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ENTERED according to Act of Congress, in the year of our Lord 1870,

By CHARLES W. LANGDON,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

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SAN FRANCISCO:
PRINTED AND BOUND BY A. L. BANCROFT AND COMPANY.

PREFACE.

The author of this treatise has directed his labors, in its compilation, with special reference to the duties and office of Justices of the Peace and officers attendant upon the Justice's Court. The existence of this Court is an admitted necessity, and, notwithstanding its jurisdiction is limited, it embraces a large portion of the litigation, both civil and criminal, in this State. In its organization, the Legislature has not authorized a departure from any of the known rules and established principles in legal adjudications. It has relaxed the strict observance of particularity and exactness required of other Courts, but not to the extent of disregarding the long-established rules of property, and the value of an acquaintance with them.

It is not enough that a Justice of the Peace should be impartial and sensible—that he should be honorable and practical; all this is useful in a Justice, but, at best, is as uncertain as may be the causes bearing upon his friendships or exciting his passions. The individual notions and views of right and wrong entertained by men, give rise to litigation; and if rules and principles were not established, by the strict observance of which these conflicts may be settled, there would be no law, and the might of power would predominate. Therefore it is that the Legislature has declared, that this Court, like others, shall be governed by

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