagootan River, about twenty miles inland from either from zeal, or to avoid persecution, retired, Bombay. It is said to have been built in the about the close of the eleventh century, from seventeenth century by the celebrated Mahratta Bulgaria and Thrace, and formed settlernents in chief Sevagee; but is probably even of older other countries. Their first migration was into date. It is erected on the top of a mountain, Italy; whence they sent colonies into most of about 1500 feet high, and inaccessible except on the other provinces of Europe, and formed grathe north side. There are several reservoirs of dually a considerable number of religious aswater in it; and store-rooms and other places semblies, who adhered to their doctrine, and who dug out of the solid rock. In 1681 Akbar, were afterwards persecuted with the utmost fourth son of Aurungzebe, having absconded from vehemence by the Roman pontiffs. In Italy his father, took refuge at this place, and was well they were called Patarini, from Pataria, in Milan, received by the Mahratta chief Sambajee. This where they held their assemblies; and Gothari strong fortress was taken by the British troops or Gazari, from Gazaria, or the Lesser Tartary. in February 1818, after a three days' siege. In France they were called Albigenses, though

PAULIANISTAE, Paulianists, a sect of their faith differed widely from that of the Albiheretics, so called from their founder, Paulus genses whom Protestant writers generally vindiSamosatenus, a native of Samosata, elected patri- cate. See ALBIGENSES. The first religious arch of Antioch in 262. His doctrine amounted assembly the Paulicians formed in Europe was to this: that the Son and the Holy Ghost existat Orleans in 1017, in the reign of Robert, when in God in the same manner as reason and acti- many of them were burnt alive. The ancient vity do in man; that Christ was born a mere Paulicians, according to Photius, expressed the man; but that the reason or wisdom of the Fa- utmost abhorrence of Manes and his doctrine. ther descended into him, and by him wrought Greek writers comprise their errors under the miracles upon earth, and instructed the nations; six following particulars :-1. They denied that and, finally, that, on account of this union of the this inferior and visible world is the production divine word with the man Jesus, Christ might, of the Supreme Being; and they distinguish the though improperly, be called God. He did not Creator of the world and of human bodies from baptise in the name of the Father and the Son, the most high God who dwells in the heavens; &c.; for which reason the council of Nice or and hence some think that they were a branch of dered those baptised by him to be re-baptised. the Gnostics rather than of the Manichæans. 2. Being condemned by Dionysius Alexandrinus in They refused to worship the Virgin Mary. 3. They a council, he abjured his errors to avoid depo- refused to celebrate the institution of the Lord's sition; but soon after resumed them, and was supper. 4. They refused to follow the practice deposed by another council in 269. His errors of the Greeks, who paid to the pretended wood are severely condemned by the council of Nice, of the cross a sort of religious homage. 5. whose creed differs but little from that now They rejected the books of the Old Testament; used, under the same name, in the church of and looked upon the writers of that sacred history England.

as inspired by the creator of this world, and not PAULICIANS, a branch of the ancient Mani- by the supreme God. 6. They excluded preschees, so called from their founder, one Paulus, byters and elders from all part in the adminisan Armenian, of the seventh century; who, with tration of the church. his brother John, both of Samosata, formed this PAULINA, a Roman lady, wife of Satursect: though others are of opinion - that they ninus, governor of Syria, in the reign of the emwere thus called from another Paulus, an Arme- peror Tiberius. Her conjugal peace was disnian by birth, who lived in the reign of Justinian turbed, and violence was offered to her person, II. In the seventh century a zealot called Con- by a young man named Mundus, who fell in stautine revived this drooping sect, which was love with her, and bad caused her to come to the ready to expire under the severity of the imperial temple of Isis by means of the priests of that eddicts. The Paulicians, however, by their num- goddess, who declared that Anubis wished to bers, and the countenance of the emperor Nice- communicate to her something of moment. Saphorus, became formidable to all the east. But turninus complained to the emperor of the viothe cruel rage of persecution, which had for lence which had been offered to his wife; and some years been suspended, broke forth with re the temple of Isis was overturned, and Mundus doubled violence in the reigns of Michael Curo- banished. palates and Leo the Armenian, who inflicted PAULINIA, in botany, a genus of the trigycapital punishment on such of the Paulicians as nia order, and octandria class of plants; natural sefused to return into the bosom of the church. order twenty-third, trihilatæ. Its characters are Under the empress Theodora, tutoress of the these : the Hower has a permanent empalement, emperor Michael, in 845, several of them were composed of four small oval leaves; it has four put to death, and more retired among the Sara- oblong oval petals, twice the size of the empalecens. Upon this they entered into a league with ment, and eight short stamina with a turbinated the Saracens ; and choosing for their chief an germen, having three short slender styles crowned officer of the greatest resolution and valor, whose by spreading stigmas; the germen turns to a name was Carbeas, they declared a war against large three-cornered capsule with three cells, the Greeks, which was carried on for fifty years each containing one almost oval seed. Linné with the greatest vehemence and fury. During reckons seven, and jiller nine species, natives these commotions some Paulicians, towards the of the West Indies.

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